278,233 Pages

Ma Hongkui
Lieutenant General Ma Hongkui
Governor of Ningxia

In office
June 1931 – 1948
Preceded by Men Chih-chung (Men Zhizhong)
Succeeded by Ma Hongbin
Personal details
Born March 14, 1892
Linxia County, Gansu, China
Died 1970
Los Angeles, United States
Nationality Hui
Political party Kuomintang
Spouse(s) 5 wives
Children Ma Dunhou (Ma Tung-hou)
Ma Dunjing (1910–2003)
Ma Dunren
Alma mater Lanzhou Military Academy
Religion Sunni Islam
Military service
Nickname(s) King of Ningxia
Allegiance  Republic of China (1912–1949)
Years of service 1910–1949
Rank Lieutenant General
Unit Ma clique
Commands Chairman of Ningxia Province, Commander in Chief of the 17th Army Group
Battles/wars Second Zhili–Fengtian War, Central Plains War, Long March, Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese Civil War
Awards Order of Precious Tripod

Ma Hongkui (traditional Chinese: 馬鴻逵; simplified Chinese: 马鸿逵; pinyin: Mă Hóngkuí; Wade–Giles: Ma Hung-k'uei; March 14, 1892 – 1970), was a prominent warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the province of Ningxia.[1] His rank was Lieutenant-general.[2] His courtesy name was Shao-yun (少雲).[3][4] In 1950, Hongkui migrated to the United States, where he lived till he died in 1970.

Life[edit | edit source]

Born in March 14, 1892, in the village of Hanchiachi, in Linxia County[5] (known as Hezhou), Gansu. The "Who's who in China" series of books says "Taoho Hsien" (Daohe Xian) is where he was born. His father was the General Ma Fuxiang. A Hui, he graduated from Lanzhou Military Academy (AKA Gansu Military Academy in 1909,[6][7] and became commander of the Ningxia Modern Army and commander of the 7th Division after the founding of the republic. He was in Beijing until Cao Kun's presidency (1923–1924), even though he was the commander of the Ningxia Army.

He was at one point the Ningxia, Shaanxi, and Mongolia "Bandit Suppression Commander".[8] Ma then became Commader of the Gansu "6th Mixed Brigade" in 1916.[9][10]

During the Second Zhili-Fengtian War Ma Hongkui's army was reorganized into a branch of Feng Yuxiang's Guominjun forces; in 1926 Ma Hongkui was appointed as the commander of the Fourth Route Army of the Guominjun by Feng. Ma Hongkui's father was Ma Fuxiang.[11] He was also a member of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission.[12]

In 1927, he and Feng Yuxiang led their troops to Tongguan, Shaanxi, and countered the Northern Expedition. However, he betrayed Feng and turned to Chiang Kai-shek. During the Central Plains War of 1930, Ma Hongkui fought for Chiang Kai-shek and was appointed commander of the 64th Division; upon capturing of Tai'an, Shandong he was promoted to commander of the 15th Army. It was in 1932 when Ma Hongkui was appointed Governor of Ningxia Province, and fought the communist forces in the Shaanxi-Ningxia area for the next several years up to the all-out Japanese invasion in 1937. During Ma Hongkui's rise to power, together with his cousin Ma Hongbin and warlords Ma Bufang and Ma Buqing, they were instrumental in helping another warlord, Ma Zhongying to prevail in Gansu, because they did not want Ma Zhongying to compete with them in their own turf, so they encouraged and supported Ma Zhongying to develop his own power base in other regions such as Gansu and Xinjiang.

Second Sino-Japanese War[edit | edit source]

Chiang Kai-shek, leader of China, in the middle, meets with the Muslim Generals Ma Hongbin (second from left), and Ma Hongkui(second from right) at Ningxia August 1942.

During World War II, he took over the command of 17th Army Group. He was also the vice-commander of the 8th War Zone.

During the early 1930s, Ma received some weapons from Japan when he was fighting the communists, and met visiting delegations, but after Japan's invasion of China in 1937, he veered sharply against Japan, supporting the imam Hu Songshan in spreading anti Japanese propaganda, and sending limited amounts of troops to his cousin Ma Hongbin to fight the Japanese. Ma has allowed a Japanese military airfield and some personnel in Ningxia, but evicted them after the start of the Sino Japanese War in 1937, reaffirming alleigance to China.

Ma Hongkui maintained a sharp watch against Japan during the war. Ma Hongkui seized the city of Dingyuanying in Suiyuan and arrested the Mongol prince Darijaya in 1938 because a Japanese officer of the Kwantung Army, Doihara Kenji, visited the prince. Darijaya was exiled to Lanzhou until 1944.[13][14][15]

In 1940, Ma Hongkui's Muslim troops took part in the Battle of West Suiyuan against Japan and their Mongol puppet state Mengjiang.[16]

Because of fierce resistance by Ma Hongkui and Ma Bufang's Muslim cavalry, the Japanese never reached Lanzhou during the war.[17][18][19]

Ma Hongkui cooperated with the Yihewani imam Hu Songshan, ordering all imams in Ningxia to preach Chinese nationalism in their sermons.[20]

Chinese Civil War[edit | edit source]

After the end of World War II, the Chinese Civil War broke out, Ma Hongkui fought for Chiang against the communists.

Ma Hongkui was in contact with the Kazakh leader Ospan Batyr, who kept him informed of events.

Ma Hongkui and his Muslim army ruled over a non Muslim majority, of about 750,000 people in Ningxia. Ningxia did not have the natural defences of Qinghai.[21]

In March 1948, at Ichuan Peng Dehuai led Communist forces to launch a surprise attack against Hu Zongnan's forces, influcting 20,000 casualties upon them, and drove all the way with 60,000 soldiers into southern Shanxi province to reach Sichuan, General Hu requested immediate help from Governor Ma Hongkui, who sent two Muslim cavalry divisions. They defeated the Communist forces at Pao-chi and inflicted 20,000 dead upon the Communists, expelling them into Gansu.[22]

In 1949, with communist victory certain, Ma Hongkui fled to Guangzhou (Canton) and then to Taiwan.[23] The entire Kuomintang defences were falling apart. General Hu Zongnan ignored President Li Zongren's orders, and Ma Hongkui was furious at this. Ma Hongkui sent a telegram to Li Zongren to submit his resignation from all positions he held, and his cousin Ma Hongbin took charge of his positions.[24] Ma Hongkui met with Chiang Kaishek in Chongqing to plan an attack on the PLA. Ma Hongbin and his son Ma Dunjing (1906–1972) were hoodwinked by Communist promises. Ma Dunjing then signed a capitulation with the PLA, then defected to the Communists. This had a domino effect on other military men in the province, who in turn defected. Ma Hongkui was furious.[25]

Then he fled to Taiwan. Accused of "frustrating the fulfillment of the military plan" by the Control Yuan, as he failed to defeat the Communist forces in his defense area, he then moved to San Francisco with the help of Claire Chennault. In December 1950, Ma was in San Francisco.[26][27] He then moved to Los Angeles where he died on January 14, 1970. At a press conferences in 1951 in the United States, Ma Hongkui urged the USA to aid the KMT in Taiwan. Ma became a rancher in the United States and bred horses.

Ma Hongkui had a son, Ma Dunjing who was also a General and official in his Ningxia government.[28]

Chiang Kaishek addressed Ma Hongkui as Shao Yun shixiong, which refers to the son of a friend.[29] Chiang was a Sworn brother to Ma Hongkui's father Ma Fuxiang.

Reign over Ningxia[edit | edit source]

Ma Hongkui was extremely brutal in his reign, executions average one a day, he started his reign by decapitating 300 bandits when he was appointed Governor in 1932.[30] The other Muslim Governor Ma Bufang was reported to be good humoured and jovial in contrast to the brutal reign of Ma Hongkui.[31] He was called a warlord by westerners.[32]

Ma Hongkui stood out from the other provincial Governors in the degree of his strong rule over Ningxia.[33]

Ma Hongkui, like the President of China, Chiang Kaishek, was virurently anti communist. Whenever communists turned up in his territory they invariably ended up dead.[34]

Ma was also credited with many achievements during his reign. His brutal method of governing managed to stamp out corruption among officials, and he was never pleased with results.[35] He constantly drilled his peasant Muslim army in combat, who were armed with swords, spears, and rifles.[30] His standing army consisted of 100,000, countries provided reserves of each 10,000, and he also set the draft age from 15 to 55 years old, up from 18 to 25 years old.[36]

The Tibetans and Ma were unfriendly to each other. When the communists were closing in on Ma Hongkui, he risked being trapped between the Tibetan and Communist enemies.[37]

Ma Hongkui's government had a company, Fu Ning Company, which had a monopoly over commercial and industry in Ningxia.[38]

Diabetes[edit | edit source]

General Ma Hongkui in uniform

General Ma Hongkui suffered from severe diabetes attacks, and in 1949 it was so bad he was not expected to recover. He was also reported to be among the best generals.[37][39][40] Despite his diabetes, he was addicted to ice cream and ate it constantly.[41]

Martial arts[edit | edit source]

Ma Hongkui personally wielded Dadao swords in combat during training with his troops. General Ma wielding a sword His soldiers battle cry was "Sha!", which means "kill!" in Chinese. Another one of his hobbies was Chinese calligraphy.[42]

Education[edit | edit source]

Ma Hongkui promoted Islamic education.[16]

Family[edit | edit source]

Ma Hongkui's grandfather was Ma Qianling, his father was Ma Fuxiang, his uncles were Ma Fushou, Ma Fulu, and Ma Fucai, his cousin was Ma Hongbin,[43] and he had 6 wives and several children. His sixth wife with whom he was the closest took care of him throughout the years until his death. She arranged the building of the cemetery plot in Taipei where Ma Hongkui is buried along with his eldest son and his fourth wife.

Ma Hongkui's mother was Ma Tsai (te), he married his first wife was Liu Chieh-cheng in 1914. As of 1948 he had three children.[44] His mother died in 1948.[45]

Three of his sons were Generals Ma Dunhou (Ma Tung-hou 馬敦厚), Ma Dunjing (1910–2003) (馬敦靜), and Ma Dunren (馬敦仁). He also had a nephew, Ma Dunjing (1906–1972) (馬敦靖)

Ma Hongkui, and his grandson were involved in a custody dispute in 1962-61 over the grandson's daughter, who was Ma Hongkui's great granddaughter, named Mi Mi Ma who was 13 years old. Ma Hongkui was 70 at the time and was hospitalized. The dispute was taking place in a San Bernandino court.[46][47][47]

Artifacts possessed by Ma Hongkui[edit | edit source]

A number of Chinese artifacts dating from the Tang dynasty and Song dynasty, some of which had been owned by Emperor Zhenzong were excavated and then came into the hands of Ma Hongkui, who refused to publicize the findings. Among the artifacts were a white marble tablet from the Tang dynasty, gold nails, and bands made out of metal. It was not until after Ma passed away, that his wife went to Taiwan in 1971 from America to bring the artifacts to Chiang Kai-shek, who turned them over to the Taipei National Palace Museum.[48]

Career[edit | edit source]

  • 1923–1926 Commander of the Ningxia Army
  • 1926–1930 Commander of the Fourth Route Army of the Guominjun
  • 1930 Commander of the Nationalist 64th Division
  • 1930–1931 Commander of the Nationalist 15th Army
  • 1932–1949 Chairman of the Government of Ningxia Province
  • 1938 Commander in Chief 17th Army Group
  • 1938–1941 General Officer Commanding 168th Division
  • 1944 Commander in Chief 17th Army Group

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. American Asiatic Association (1940). Asia: journal of the American Asiatic Association, Volume 40. Asia Pub. Co.. p. 660. http://books.google.com/books?ei=AA7HTfcyh9qAB6Le4MoE&ct=result&id=CKc5AQAAIAAJ&dq=while+Ma+Hung-pin%2C+the+Commander+of+the+Eighty-fourth+Army+Corps%2C+is+the+son+of+Ma+Fu-lu.+And+all+these+Ma%27s+come+from+Hanchiachi.+Governor+Ma+Hung-k%27uei+is+a&q=Hung-pin+son. Retrieved 2011-05-08. 
  2. Paul Preston, Michael Partridge, Antony Best. British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Asia, Volume 1. University Publications of America. p. 37. ISBN 1-55655-768-X. http://books.google.com/books?ei=Op2VTN6gEoP7lwfslOCnCg&ct=result&id=z1qYAAAAMAAJ&dq=suiyuan+battle+ma+hung-pin&q=moslem. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  3. Henry George Wandesforde Woodhead (1933). Henry Thurburn Montague Bell. ed. The China year book. North China Daily News & Herald. p. 450. http://books.google.com/books?ei=q43tTa2CCYXu0gGZnu2UCA&ct=result&id=8gAlAAAAMAAJ&dq=Ma+Huno-k%27pei+Courtesy+name+Sh%27iovuu+Born+1892+%3B+son+of+late+Ma+Fu-hsiang.+1909%2C+graduate.+Kansu+Military+Academy&q=Sh%27iovuu. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  4. The China year book .... Brentano's.. 1933. p. 450. http://books.google.com/books?ei=0o3tTYODM4H10gH2wMyaCA&ct=result&id=rRMfAQAAMAAJ&dq=Ma+Hxjng-k%27uei+S+fSl+51+Courtesy+name+%3A+Shao-yun+%27%7D%7D+g%7C+Born+1892+%3B+son+of+late+Ma+Fu-hsiang.+1909%2C+graduate%2C+Kansu+Military+Academy&q=Ma+Hxjng-k%27uei++Courtesy+name+%3A+Shao-yun+%27%7D%7D+g%7C+Born+1892+%3B+son+late+Ma+Fu-hsiang.+1909%2C. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
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  6. The China monthly review, Volumes 103–104. J.W. Powell. 1946. p. 179. http://books.google.com/books?id=wKoTAAAAIAAJ&q=ma+fu+hsiang+graduate+of+Lanchow+ma+hung-kuei++a+Military+Academy;+after+several+years+of+military+service+became+Bandit-Suppression+Commander+of+Ninghsia,+Shensi+and+Mongolia,+1916;+commander,+6th+Mixed+Brigade+of+Kansu+Army&dq=ma+fu+hsiang+graduate+of+Lanchow+ma+hung-kuei++a+Military+Academy;+after+several+years+of+military+service+became+Bandit-Suppression+Commander+of+Ninghsia,+Shensi+and+Mongolia,+1916;+commander,+6th+Mixed+Brigade+of+Kansu+Army&hl=en&ei=cYntTa3JJ4jL0QH_zomXCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011-06-06. [1][2]
  7. China monthly review, Volume 58. Millard Publishing Co., inc.. 1931. p. 392. http://books.google.com/books?id=OrWGTbmSuOcC&q=Ma+Fu-hsiang,+well-known+Mohammadan+leader+and+chairman+of+the+Mongolian+and+Thibetan+Affairs+Commission+at+Nanking:+received+his+military+training+at+a+military+school+in+Kansu,+after+many+years+of+%7C+service+in+the+Army,+he+rose+to+the&dq=Ma+Fu-hsiang,+well-known+Mohammadan+leader+and+chairman+of+the+Mongolian+and+Thibetan+Affairs+Commission+at+Nanking:+received+his+military+training+at+a+military+school+in+Kansu,+after+many+years+of+%7C+service+in+the+Army,+he+rose+to+the&hl=en&ei=b43tTcasNMTx0gHs6Y2ACA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  8. China weekly review (1936). Who's who in China, Volume 3, Part 2. China weekly review.. p. 184. http://books.google.com/books?id=F29xAAAAMAAJ&q=GEN.+MA+HUNG-KUEL+Government+official+;+horn+at+Taoho+Hsien,+Kansu,+1892+;+son+of+the+late+well-known+Mohammedan+leader.+Gen.+Ma+Fu-hsiang+;+received+his+military+training+at+a+Military+School+in+Kansu;+after+many+years+of+service+in+the&dq=GEN.+MA+HUNG-KUEL+Government+official+;+horn+at+Taoho+Hsien,+Kansu,+1892+;+son+of+the+late+well-known+Mohammedan+leader.+Gen.+Ma+Fu-hsiang+;+received+his+military+training+at+a+Military+School+in+Kansu;+after+many+years+of+service+in+the&hl=en&ei=hYXtTdm_J-a-0AGjmricCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011-06-06. [3]
  9. Who's who in China (Biographies of Chinese). Volume 4 of Who's who in China. 1973. p. 184. http://books.google.com/books?id=9BblAAAAMAAJ&q=MA+HUNG-KUEI,+Government+Official;+born+at+Taoho+Hsien,+Kansu,+1892;+son+of+the+late+well-known+Mohammedan+leader,+Gen.+Ma+Fu-hsiang;+received+his+military+training+at+a+military+school+in+Kansu;+after+many+years+of+service+in+the+Army&dq=MA+HUNG-KUEI,+Government+Official;+born+at+Taoho+Hsien,+Kansu,+1892;+son+of+the+late+well-known+Mohammedan+leader,+Gen.+Ma+Fu-hsiang;+received+his+military+training+at+a+military+school+in+Kansu;+after+many+years+of+service+in+the+Army&hl=en&ei=GHbsTbzeKIS5twe1qO3IBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011-06-06. 
  10. Chinese Materials Center (1982). Who's who in China, 1918–1950: 1931–1950. Volume 3 of Who's who in China, 1918–1950: With an Index,. Chinese Materials Center. p. 79. http://books.google.com/books?id=8YFCAAAAYAAJ&q=MA+HUNG-KUEI,+Government+Official;+born+at+Taoho+Hsien,+Kansu,+1892;+son+of+the+late+well-known+Mohammedan+leader,+Gen.+Ma+Fu-hsiang;+received+his+military+training+at+a+military+school+in+Kansu;+after+many+years+of+service+in+the+Army,&dq=MA+HUNG-KUEI,+Government+Official;+born+at+Taoho+Hsien,+Kansu,+1892;+son+of+the+late+well-known+Mohammedan+leader,+Gen.+Ma+Fu-hsiang;+received+his+military+training+at+a+military+school+in+Kansu;+after+many+years+of+service+in+the+Army,&hl=en&ei=iIbtTY2eM-rz0gHatt2cCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ. Retrieved 2011-06-06. [4]
  11. Arthur de Carle Sowerby, China Society of Arts and Science (1934). The China journal, Volume 20. The China Journal Pub. Co.. p. 134. http://books.google.com/books?ei=BYeqTLmXN4H48Ab0_8iKBw&ct=result&id=afAKAQAAIAAJ&dq=The+commendable+work+of+Ma+was+carried+on+by+his+successor%2C+Ma+Hung-k%27uei%2C+son+of+the+illustrious&q=The+commendable+work+of+Ma+Hung-+pin+was+carried+on+by+his+successor%2C+Ma+Hung-k%27uei%2C+son+of+the+illustrious+Mohammedan+leader+Ma+Fu-hsiang. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
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  13. Australian National University. Department of Far Eastern History (1989). Papers on Far Eastern history, Issues 39–42. Canberra: Dept. of Far Eastern History, Australian National University. pp. 125, 127. http://books.google.com/books?ei=uFchTL63KoaglAfImbFK&ct=result&id=mttBAAAAYAAJ&dq=darijaya+ma+hongkui&q=ma+hongkui. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  14. Frederick Roelker Wulsin, Mary Ellen Alonso, Joseph Fletcher, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, National Geographic Society (U.S.), Peabody Museum of Salem, Pacific Asia Museum (1979). China's inner Asian frontier: photographs of the Wulsin expedition to northwest China in 1923 : from the archives of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, and the National Geographic Society. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Museum : distributed by Harvard University Press. p. 50. ISBN 0-674-11968-1, 9780674119680. http://books.google.com/books?id=WltwAAAAMAAJ&q=darijaya+ma+hongkui&dq=darijaya+ma+hongkui&hl=en&ei=uFchTL63KoaglAfImbFK&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAg. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  15. Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 125, 126. http://books.google.com/books?id=90CN0vtxdY0C&pg=PA144&dq=tang+yanhe&hl=en&ei=hJ4rTNHqCsb_lgfAteyqBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=snippet&q=tang%20yanhe%20hezhou%20shuangcheng&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 George Barry O'Toole, Jên-yü Tsʻai (1941). The China monthly, Volumes 3–5. The China monthly incorporated.. http://books.google.com/books?id=Bk3VAAAAMAAJ&q=Ma-Hung-kwei&dq=Ma-Hung-kwei&hl=en&ei=96-VTNLGD4GClAeC35GjCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBQ. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  17. Stéphane William Darrach Halsey, Bernard Johnston (M.A.) (1989). Collier's encyclopedia: with bibliography and index, Volume 14. Macmillan Educational Co.. p. 285. http://books.google.com/books?ei=13-VTIrrBsH_lge18Y2kCg&ct=result&id=6O67mW5ODV0C&dq=by+the+Japanese+because+of+the+strong+resistance+put+up+by+the+cavalry+troops+of+the+Muslim+Generals+Ma+Hung-kwei+and+Ma+Pu-fang&q=lanzhou+resistance+never+captured+muslim+generals+ma+pu-fang+ma+hung-kwei. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  18. Stéphane William Darrach Halsey, Bernard Johnston (M.A.) (1983). Collier's encyclopedia: with bibliography and index, Volume 14. Macmillan Educational Co.. p. 285. http://books.google.com/books?ei=13-VTIrrBsH_lge18Y2kCg&ct=result&id=HIIJAAAAIAAJ&dq=by+the+Japanese+because+of+the+strong+resistance+put+up+by+the+cavalry+troops+of+the+Muslim+Generals+Ma+Hung-kwei+and+Ma+Pu-fang&q=strong+resistance+japanese+cavalry+muslim+generals. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  19. Stéphane William Darrach Halsey, Bernard Johnston (M.A.) (1983). Collier's encyclopedia: with bibliography and index, Volume 14. Macmillan Educational Co.. p. 285. http://www.google.com/search?tbs=bks%3A1&tbo=1&q=by+the+Japanese+because+of+the+strong+resistance+put+up+by+the+cavalry+troops+of+the+Muslim+Generals+Ma+Hung-kwei+and+Ma+Pu-fang&btnG=Search+Books. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  20. Stéphane A. Dudoignon (2004). Devout societies vs. impious states?: transmitting Islamic learning in Russia, Central Asia and China, through the twentieth century : proceedings of an international colloquium held in the Carré des Sciences, French Ministry of Research, Paris, November 12–13, 2001. Schwarz.. p. 74. ISBN 3-87997-314-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=NyhtAAAAMAAJ&q=he+songshan+ma+hongkui&dq=he+songshan+ma+hongkui&hl=en&ei=a18hTITDM4Wdlgfoo6HAAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  21. The China monthly review, Volumes 112–113. J.W. Powell. 1948. pp. 282. ISBN 3-87997-314-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=O50TAAAAIAAJ&q=Ma-Hung-kwei&dq=Ma-Hung-kwei&hl=en&ei=96-VTNLGD4GClAeC35GjCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  22. "CHINA: Chest-Thumper". Monday, May. 17, 1948. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,798611,00.html. Retrieved April 11, 2011. 
  23. JAMES D. WHITE (12 August 1949). "No Resistance Left To Red Conquest Of All China". http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=378LAAAAIBAJ&sjid=g1UDAAAAIBAJ&pg=1754,5135181&dq=ma+pu-fang&hl=en. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  24. Zongren Li, Tsung-jen Li, Te-kong Tong (1979). The memoirs of Li Tsung-jen. Westview Press. p. 547. http://books.google.com/books?ei=DRaeTLzMMMP58AbCwIAe&ct=result&id=v_QdAAAAMAAJ&dq=li+tsung-jen+ma+hung-kuei+begged&q=ma+hung-kuei+ma+hung-pin+cousin. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  25. Hsiao-ting Lin (2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Taylor & Francis. p. 114. ISBN 0-415-58264-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=rsLQdBUgyMUC&pg=PA47&vq=ma+dunjing&dq=mahmud+Muhiti&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=2#v=onepage&q=ma%20dunjing%20ma%20hongkui%20ningxia%20chiang&f=false. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  26. DREW PEARSON (28 December 1950). "Gen. Chennault Fights Communism". http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=9uEuAAAAIBAJ&sjid=TU4DAAAAIBAJ&pg=5741,5088001&dq=ma+pu-fang&hl=en. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
  27. DREW PEARSON (28 December 1950). "Washingtong Merry-Go-Round". http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=KWEoAAAAIBAJ&sjid=y9YEAAAAIBAJ&pg=5008,5041751&dq=ma+hung-kwei+san&hl=en. Retrieved December 12, 2010. 
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External links[edit | edit source]

Sources[edit | edit source]

  • Ma Hongkui
  • Hutchings, Graham. Modern China. First. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-674-01240-2

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