When Luxembourg was invaded and annexed by Nazi Germany in 1940, a national consciousness started to come about. From 1941 onwards, the first resistance groups such as the Letzeburger Ro'de Lé'w or the PI-Men were founded. Operating underground, they secretly worked against the German occupation, helping to bring political refugees and those trying to avoid being conscripted into the German forces across the border, and put out patriotic leaflets (often depicting Grand Duchess Charlotte) encouraging the population of Luxembourg to pull through.
As with other countries, the origins, ideological and otherwise, of the different Resistance groups were varied: it ranged from those who found Nazi ideology itself worth fighting against, to those who valued first and foremost their country's freedom. The political spectrum went from the communists to clerical-conservative elements (including even some anti-Semitic undertones).
Luxembourgish Resistance groupsEdit
- ALEF, Aktiv Letzeburger Enhétsfront ge'nt de Faschismus, 1940
- L.S, Lëtzebuerger Scouten, 1940
- L.P.L., Lëtzeburger Patriote Liga, 1940 ("Luxembourgish Patriot League")
- PI-Men, Formation des Patriotes indépendants luxembourgeois, ("Formation of independent Luxembourgish patriots") 1940
- L.F.B., Lëtzeburger Freihétsbewegong, 1940
- L.L, Lëtzebuerger Legio'n, September 1940
- L.F.K., Lëtzeburger Freihétskämpfer, January 1941
- L.V.L., Letzeburger Vollekslegio'n, June 1941
- L.R.L., Lëtzeburger Ro'de Lé'w, October 1941 ("Luxembourgish Red Lion")
- L.F.B., Lëtzeburger Freihétsbond ("Luxembourgish Freedom Union")
- Alweraje, 1941.
- T.L.S., Trei Lëtzeburger Studenten, (1941)
- The different Resistance groups banded together in the Unio'n in early 1944
- L.P.P.D (umbrella group of the Resistance after the war)
Military sabotage was frequent in Luxembourg. It could not, however, take on the dimensions it did in other countries, for structural reasons (lack of coal mines, no chemical industry, a strong German presence).
Economic sabotage was widely practised, and took on different forms. Often, wires were cut or other measures were taken, which led to reprisals.
- Paul Weber, Geschichte Luxemburgs im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Luxemburg, Victor Buck, 1948
- Serge Hoffmann, Le mouvement de résistance LVL au Luxembourg, Archives nationales, 2004
- Roger Hilbert, "Resistenzbilder" in: De Mierscher Gemengebuet, Mersch, Nr. 70 (March 2005), p. 39-44, ill.
- Marc Schoentgen, "Die Resistenzorganisationen in Luxemburg nach dem 2. Weltkrieg", in: Les courants politiques et la Résistance: Continuités ou ruptures?, Luxemburg, 2003, p. 519-551.
- Jules Stoffels, Petite histoire de l'activité des résistants luxembourgeois engagés dans les réseaux et les maquis de la France combattante, Association des anciens combattants volontaires luxembourgeois de la Résistance française, Imprimerie Centrale, Luxembourg, 2006- 141 pages : ill. ; 26 cm. (ISBN 2-87996-760-0)
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