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M40 Recoilless Rifle
Greek infantry with an M40
Type Recoilless rifle
Place of origin US flag 49 stars.svg United States
Service history
In service Mid 1950s–present
Used by See Users
Wars Vietnam War
Cambodian Civil War
Portuguese Colonial War
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Rhodesian Bush War
Falklands War[citation needed]
Libyan civil war
Syrian civil war
Production history
Manufacturer Watervliet Arsenal
Weight 209.5 kg (462 lb)
Length 3.404 m (11 ft 2 in)
Height 1.12 m (3 ft 8 in)

Shell 106×607mmR (HEAT, HEP, HEAP, Canister)
Caliber 105 mm (4.1 in)
Recoil Recoilless
Carriage Tripod
Elevation -17° to +65° (between mount legs)
-17° to +27° (over mount leg)[1]
Traverse 360°
Muzzle velocity 503 m/s (1,650 ft/s)[1] (M344 HEAT)
Effective range 1,350 m (1,480 yd)
Maximum range 6,870 m (M346A1 HEP-T)[2]

The M40 recoilless rifle is a lightweight,[3] portable, crew-served 105 mm weapon intended primarily as an anti-tank weapon made in the United States. The weapon is commonly described as being 106 mm, but it is in fact 105 mm; the 106 mm designation was designed to prevent confusion with the incompatible 105 mm ammunition from the failed M27.[4] It could also be employed in an antipersonnel role with the use of the antipersonnel-tracer flechette round. It can be fired primarily from a wheeled ground mount. The air-cooled, breech-loaded, single-shot rifle fired fixed ammunition. It was designed for direct firing only, and sighting equipment for this purpose was furnished with each weapon.

The M27 recoilless rifle was a 105-mm weapon developed in the early 1950s and fielded in the Korean War. Although a recoilless rifle of this caliber had been a concept since the Second World War, the weapon was hurriedly produced with the onset of the Korean War. The speed with which it was developed and fielded resulted in problems with reliability caused by trunnions that were mounted too far to the rear. The M27 was also considered too heavy by the U.S. Army and had a disappointing effective range due to the lack of a spotting rifle. Taking the M27 as a the basis for a new design, the Army developed an improved version of the M27 that was in 1955 type-designated the M40 106-mm recoilless rifle.[5] Originally along with its type-designation it was also given the official name BAT for Battalion Anti-Tank gun, but that was soon dropped.[6] Although unsuitable for military purposes, M27 recoilless rifles were used to trigger controlled avalanches at ski resorts and mountain passes in the United States.[7]

The M40 primarily saw action during the Vietnam War and was later replaced by the BGM-71 TOW anti-tank missile system. The weapon was also used by anti-communist forces in Angola mounted on Land Rovers.


The M40 is shaped like a long tube with an M8 0.50 cal spotting rifle above. The spotting rifle fires a round whose trajectory closely matches that of the 106 mm round and gives off a puff of smoke on impact with the target. On the left hand side, there is an elevating wheel, in the centre of which is the trigger wheel used to fine adjust the elevation and at the same time firing the spotting rifle when pulled, and the gun when pushed. The mounting is a tripod, but the front leg has a castoring wheel. On top of the mount is a traverse wheel. On the centre of the traverse wheel is a locking wheel, when the wheel is down, the rifle is locked in traverse, and can only be moved right and left with the traverse wheel. When the wheel is raised, the rifle can be traversed by hand. Austria produced a two-wheeled mount for the M40.

The whole mounting can be placed on an M151 Jeep for mobile use. It has also been mounted on Willys Jeep M 38A1 Land Rover Defenders, M113s, Mercedes-Benz G-Wagen, HMMWVs, Toyota Land Cruisers, AIL Storms and M274 Mechanical Mules. They were also used on US Navy minesweepers (MSO) during Operation Market Time in Vietnam.

A special vehicle called Ontos carried six M40s. A version specific to the T195E5 mount, the M40A1C, was used. It was used only by the U.S. Marine Corps. Japan produced a self-propelled gun called the Type 60 which carried two side by side. Some Pakistani M113s have a dual mounting.

The M40 was a very successful export item and continues to be used by South Korea (ROK), Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Greece, Honduras, Iran, Israel, Lebanon, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, the Philippines, Taiwan (Republic of China Marine Corps), Turkey, Colombia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Venezuela and many others, as well as anti-government forces in the Libyan civil war and Syrian civil war.[8]

{1958 - 1990 the antitank companies of the Swiss Army Infantry Regiments were equipped with 12 M40 guns.}

It is manufactured in Iran by Defense Industries Organization as the ANTI-TANK GUN 106.[9]


Ammunition for the 105 mm rifle was issued as one-piece fixed cartridges. The term "fixed" means that the projectile and the cartridge case are crimped together. This ensures correct alignment of the projectile and the cartridge case. It also permits faster loading because the projectile and the cartridge case are loaded as one unit. The rear end of the cartridge case is perforated, to allow the propellant gas to escape through the vented breech, thus neutralizing recoil. The projectiles used are pre-engraved, that is, the rotating bands are cut to engage the rifled bore.

Types of ammunition included HEAT, High Explosive Plastic-Tracer (HEP-T), canister, High Explosive Anti Personnel, and the M368 dummy round which could not be fired and was used for crew drill. The original U.S. HEAT round penetrated more than 400 mm of armor. Near the end of the M40's service life, both Austria and Sweden produced HEAT rounds for the weapon capable of penetrating more than 700 mm of armor.[10]

Producer Round
Type Proj
United States M581 APERS 9.89 kg flechettes 4.94 kg N/A 300 m
Spain M-DN11 HEAP 3.6 kg Hexogen 0.77 kg N/A 1500 m
France NR 160 HEAT-T N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
France NR 483 APERS N/A flechettes N/A N/A N/A
France NR 601 HESH-T 7.8 kg Comp. A3 N/A N/A N/A
Italy PFF HE 9.89 kg Comp. B N/A N/A N/A
United States M346A1 HEP-T 7.96 kg Comp. A3 3.5 kg N/A[11] N/A
United States M344A1 HEAT 7.96 kg Comp. B 1.27 kg over 400 mm[12] 1350 m
Sweden 106 3A HEAT-T 5.5 kg Octol 1.0 kg over 700 mm[13] 2000 m
Austria RAT 700 HEAT 5.0 kg N/A 1.1 kg over 700 mm N/A

The ammunition for the 0.50 cal spotting rifle is not .50 BMG. The round used is a special round designed to simulate the flight path of the 105 mm ammunition.


  • Flag of Australia.svg Australia
  • Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh
  • Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil
  • Flag of Cambodia.svg Cambodia
  • Flag of Canada.svg Canada
  • Flag of Chile.svg Chile
  • Flag of Colombia.svg Colombia
  • Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus
  • Flag of Djibouti.svg Djibouti
  • Flag of Egypt.svg Egypt
  • Flag of Ecuador.svg Ecuador
  • Flag of El Salvador.svg El Salvador[14]
  • Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia[15]
  • Flag of Greece.svg Greece
  • Flag of Honduras.svg Honduras
  • Flag of India.svg India
  • Flag of Iran.svg Iran
  • Flag of Israel.svg Israel
  • Flag of Italy.svg Italy
  • Flag of Japan.svg Japan
  • Flag of Jordan.svg Jordan
  • Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon
  • Flag of Libya.svg Libya
  • Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg
  • Flag of Malaysia.svg Malaysia
  • Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico
  • Flag of Morocco.svg Morocco
  • Flag of Myanmar.svg Myanmar Used for bunker busting and anti-personnel/infantry support role in counter-insurgency campaigns.
  • Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand
  • Flag of Nicaragua.svg Nicaragua
  • Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan
  • Flag of the Philippines.svg Philippines
  • Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal
  • Flag of Rhodesia (1968–1979).svg Rhodesia
  • Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa: South African National Defence Force.[1]
  • Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea
  • Flag of Switzerland.svg  Switzerland
  • Flag of Syria.svg Syria: Videos show Syrian rebels (Free Syrian Army) operating and firing M40 Recoilless Rifles.
  • Flag of the Republic of China.svg Taiwan
  • Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand
  • Flag of Tunisia.svg Tunisia
  • Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey
  • Flag of Uruguay.svg Uruguay
  • Flag of the United States.svg United States
  • Flag of Venezuela.svg Venezuela
  • Flag of Vietnam.svg Vietnam
  • Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Dominican Republic


See alsoEdit



  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Anti Tank weapons". official web site of the South African army.­_Recoilless_Rifle_Syst.htm. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  2. U.S. Army Technical Manual 43-0001-28, p. 5-27, April 1994.
  3. Bob Stoner GMCM (SW) Ret. (2005). "M40A1 106MM Recoilless Rifle with M8C Spotting Rifle". 
  4. "M40 106mm Recoilless Rifle". Retrieved 2012-09-20. 
  5. John Weeks, Men against tanks, New York: Mason/Charter, 1975.
  6. "Antitank Rifle Mounted On Jeep" Popular Mechanics, March 1955, p. 147.
  7. Comment by Ken Estes at
  8. McNally, Brendan (May 31, 2013). "Ancient U.S. Weapon Makes a Surprise Reappearance in Syria". Wired. 
  9. ANTI-TANK GUN 106
  10. JAH, pp. 140-141.
  11. Probably defeats ~ 200 mm of armor.
  12. JIW.
  13. After penetrating explosive reactive armor.
  14. [1]
  15. [2]


  • (JAH) Terry Gander and Ian Hogg (ed.), Jane's Ammunition Handbook 1994, Coulsdon: Jane's Information Group Ltd., 1993.
  • (JIW) Richard Jones and Leland Ness (ed.), Jane's Infantry Weapons 2007–2008, Coulsdon: Jane's Information Group Ltd., 2007.

External linksEdit

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