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M101A1 105 mm Howitzer
M101-105mm-howitzer-camp-pendleton-20050326
Marines from 11th Marines, 1st Marine Division fire a 105mm M101A1 howitzer during the playing of taps at the Iwo Jima 60th Anniversary Commemorative on 26 March 2005
Type Howitzer
Place of origin United States
Service history
Used by United States United States
Wars World War II
Korean War
First Indochina War
Vietnam War
Insurgency in the Philippines
Production history
Manufacturer Rock Island Arsenal
Produced 1941–1953
Specifications
Weight 2,260 kg (4,980 lb)
Length 5.94 m (19 ft 6 in)
Barrel length 2.31 m (7 ft 7 in) L/22
Width 2.21 m (7 ft 3 in)
Height 1.73 m (5 ft 8 in)

Shell 105x372R
Caliber 105 mm (4.1 in)
Breech horizontal block
Recoil hydropneumatic, constant, 42 in (110 cm)
Carriage split trail
Elevation -5° to +66°
Traverse 46°
Muzzle velocity 472 m/s (1,550 ft/s)
Maximum range 11,270 m (7.00 mi)

The 105 mm M2A1 (M101A1) howitzer was the standard light field howitzer for the United States in World War II, seeing action in both the European and Pacific theaters. Entering production in 1941, it quickly entered the war against the Imperial Japanese Army in the Pacific, where it gained a reputation for its accuracy and powerful punch. The M101A1 fired 105 mm high explosive (HE) semi-fixed ammunition and had a range of 11,270 meters, or 12,325 yards, making it suitable for supporting infantry.

Widespread usageEdit

All of these qualities of the weapon, along with its widespread production, led to its adoption by many countries after the war. Its ammunition type also became the standard for many foreign countries' later models. In 1962, the artillery designation system was changed and the 105mm M2A1 howitzer became the M101A1. It continued to see service in the Korean and Vietnam Wars. Though a similar model, the M102 howitzer, shared the same roles in battle, it never fully replaced the M101A1. Today, the M101A1 has been retired by the U.S. military, though it continues to see service with many other countries.

The Canadian Forces continued to use the M2A1 as the C1 Howitzer until 1997, when a modification was made to extend its service life; it is now designated the C3. The changes include a longer barrel, a muzzle brake, reinforced trails and the removal of shield flaps. It remains the standard light howitzer of Canadian Forces Reserve units. The C3 is used by Reserve units in Glacier National Park in British Columbia as a means of avalanche control. In addition, the M101 has found a second use in the U.S. as an avalanche control gun, supervised by the US Forest Service.

France and the State of Vietnam used it during the First Indochina War.

A number of M2/M101 howitzers were used by the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and approximately 50 were inherited by Croatia, of which 4 are still in use for training with the Croatian army.

M2 Howitzers are still in limited service in the Australian Army Reserve, but are being replaced with 81mm mortars with an emphasis on the retention of indirect fire support skills.[1] In regular service they were replaced by the 105mm L119 Hamel gun and the 155mm M198 howitzers.

Two M2 howitzers (1942) are still employed in providing the gun salute at Kristiansten Fortress, in Trondheim, Norway.

OperatorsEdit

  • Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina
  • Flag of Australia.svg Australia
  • Flag of Austria.svg Austria
  • Flag of Bahrain.svg Bahrain
  • Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh
  • Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium
  • Flag of Benin.svg Benin
  • Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
  • Flag of Burkina Faso.svg Burkina Faso
  • Flag of Cameroon.svg Cameroon
  • Flag of Canada.svg Canada
  • Flag of Chile.svg Chile
  • Flag of the Republic of China.svg Republic of China
  • Flag of Colombia.svg Colombia
  • Flag of Croatia.svg Croatia
  • Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic
  • Flag of Ecuador.svg Ecuador
  • Flag of El Salvador.svg El Salvador
  • Flag of France.svg France
  • Flag of Germany.png Germany
  • Flag of Greece.svg Greece
  • Flag of Guatemala.svg Guatemala
  • Flag of Honduras.svg Honduras
  • Flag of India.svg India
  • Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia
  • Flag of Iran.svg Iran
  • Flag of Kurdistan.svg Iraqi Kurdistan
  • Flag of Japan.svg Japan
  • Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea
  • Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon
  • Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania
  • Flag of North Macedonia.svg Macedonia
  • Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia
  • Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico
  • Flag of Morocco.svg Morocco
  • Flag of Myanmar.svg Burma
  • Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand
  • Flag of Nicaragua.svg Nicaragua
  • Flag of Norway.svg Norway
  • Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
  • Flag of Paraguay.svg Paraguay
  • Flag of Peru.svg Peru
  • Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines
  • Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal
  • Flag of Senegal.svg Senegal
  • Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand
  • Flag of Togo.svg Togo
  • Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey
  • United States
  • Flag of Uruguay.svg Uruguay
  • Flag of South Vietnam.svg South Vietnam

VariantsEdit

Canadian C3 howitzer March 3, 2009

Canadian soldiers from the 1st and 3rd Field Regiments fire a 105 mm high explosive round with a C3 howitzer March 3, 2009, during Exercise Maritime Raider 09 at Fort Pickett, Va.

XM124E2 Light Auxiliary-Propelled 105mm Howitzer

XM124E2 Light Auxiliary-Propelled 105mm Howitzer at the Rock Island Arsenal museum

Gun variants:

  • M1920 - prototype.[2]
  • M1925E - prototype.[2]
  • T2, standardized as M1.[2]
  • M2 (1934) - minor changes to the chamber to allow use of fixed ammunition.[2]
  • M2A1 (1940) - modified breech ring.[3]
  • M3 - lightweight howitzer, with barrel shortened by 27 inches.
  • T8, standardized as M4 - vehicle-mounted variant with modified breech and with cylindrical recoil surface.[4]:210
  • M101 - post-war designation of M2A1 on carriage M2A1
  • M101A1 - post-war designation of M2A1 on carriage M2A2
  • C3 - Canadian C1 (M2A1) with lengthened, 33-caliber barrel

Carriage variants:

  • M1920E - prototype, split trail.[2]
  • M1921E - prototype, box trail.[2]
  • M1925E - prototype, box trail.[2]
  • T2, standardized as M1 - split trail, wooden wheels.[2]
  • M1A1 - M1 carriages rebuilt with new wheels, brakes and other parts.[3]
  • T3 - prototype.[2]
  • T4 - prototype.[2]
  • T5, standardized as M2 (1940) - split trail, steel wheels with pneumatic tires.[2]
  • M2A1 - electric brakes removed.[5]
  • M2A2 - modified shield.[5]
  • XM124 & XM124E1 Light Auxiliary Propelled Howitzer - prototype (1962-1965) - produced by Sundstrand Aviation Corporation, who added an auxiliary drive system for local maneuverability (See also similar XM123 Medium Auxiliary Propelled 155mm Howitzer with similar configuration). The base XM124 provided two 20 horsepower, air-cooled engines, while the XM124E1 provided a single 20 horsepower engine and electric steering.
  • M2A2 Terra Star Auxiliary Propelled Howitzer - prototype (1969-1977) - Lockheed Aircraft Service Company added an auxiliary drive system and a tri-star wheel system to the carriage of an M2A2 105mm Light Howitzer to provide local maneuverability. The last surviving example is at the Rock Island Arsenal Museum.
M2A2 Terra Star 105mm Auxiliary Propelled Howitzer front quarter

The only surviving prototype M2A2 Terra Star Auxiliary Propelled Howitzer at the Rock Island Arsenal Museum. Note the tri-star wheel system and auxiliary drive system on the right trail leg.

Self-propelled mountsEdit

AmmunitionEdit

The gun fired semi-fixed ammunition, with 105mm Cartridge Case M14. The propelling charge consisted of a base charge and six increments, forming seven charges from 1 (the smallest) to 7 (the largest). Use of M1 HE rounds prepared for the 105mm howitzer M3 (same projectile and cartridge, but different propelling charge) was authorized.[9]

HEAT M67 Shell was originally designed as fixed round, with Cartridge Case M14 type II. It was later changed to semi-fixed type with the standard cartridge, but with non-adjustable propelling charge. For blank ammunition, a shorter Cartridge Case M15 with black powder charge was used.[9]

Available ammunition[8]:236[9][10]
Type Model Weight, kg (round/projectile) Filler Muzzle velocity, m/s Range, m
HE HE M1 Shell 19.08 / 14.97 TNT or 50/50 amatol, 2.18 kg 472 11,160
HEAT-T HEAT M67 Shell 16.71 / 13.25 Pentolite, 1.33 kg 381 7,854
Smoke HC BE M84 Shell 19.02 / 14.91 Zinc chloride (HC) 472 11,160
Smoke, colored BE M84 Shell 17.86-18.04 / Smoke mixture
Smoke WP M60 Shell 19.85 / 15.56 White Phosphorus (WP), 1.84 kg 472 11,110
Smoke FS M60 Shell 20.09 / Sulfur trioxide in Chlorosulfonic acid, 2.09 kg
Chemical H M60 Shell 19.43 / Mustard gas, 1.44 kg
Practice Empty M1 Shell 472 11,160
Drill Drill Cartridge M14 - -
Blank - -
Armor penetration, mm[8]:236
Ammunition \ Distance, m 0 457 914 1,828
HEAT M67 Shell (meet angle 0°) 102
Concrete penetration, mm[8]:236
HE M1 Shell (meet angle 0°) 457 427 396 335
Different methods of measurement were used in different countries / periods. Therefore, direct comparison is often impossible.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Toohill, MAJ Ian (August 2009). "Mortars for Reserve Gunners". 2nd Division, Army Reserves Public Affairs. The Bayonet. p. 10. http://www.defencereserves.com/cms_resources/TheBayonet_AUG09_v3.pdf. Retrieved 6 January 2012. 
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 Hogg - Allied Artillery of World War Two, p 42-49.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Technical Manual TM 9-2005 volume 3, Infantry and Cavalry Accompanying Weapons.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Hunnicutt - Sherman: A History of the American Medium Tank
  5. 5.0 5.1 Technical Manual TM 9-1325, 105mm Howitzers M2 and M2A1; Carriages M2A1 and M2A2; and Combat Vehicle Mounts M3 and M4.
  6. Hunnicutt - Pershing: A History of the Medium Tank T20 Series
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Hunnicutt - Stuart: A History of the American Light Tank
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Hunnicutt - Half-Track: A History of American Semi-Tracked Vehicles
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Technical Manual TM 9-1901, Artillery Ammunition, p 167-178.
  10. Technical Manual TM 9-1904, Ammunition Inspection Guide, p 471-484.

ReferencesEdit

  • Hogg, Ian V. (1998). Allied Artillery of World War Two. Crowood Press, Ramsbury. ISBN 1-86126-165-9. 
  • Hunnicutt, R. P. (1971). Pershing: A History of the Medium Tank T20 Series. Feist Publications. 
  • Hunnicutt, R. P. (1992). Stuart: A History of the American Light Tank. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-462-2. 
  • Hunnicutt, R. P. (1994). Sherman: A History of the American Medium Tank. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-080-5. 
  • Hunnicutt, R. P. (2001). Half-Track: A History of American Semi-Tracked Vehicles. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-742-7. 
  • Technical Manual TM 9-1325, 105mm Howitzers M2 and M2A1; Carriages M2A1 and M2A2; and Combat Vehicle Mounts M3 and M4. War Department, 1944. 
  • Technical Manual TM 9-1901, Artillery Ammunition. War Department, 1944. 
  • Technical Manual TM 9-1904, Ammunition Inspection Guide. War Department, 1944. 
  • Technical Manual TM 9-2005 volume 3, Infantry and Cavalry Accompanying Weapons. War Department, 1942. 

External linksEdit


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