|Governor of the Warsaw District within the General Government|
September 1939 – January 1945
|Born||16 April 1905|
Kaiserslautern, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany (then in the Palatinate Region of the Kingdom of Bavaria in the German Empire)
|Died||March 8, 1947 (aged 41)|
Mokotów Prison in Warsaw, Poland
Dr. Ludwig Fischer (April 16, 1905 – March 8, 1947) was a German National Socialist lawyer, politician and a convicted war criminal.
Background[edit | edit source]
Born into a Catholic family in Kaiserslautern, Fischer joined the Nazi Party in 1926 while a student, and the Sturmabteilung (SA) in 1929, eventually rising to the rank of Gruppenführer. In 1937, he was elected to the Reichstag.
Actions during Nazi occupation of Poland[edit | edit source]
After the 1939 Invasion of Poland, he was appointed Governor of the Warsaw District in the occupied General Government (the area of Poland that was not formally annexed). He held this position until the withdrawal of the German forces from Warsaw in January 1945.
Fischer was directly responsible for a number of war crimes, as well as crimes against humanity. He was responsible for the creation of the Warsaw Ghetto, issued many anti-Semitic laws, as well as participating in the bloody Ghetto de-establishment and deportation. He was also responsible for many terrors in the occupied city, including mass executions, slave labor programs and deportation of Polish Jews to the various Nazi Concentration Camps. He was sentenced to death by the Special Courts of the Polish resistance movement for crimes against Polish citizens. His name was first on the list of "Operation Heads"—the serial assassinations of Nazi personnel by the Polish Resistance. Before the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, his car was shot at in Operation Hunting, but Fischer survived.
After the failure of the Warsaw Uprising, Fischer played an important role in the planned destruction of Warsaw by Nazi Germany. He was also responsible for the poor conditions in the temporary transit camp in Pruszków, which was built to intern people expelled from the capital.
Postwar trial and execution[edit | edit source]
Fischer, then aged 41, was arrested after the war by Allied forces and was handed over to the Polish authorities. He was tried before the Supreme National Tribunal and sentenced to death. Treblinka and Warsaw uprising survivor Jankiel Wiernik testified at his trial in 1947. He was executed by hanging in Warsaw's Mokotów Prison. There is a film in existence showing the execution of Ludwig Fischer, which is sometimes misidentified in the media as that of Amon Goeth.
References[edit | edit source]
- Prosecution of Nazi Crimes in Poland in 1939–2004
- Becky Evans, Historians claim video of camp commander being hanged is NOT him. Daily Mail Online, March 21, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Joseph Wulf, Das Dritte Reich und seine Vollstrecker, Frankfurt/Main 1984
- Ernst Klee, Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich, Frankfurt/Main 2003
- Erich Stockhorst, 5000 Köpfe – Wer war was im 3. Reich, Arndt-Verlag, Kiel 2000
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