The M8 Greyhound was designed to be a tank-hunter ended up being used as armored car for the recognition due to weak arms. Nevertheless, it was popular for being robust and reliable. Mass-produced (more than 11.000 in three years) was also used by England and Brazil.
Description[edit | edit source]
The combat car M8 Greyhound armored 6x6 vehicle produced by Ford Motor Company and was used by the Americans and British in Europe and the Far East until the war ended. The M8 was widely exported and the UK he was known as Greyhound.
In July 1941 an order was issued to develop a new vehicle to replace the M6 Gun Motor Carriage. The application asked for a 6x6 vehicle armed with a 37mm gun, a machine gun mounted in the turret and another mounted on the front. The armor would withstand shots from a .50 machine gun and withstand shots from a .30 caliber machine gun on the side. Prototypes were made by Studebaker (T21), Ford (T22) and Chrysler (T23), were all similar in design and appearance. In April 1942 the T22 was chosen. Soon, it became clear that the 37mm gun would not be effective against German tanks, so the M8 was designed for reconnaissance missions. Emissions of contracts and delayed the project enhancements in mass production by March 1943. The production was closed in June 1945 and a total of 8,523 units were produced. About 1,000 units were supplied to France, England and Brazil. The crew consisted of four men when they were a commander who also served as recharging the main gun, a sniper, a driver and radio operator. The driver and radio operator were in front of the vehicle while the commander and the gunner were in the tower. The vehicle was carrying 80 37mm cartridges and equipped with a radio. Vehicles equipped with two radios carried only 16 cartridges of 37mm but some modifications could increase that number to 40. The machine gun ammunition was around 1500 cartridges, 400 rounds of .30 and .50. M1 Garand rifles were also carried for the crew, hand grenades and antitank mines. The first use of the M8 was in Italy in 1943. Later the vehicle was used against Japanese tanks, as they were vulnerable against its 37mm gun. The car was very fast, well armed and armored for reconnaissance missions. But the cavalry units complained about its performance off-road that was worse than the M3A1, M8 car that replaced it. In the mountainous terrain of Italy and northern European snow at the M8 was restricted to connecting roads, which prejudivaca its recognition function. The vehicle was very vulnerable to mines and an extra armor kit was produced for him. Another problem is that sometimes it was used for fire support missions and were very vulnerable to weapon Germans. In 1943 (the same year that it entered in production) the United States began seeking a replacement for the M8, the Studebaker T-27 and Chevrolet T-28, both were superior to the M8 Greyhound but as the war was almost over, the U.S. Army decided to remain in service, retiring it soon after the Korean War.
Operators[edit | edit source]
- Burkina Faso
- El Salvador
- North Vietnam
- Saudi Arabia
- South Korea
- South Vietnam
- United Kingdom
Variants[edit | edit source]
- T22 Light Armored Car - Prototype.
- T22E1 Light Armored Car - A 4x4 prototype.
- T22E2 Light Armored Car - Prototype eventually standardized as M8.
- M8 Light Armored Car - Production variant.
- M8E1 Light Armored Car - A variant with modified suspension. Two vehicles were produced in 1943.
- The M20 Armored Utility Car, also known as the M20 Scout Car, was a Greyhound with the turret removed. This was replaced with a low, armored open-topped superstructure and an anti-aircraft ring mount for a .50-in M2 heavy machine gun. A bazooka was provided for the crew to compensate for its lack of anti-armor weaponry. The M20 was primarily used as a command vehicle and for forward reconnaissance, but many vehicles also served as APCs and cargo carriers. It offered high speed and excellent mobility, along with a degree of protection against small arms fire and shrapnel. When employed in the command and control role, the M20 was fitted with additional radio equipment. Originally designated the M10 Armored Utility Car, it was redesignated M20 to avoid confusion with the M10 Wolverine tank destroyer. 3,680 M20s were built by Ford during its two years in production (1943–1944).
- T69 Multiple Gun Motor Carriage - In late 1943, an anti-aircraft variant of the M8 was tested. The vehicle was armed with four .50-in machine guns in a turret developed by Maxson Corp.. The Antiaircraft Board felt that the vehicle offered no marked improvement to the M16 MGMC. Due to the end of the war, the project was terminated.
- M8 TOW Tank Destroyer - M8 upgraded by the US company NAPCO. The main gun was replaced by an .50-in machine gun and a BGM-71 TOW launcher was installed above the turret. Upgraded vehicles were used by Colombia.
- M8/M20 with H-90 turret - A French upgrade, using the turret of the Panhard AML-90 armored car.
- CRR Brasileiro - A version developed in 1968 by the Brazilian Army Engineering Institute (IME). The middle axle was removed and a new engine (120 hp (89 kW) Mercedes-Benz OM-321) installed to create the VBB-1 of which one prototype was completed, the vehicle being found to be inferior. The Vbb-1 was in turn the basis for the CRR which reverted to a 6x6 configuration and eight vehicles were produced for evaluation. The EE-9 Cascavel was developed from the CRR.
- M8 (Diesel) Hellenic Army Armored Car - A number of M8 Armored Cars were upgraded with a Steyr diesel engine in place of the Hercules JXD gasoline engine, this required a rearwards extension of the engine compartment by 11.8 in (300 mm), as well as some heightening. Also fitted were a new radio, indicator and new hooded lights, rear view mirrors, while the M2HB anti-aircraft machinegun was moved to the right front of the turret, where a new pintle socket was bolted on the partial roof (the turret rear socket being retained) and the coaxial 0.30-in M1919A4 replaced by a 7.62x51mm NATO MG-3 machinegun. Used for coastal defense and retired from service in the late 1990s.
- Colombian AM8 - This is a Colombian fusion of anti-air artillery of World War II in turret whit a modern motor in M8. It is a Coin weapon against guerrilla ambush in mountains of Colombian since speedways.
Specifications[edit | edit source]
- Weight: 7.8 ton.
- Garrison: 4 men
- EngineHercules JXD, eight-cylinder petrol (110 hp)
- Speed: 88 km/h (road) and 45 km/h (off road)
- Range: 400 km (highway)
- Length: 5 m
- Width: 2.54 m
- Height: 2.23 m
- Shield: 3–19 mm (shell) and 19 mm (tower)
- Main Armament: 37 mm Gun M6
- Secondary armament: A 7.62 mm machine gun M1919A4 (coaxial) and one 12.7 mm machine gun M2HB (antiaircraft tower)
- Ammunition: 80 37 mm projectiles, 420 to 1575 rounds of 12.7mm and 7.62mm
See also[edit | edit source]
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|