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Ma Anliang
Ma Anliang pailou arch.jpg
Pailou arch set up in honor of Ma Anliang
Born 馬安良 1855
Died November 24th 1919
Place of birth Linxia County, Gansu
Place of death Gansu
Allegiance Flag of China (1889–1912) Qing dynasty
Flag of China (1912–1928) Republic of China
Years of service 1872-November 24th 1919
Rank general
Commands held General of Xinjiang, Colonel of Hezhou
Battles/wars Dungan revolt, Dungan Revolt (1895), Boxer Rebellion, Xinhai Revolution, Bai Lang Rebellion
Awards "Second class Wenhu and Chiaho decorations"[1]

Ma Anliang (Script error; 1855 – November 24, 1919) was a Hui born in Linxia, Gansu, China. He became a general in the Qing dynasty army, and of the Republic of China. His father was Ma Zhanao, and his younger brother was Ma Guoliang.[1] Ma was educated in Chinese and Islamic education.[2]

Military careerEdit

He defected to Qing in 1872 during the Dungan revolt, along with several other Hui Muslims, including his father, Ma Zhanao, Ma Haiyan, and Ma Qianling. They belonged to the Huasi menhuan, of the Khafiya Naqshbandi Sufi order.[3] They assisted the Qing Han Chinese general Zuo Zongtang in suppressing the Muslim revolt. In 1877, his father Ma Zhanao defeated a group of Muslim rebels who continued fighting near Hezhou.[4]

General Ma Anliang joined the Qing General Zuo Zongtang, in the campaign against the Turkic Muslim rebels under Yaqub Beg. Ma Anliang led an entire army composed of Chinese Muslim troops against Yaqub Beg's Turkic Muslim forces, and defeated him, reconquering Turkestan for China.[5]

In 1895, he served with the Han Chinese general Tang Yanhe and the Muslim general Dong Fuxiang, assisting them in crushing another Muslim revolt, the Dungan revolt (1895–1896).[6][7] His Muslim cavalry defeated Muslim rebels at Oxheart Mountain, and relieved the siege of Hezhou on December 4. He led hui cavalry troops to massacre rebel Muslim fighters who had agreed to negotiate at a banquet, and was promoted to General of Xinjiang, and Colonel of Hezhou for his service, once the revolt was crushed. The revolt was led by Ma Yonglin, Ma Wanfu, and Ma Dahan. Ma Dahan was publicly executed.[8] It was said that Ma Anliang's red cap was dyed with Muslim blood.[9]

During that war, in 1895 He lifted the siege of Xining (sining) with four ying (ying is a Chinese unit for battalion). Ma was assigned to "Barkul military command" sometime before 1910.[10]

In 1900, during the Boxer Rebellion, Ma Anliang, as Tongling of Ho-Chou joined Dong Fuxiang in fighting against the foreigners.[11]

In 1905, Ma Anliang, in cooperation with the Han Chinese magistrate Yang Zengxin, attempted to arrest and execute the Yihewani (Ikhwan in Arabic) leader Ma Wanfu. Ma Qi, one of Ma Anliang's subordinates, staged a rescue operation and brought Ma Wanfu to Xining.[12]

Even though he was a Muslim, he and his Muslim troops showed no mercy to Muslims who rebelled against the Qing government, and massacred them.

In 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution erupted, he led over 20 battalions of Hui Muslim troops to defend the Qing dynasty by attacking Shaanxi, which was held by the revolutionaries under Zhang Fenghui. He defeated the revolutionaries in combat, but then when the Qing emperor Puyi abdicated, Ma agreed to join the new Republic of China government under the Kuomintang.[13]

In October 1903, in Ili, Ma Anliang served as "Brigade-General". In April 1912 he became "Commander-in-Chief" of Gansu.[14]

Political and religious orientationEdit

Ma Anliang fought against the bandit Bai Lang, and attacked the Xidaotang (西道堂) Muslim organization. He was suspicious of the Republicanism of the Xidaotang, since Ma was a conservative and a monarchist and supported Yuan Shikai. Ma arranged for the Xidaotang founder Ma Qixi and his family to be shot to death. Han and Hui soldiers under the Hui generals Ma Anliang and Ma Qi united to fight against Bai Lang's bandit army.[15] [16][17]

In 1914, Ma Anliang tried to exterminate the "New New Sect", the Xidaotang and its leader Ma Qixi (his Arabic name was Ersa (Jesus), he was known as "Prophet Jesus" to westerners).[18][19]

General Ma Anliang was the de facto senior leader of all Muslims in northwestern China from the beginning of the Republican era in 1912 until he died. He was succeeding by General Ma Fuxiang in this position.[20]

Ma Anliang was considered "reactionary", while the learned "scholar" General Ma Fuxiang was considered "progressive".[21]

In Hezhou (Hochow), on November 24, 1919, his death occurred.[22][23]

Ma Anliang Tomb

Tomb of Ma Anliang

FamilyEdit

His father was Ma Zhanao and his brother was Ma Guoliang.

He had 5 sons, Ma Tingxiang, Ma Tingxian, and 3 other unknown children. Ma Tingxian was executed in 1962 by the Peoples' Court.[24] Ma Tingxiang was Ma Anliang's third son. He was executed by Feng Yuxiang after first rebelling against Feng and the Guominjun, defecting to Chiang Kaishek and the Kuomintang after Chiang and Feng went to war against each other, and finally after Chiang dismissed Ma from his posts, attempted to flee and was captured by Feng.

PeerageEdit

Yuan Shikai made Ma Anliang a Baron of the First Rank (一等男 Yī děng nán) of the Empire of China (1915–1916).

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=90CN0vtxdY0C&pg=PA168&dq=ma+anliang's+brother+ma+guoliang&cd=1#v=onepage&q=ma%20anliang's%20brother%20ma%20guoliang&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  2. Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 206. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=90CN0vtxdY0C&pg=PA191&lpg=PA191&dq=ma+anliang&source=bl&ots=gMwLIuA1os&sig=_jvjrRYqFMl0ciCf6gbsX_ptfgs&hl=en&ei=pcIWTMbaCsHflgfS2OivCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=trained%20in%20both%20the%20muslim%20and%20chinese%20curricula%20ma%20anliang&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  3. Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=hUEswLE4SWUC&pg=PA72&dq=ma+anliang&hl=en&ei=nMIWTOy1JoT6lweJyPGHDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=ma%20anliang%20who%20was%20a%20follower%20of%20the%20multicoloured%20mosque%20menhuan&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  4. Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 167. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=90CN0vtxdY0C&pg=PA191&lpg=PA191&dq=ma+anliang&source=bl&ots=gMwLIuA1os&sig=_jvjrRYqFMl0ciCf6gbsX_ptfgs&hl=en&ei=pcIWTMbaCsHflgfS2OivCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=diehard%20rebels&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  5. Lanny B. Fields (1978). Tso Tsung-tʼang and the Muslims: statecraft in northwest China, 1868-1880. Limestone Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-919642-85-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=_e8vAQAAIAAJ&q=Ma+Chan-ao'+s+son,+Ma+An-liang,+fought+for+the+Chinese+in+the+campaigns+against+Sining+and+Suchow+then+later+in+Chinese+Turkestan.+Ma's&dq=Ma+Chan-ao'+s+son,+Ma+An-liang,+fought+for+the+Chinese+in+the+campaigns+against+Sining+and+Suchow+then+later+in+Chinese+Turkestan.+Ma's&hl=en&ei=eEqxTPaUG4H48Abx8pWfCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  6. Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 136. http://books.google.com/books?id=hUEswLE4SWUC&pg=PA72&dq=ma+anliang&hl=en&ei=nMIWTOy1JoT6lweJyPGHDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=tang%20yanhe&f=false. 
  7. Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 168. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=90CN0vtxdY0C&pg=PA168&dq=ma+anliang's+brother+ma+guoliang&cd=1#v=snippet&q=commanded%20by%20tang%20yanhe&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  8. Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff, August 20–24, 1987, Volume 3 Papers from the Conference on Chinese Local Elites and Patterns of Dominance, Banff, August 20–24, 1987, Joint Committee on Chinese Studies (U.S.). Ann Arbor. 1987. p. 29. http://books.google.com/books?ei=nMIWTOy1JoT6lweJyPGHDA&ct=result&id=lSxYAAAAMAAJ&dq=ma+anliang&q=ma+anliang. 
  9. Ma Tong, Zhongguo Yisilan... shilue, p 245
  10. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Center for Asian Studies (1979). Chinese Republican studies newsletter, Volumes 5-7. p. 35. http://books.google.com/books?ei=NnjsTZ2MHcnw0gHfwa12&ct=result&id=NNAMAQAAMAAJ&dq=Thus+Ma+An-liang%2C+the+leading+figure+in+Kansu+from+1912+to+his+death+in+November+1919%2C+had+led+four+ying+to+the+relief+of+Sining+in+1895.+In+1910+we+find+him+promoted+from+the+Barkul+military+command%2C+perhaps+the+key+cavalry+posting+in&q=an-liang. Retrieved 2011-06-06. [1]
  11. M. Th. Houtsma, A. J. Wensinck (1993). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936. Stanford BRILL. p. 850. ISBN 90-04-09796-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=rezD7rvuf9YC&pg=PA850&lpg=PA850&dq=ma+fu-hsiang&source=bl&ots=DXkl1IbFV2&sig=0WAFe8G6PxzD5t2PBulETB8HgRo&hl=en&ei=m3gzTOrKKMKblgeO9MTECw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CDAQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=ma%20fu-hsiang&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  12. Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 207. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=90CN0vtxdY0C&pg=PA168&dq=ma+anliang's+brother+ma+guoliang&cd=1#v=onepage&q=yang%20zengxin%20ma%20anliang&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  13. Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 170. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=90CN0vtxdY0C&pg=PA168&dq=ma+anliang's+brother+ma+guoliang&cd=1#v=snippet&q=twenty%20battalions%20of%20loyal%20muslim%20braves&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  14. Henry George Wandesforde Woodhead, Henry Thurburn Montague Bell (1969). The China year book, Part 2. North China Daily News & Herald. p. 841. http://books.google.com/books?ei=n2vsTcSEOI6itgeuqdGgAQ&ct=result&id=Tb8ZAAAAIAAJ&dq=Ma+Fu-hsiang%2C+%28%24y+fi%5Efll%5E%29.+%E2%80%94+Kansu.+Brigade-General.+Paiikun%2C+New+Dominion.+March.+1909.+Acting+Chief+Executive+Officer%2C+Kokonor%2C+July-+August%2C+1912.+Commander+of+Guards+Division.+Altai%2C+October+10.+1912.+Was+Military+Commissioner+of&q=chief+kokonor+ma+an-liang. Retrieved 2011-06-05. [2]
  15. Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 266. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=90CN0vtxdY0C&pg=PA168&dq=ma+anliang's+brother+ma+guoliang&cd=1#v=snippet&q=bai%20lang%20ma%20anliang%20invasion%20gansu&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  16. Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 144. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=hUEswLE4SWUC&pg=PA72&dq=ma+anliang&hl=en&ei=nMIWTOy1JoT6lweJyPGHDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=bai%20lang%20ma%20anliang&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  17. Dru C. Gladney (1996). Muslim Chinese: ethnic nationalism in the People's Republic. Cambridge Massachusetts: Harvard Univ Asia Center. p. 58. ISBN 0-674-59497-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=_hJ9aht6nZQC&pg=PA60&lpg=PA60&dq=ma+anliang&source=bl&ots=exryaHzj7h&sig=Nmi_iAIjv1V79fxcinQvSFe1PYw&hl=en&ei=eicZTOKcBcGblgee98i5Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=11&ved=0CDwQ6AEwCg#v=onepage&q=ma%20anliang%20bai%20lang&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  18. Christian Literature Society for India, Hartford Seminary Foundation (1920). Samuel Marinus Zwemer. ed. The Moslem World, Volume 10. 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City: Hartford Seminary Foundation. p. 381. http://books.google.com/books?id=u5soAAAAYAAJ&dq=ma+an-liang+died+november&q=ma+an+liang+new+new+sect+1914#v=onepage&q=ma%20an%20liang%20jesus&f=false. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  19. The Far Eastern review, engineering, finance, commerce, Volume 15. 1919. p. 587. http://books.google.com/books?ei=NGPsTez6JuHW0QHs0rCVAQ&ct=result&id=Yn9CAQAAIAAJ&dq=The+most+prominent+leader+in+this+progressive+group+i6+General+Ma+Fu-hsiang%2C+the+Hu+Chun+Shih+at+Ninghsia+and+a&q=an-liang. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  20. Henry George Wandesforde Woodhead, Henry Thurburn Montague Bell (1926). The China year book, Part 2. North China Daily News & Herald. p. 1076. http://books.google.com/books?id=5fEHAQAAIAAJ&q=ma+an-liang+died+november&dq=ma+an-liang+died+november&hl=en&ei=7mPsTdSBIIL50gG7p8TDAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEsQ6AEwBQ. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  21. The Far Eastern review, engineering, finance, commerce, Volume 15. 1919. p. 588. http://books.google.com/books?id=Yn9CAQAAIAAJ&q=The+most+prominent+leader+in+this+progressive+group+i6+General+Ma+Fu-hsiang,+the+Hu+Chun+Shih+at+Ninghsia+and+a+Chinese+scholar+of+no+mean+ability.+The+most+powerful+of+the+reactionaries+was+Ma+An-liang,+the+once+all-+powerful+chief+who&dq=The+most+prominent+leader+in+this+progressive+group+i6+General+Ma+Fu-hsiang,+the+Hu+Chun+Shih+at+Ninghsia+and+a+Chinese+scholar+of+no+mean+ability.+The+most+powerful+of+the+reactionaries+was+Ma+An-liang,+the+once+all-+powerful+chief+who&hl=en&ei=-XfsTZKyA9O4tweyir2CDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  22. The Far Eastern review, engineering, finance, commerce, Volume 15. 1919. p. 587. http://books.google.com/books?id=Yn9CAQAAIAAJ&q=The+Story+of+Ma+An-liang+The+one+Mohammedan+name+which+is+fairly+familiar+to+all+who+keep+in+touch+with+Chinese+affairs+is+that+of+Ma+An-liang,+an+aged+military+leader+who+died+in+Hochow+on+November+24th+of+last+year+and+who.+for+a&dq=The+Story+of+Ma+An-liang+The+one+Mohammedan+name+which+is+fairly+familiar+to+all+who+keep+in+touch+with+Chinese+affairs+is+that+of+Ma+An-liang,+an+aged+military+leader+who+died+in+Hochow+on+November+24th+of+last+year+and+who.+for+a&hl=en&ei=bXjsTeT3ENO3tgekr6S1Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  23. Christian Literature Society for India, Hartford Seminary Foundation (1920). Samuel Marinus Zwemer. ed. The Moslem World, Volume 10. 156 Fifth Avenue, New York City: Hartford Seminary Foundation. p. 378. http://books.google.com/books?id=u5soAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA378&dq=ma+an-liang+died+november&hl=en&ei=7mPsTdSBIIL50gG7p8TDAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=ma%20an-liang%20died%20november&f=false. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  24. Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=hUEswLE4SWUC&pg=PA72&dq=ma+anliang&hl=en&ei=nMIWTOy1JoT6lweJyPGHDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=snippet&q=ma%20tingran&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  • PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from The Moslem World, Volume 10, by Christian Literature Society for India, Hartford Seminary Foundation, a publication from 1920 now in the public domain in the United States.

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