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Mahan-class destroyer
USSMahanDD364.jpg
USS Mahan (DD-364)
Class overview
Name: Mahan class destroyer
Builders: United Shipyards, Inc.
Bath Iron Works
Federal Shipbuilding
Boston Navy Yard
Philadelphia Navy Yard
Norfolk Navy Yard
Puget Sound Navy Yard
Mare Island Navy Yard
Operators: US flag 48 stars.svg United States Navy
Preceded by: Porter-class destroyer
Succeeded by: Gridley-class destroyer
Built: 1934–1937
In commission: 1936–1946
Completed: 18
Lost: 6
Retired: 12
General characteristics
Type: Destroyer
Displacement: 1,500 tons
Length: 341' 3" ft (104.0 m)
Beam: 35' 6" ft (10.8 m)
Draft: 10 ft 7 in (4.0 m)
Propulsion: 4 Babcock & Wilcox or Foster Wheeler Boilers
2 General Electric Turbines
Two shafts
46,000 horsepower
Speed: 37 knots (69 km/h)
Range: 6,940 nmi (12,850 km; 7,990 mi) at 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph)
Complement: 158 (peacetime) 250 (wartime) officers and crew
Armament:

As built:

  • 5 × 5 inch/38 caliber guns in five Mark 21 DP pedestal mounts. Mounts 51 and 52 were partially enclosed, and mounts 53, 54, and 55 were open.
  • 12 × 21 inch torpedo tubes (4×3). One tube mount was on the centerline between the stacks, and the other two were port and starboard just behind the aft stack.
  • 4 × .50 caliber machine guns. Two on a platform just forward and below the bridge, and two on a deck house just forward of 5" mount No. 54.
  • 2 × depth charge roll-off stern racks.

The Mahan-class destroyers originally included 16 ships: the United States Navy commissioned 15 of them in 1936 and one in 1937. Two more ships, often referred to as the Dunlap class, were approved in the basic Mahan design; both commissioned in 1937. USS Mahan was the lead ship of the class, named for Rear-Admiral Alfred T. Mahan, an influential historian and theorist on sea power. The class introduced a new propulsion system that changed the technology for future wartime destroyers. It incorporated a number of major betterments, which included the mounting of twelve torpedo tubes, superimposed gun shelters, and new generators for emergency use. Ship displacement increased from 1,365 tons to 1,500 tons

All eighteen ships of the class saw action in World War II, entirely in the Pacific Theater of Operations. Their participation in major and secondary campaigns involved the bombardment of beachheads, amphibious landings, task force screening, convoy and patrol duty, anti-aircraft and submarine warfare. Collectively, the class received 111 battle stars for World War II service. Six ships became combat losses and two were expended in post-war tests. The remainder were decommissioned, sold, or scrapped after the war.

Design[edit | edit source]

The Mahan-class destroyer emerged as the improved version of the Farragut class.[1] The Farragut class was considered as good or better than any destroyer, except for the Japanese Fubuki class. This 1,700 ton Japanese ship carried 9 torpedo tubes; the Farraguts carried one less. The Navy's General Board had been wrestling with changes in destroyer features, and began leaning towards the idea of 12 torpedo tubes with one less 5"/38 caliber gun.[2] The Board later reversed itself, accepting the notion that all five guns could be retained with the 12 torpedo tubes. To do this, the dual purpose gun feature of the 5"/38s would be lost, meaning the guns would not be configured for both surface and aircraft targets, but configured for only surface targets. The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), who considered this a narrow idea, said, “… the CNO cannot recommend any design of destroyer which subordinates the gun to the torpedo". Yet a compromise was struck; its central features would include a new engineering plant and a new battery arrangement for the Mahan class and others.[3] In the design outcome, a third quadruple torpedo tube would replace No. 3 gun; the two middle torpedo tubes would be moved to the sides, releasing the centerline space for extension of the after deckhouse to accommodate No. 3 gun ahead of No. 4. Each five 5"/38 caliber gun would be a dual purpose gun, but only No. 1 and No. 2 guns would have a gun shield. The traditional destroyer machinery would be replaced with a new generation of land-based machinery to combine increases in pressure and steam temperatures with a fast running turbine.[4]

Mahans typically included the tripod foremast with the pole mainmast.[1] To improve the anti-aircraft field of fire, the tripod foremast was constructed without nautical rigging.[4] Their silhouette was similar to the larger Porter-class destroyers, whose construction immediately preceded them.[5] Mahans were fitted with the first emergency generators, replacing the storage batteries of earlier classes. Gun crew shelters were built for the superimposed weapons: one shelter before the bridge and one atop the shelter deck aft.[6] A third quadruple set of torpedo tubes was added, so that one mount was on the centerline and two in the side positions. This required relocating one 5"/38 caliber gun to the after deckhouse.[5] Displacement increased to 1,500 tons from 1,365 tons.[4]

Mahans displaced 1,500 long tons (1,524 t) at standard load and 1,725 long tons (1,753 t) at deep load. The overall length of the class was 341 feet 3 inches (104.0 m), the beam was 35 feet 6 inches (10.8 m), and the draft 10 feet 7 inches (3.2 m). They were powered by General Electric geared steam turbines, driving two shafts that developed a total of 46,000 shaft horsepower (34,000 kW) for a maximum speed of 37 knots (69 km/h; 43 mph). Four Babcock and Wilcox or four Foster Wheeler water-tube boilers generated the super-heated steam needed for the turbines. The Mahans carried a maximum of 523 long tons (531 t) of fuel oil, giving them a range of 6,940 nautical miles (12,850 km; 7,990 mi) at 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph). Their peacetime complement was 158 officers and enlisted men.[7] The wartime complement increased to approximately 250 officers and enlisted men.[8]

Armament[edit | edit source]

USS Mahan at Mare Island Naval Shipyard for overhaul on 24 June 1944.

The main battery of the Mahan class consisted of five 5"/38 caliber guns, equipped with the MK 33 gun fire control system.[7] All five of the guns were dual purpose, configured for both surface and aircraft targets.[4] The anti-aircraft battery had four water-cooled .50 caliber machine guns.[9] The class was fitted with three, quadruple torpedo tube mounts for twelve 21-inch torpedoes, guided by the MK 27 torpedo fire control system.[7] Depth charge roll-off racks were rigged on the stern.[2]

In the spring of 1942, the Mahan-class destroyers began a wartime armament refitting process, yet most of the class was not fully refitted until sometime in 1944.[10] The notable refits to the Mahan class included the removal of one 5"/38 gun, typically replaced with two twin Bofors 40 mm guns and five 20 mm Oerlikon guns.[10] Ironically, early 1942 found two of the class with six Oerlikon guns, while some had four.[11]

In January 1945, removal of two quadruple torpedo tubes was authorized to permit substitution of two 40 mm quads for their existing mounts. In June, removal of the third centerline tube was authorized to make way for two 40 mm twins abreast of the after stack. All ships receiving these AA modifications were to have directors installed with their new 40 mm mounts; these Mark 51s were to be replaced by new blind-firing GFFC Mark 63 installations with radar.[12]

Construction[edit | edit source]

Contracts for the first six Mahans were awarded to three shipbuilders. Yet, none of the shipbuilding firms selected had what the US Navy judged as an acceptable in-house design structure. On the strength of its reputation, the New York firm of Gibbs and Cox was named as the design agent.[1] The firm had no experience in the design of warships, but had successfully designed passenger-cargo liners with propulsion systems beyond what the US Navy had undertaken.[13] So the decision was made to design the Mahan class around a new generation of machinery.[14] Gibbs and Cox devised a cutting-edge propulsion system that combined increases in boiler pressure and steam temperature with a new type of lightweight, fast-running turbine and double reduction gears. The Mahan class ushered in a new age of destroyer technology, culminating into increased economy, with higher and more efficient speeds.[4]

Dunlap class[edit | edit source]

The Dunlaps were a two-ship destroyer class built from the basic Mahan design. Certain sources consider them a separate class; others do not because of their similarity to the Mahan class. The Dunlaps differed the Mahans in their incorporation of a base ring for each forward 5"/38 caliber gun through which passed a projectile hoist that rotated the gun.[15] Dunlaps were the first US destroyers to use enclosed forward gun mounts rather than shields; their light pole foremast and lack of a mainmast visibly distinguished them from the Mahans.[16]

Ships in class[edit | edit source]

Hull
number
Name Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Fate
DD-364[17] Mahan[17] United Dry Dock, Inc.[17] 12 June 1934[17] 15 October 1935[17] 18 September 1936[17] Ship severely damaged on 7 December 1944 by kamikazes: abandoned and sunk by an American destroyer.[17]
DD-365[18] Cummings[18] United Shipyards, Inc.[18] 26 June 1934[18] 11 December 1935[18] 25 November 1936[18] Ship sold on 17 July 1947.[18]
DD-366[19] Drayton[19] Bath Iron Works[19] 20 March 1934[19] 26 March 1936[19] 1 September 1936[19] Ship sold for scrap on 20 December 1946.[19]
DD-367[20] Lamson[20] Bath Iron Works[20] 20 March 1934[20] 17 June 1936[20] 21 October 1936[20] Ship sunk in the 1946 Bikini Atoll atomic tests.[20]
DD-368[21] Flusser[21] Federal[21] 4 June 1934[21] 28 September 1935[21] 1 October 1936[21] Ship sold on 6 January 1948.[21]
DD-369[22] Reid[22] Federal[22] 25 June 1934[22] 11 January 1936[22] 2 November 1936[22] Ship sunk on 11 December 1944 by Kamikazes.[22]
DD-370[23] Case[23] Boston Navy Yard[23] 19 September 1934[23] 14 September 1935[23] 15 September 1936[23] Ship sold on 31 December 1947.[23]
DD-371[24] Conyngham[24] Boston Navy Yard[24] 19 September 1934[24] 14 September 1935[24] 4 November 1936[24] Ship sunk in test at Bikini and sunk July 1948[24]
DD-372[25] Cassin[25] Philadelphia Navy Yard[25] 1 October 1934[25] 28 October 1935[25] 21 August 1936[25] Ship sold for scrap on 25 November 1947.[25]
DD-373[26] Shaw[26] Philadelphia Navy Yard[26] 1October 1934[26] 28 October 1935[26] 18 September 1936[26] Ship scrapped in July 1946.[26]
DD-374[27] Tucker[27] Norfolk Navy Yard[27] 15 August 1934[27] 26 February 1936[27] 23 July 1936[27] Ship struck mine on 2 August 1942: exploded and sunk.[27]
DD-375[28] Downes[28] Norfolk Navy Yard[28] 15 August 1934[28] 22 April 1936[28] 15 January 1937[28] Ship sold for scrap on 18 November 1947.[28]
DD-376[29] Cushing[29] Puget Sound Navy Yard[29] 15 August 1934[29] 31 December 1935[29] 28 August 1936[29] Ship sunk by the Japanese on 13 November 1942.[29]
DD-377[30] Perkins[30] Puget Sound Navy Yard[30] 15 November 1934[30] 31 December 1935[30] 18 September 1936[30] Ship accidentally sunk on 29 November 1944, when rammed by Australian troopship.[30]
DD-378[31] Smith[31] Mare Island Navy Yard[31] 27 October 1934[31] 20 February 1936[31] 19 September 1936[31] Ship struck from US Navy records in 25 February 1947.[31]
DD-379[32] Preston[32] Mare Island Navy Yard[32] 27 October 1934[32] 22 April 1936[32] 27 October 1936[32] Ship sunk on 14 November 1942 by Japanese warships.[32]
DD-384[33] Dunlap[33] United Shipyards, Inc.[33] 10 April 1935[33] 18 April 1936[33] 12 June 1937[33] Ship sold on 31 December 1947. (Considered by some as the first of the two Dunlap-class destroyers.)[33]
DD-385[34] Fanning[34] United Shipyards, Inc.[34] 10 April 1935[34] 18 September 1936[34] 8 October 1937[34] Ship decommissioned 14 December 1945 and later sold. (Considered by some as the second of the two Dunlap-class destroyers.)[34]

Service history[edit | edit source]

Mahan[edit | edit source]

USS Mahan was commissioned on the east coast in September 1936 and served in the Atlantic area until July 1937. She sailed to the southern California coast for fleet training before moving on to Pearl Harbor. Mahan was at sea when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, yet she participated in the initial post-attack efforts in search of the strike force.[17] Mahan joined Task Force 17 in February 1942, which conducted raids on several atolls in the Marshall Islands and Gilbert Islands.[35] Late in March, she returned to Pearl Harbor and proceeded to the west coast for overhaul. By August 1942, Mahan was back operating out of Pearl Harbor.[17]

South Dakota, Navy repair ship, Mahan, Lampson, after South DakotaMahan collision, occurring after the Battle of Santa Cruz Islands.

In October 1942, Mahan was assigned to Task Force 61 and took part in the battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. The engagement cost the Navy 74 aircraft, the carrier USS Hornet, and one destroyer. While en route to Noumea, New Caledonia, Mahan and the battleship South Dakota collided, causing severe damage to each ship.[36] Temporary repairs were made to Mahan and she steamed to Pearl Harbor for a new bow. She pulled out of Pearl Harbor in January 1943. In the months to follow, Mahan escorted convoys between New Hebrides and the Fiji Islands, performed patrol assignments off New Caledonia and engaged in operations in Australian waters.[17] Assigned to the amphibious force of Admiral Daniel E. Barbey, Mahan participated in a succession of wide-ranging amphibious campaigns in New Guinea, New Britain and the Admiralty Islands until the spring of 1944.[37] At which point she proceeded to the west coast for overhaul; leaving the yard in July 1944 for Pearl Harbor.[17]

Returning to New Guinea, Mahan began escorting convoys between Hollandia (Jayapura) and Leyte in the Philippine Islands. By November 1944, she was doing anti-submarine patrols off Leyte. On 7 December 1944 while patrolling the channel between Leyte and Ponson Island, a Japanese Kamikaze squadron overwhelmed Mahan at Ormoc Bay. She was disabled by the attack, abandoned and sunk by a US destroyer. Mahan received five battle stars for her World War II service.[17]

Cummings[edit | edit source]

Cummings underway in 1944

USS Cummings served in the Pacific Fleet in the late 1930s and during this period she participated in numerous individual and fleet training exercises. In 1940, she served on security patrols off the west coast of the United States. Cummings went on a goodwill visit to several ports in the South Pacific, including Auckland, New Zealand, and Tahiti. The destroyer was docked in Pearl Harbor on the morning of 7 December 1941. During the Japanese attack, Cummings was hit by fragments and suffered a few casualties. She escorted convoys between Pearl Harbor and the west coast for the first six months of World War II. In June 1942, she was transferred to convoy escort duties in the South Pacific, which lasted until August. She had an overhaul in San Francisco in August, after which she returned to her role as a convoy escort in the South Pacific.[18]

In January 1944, Cummings joined the screen for the fast carrier strike force while it raided Japanese positions in the Central Pacific.[38] In April, Cummings was sent to the Indian Ocean where she joined the British Eastern Fleet.[18] By July, she was back in San Francisco where she escorted the heavy cruiser Baltimore, which carried President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Pearl Harbor.[39] Cummings rejoined the main US fleet for the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October 1944. The next month, she bombarded Iwo Jima in preparation for the upcoming amphibious assault on the island.[40] She operated off Okinawa during the invasion of that island.[41] After the end of the war, she supervised the occupation of Haha-jima. Returning to the United States, Cummings was decommissioned in December 1945 and sold for scrap in July 1947. Cummings received seven battle stars for her World War II service.[18]

Drayton[edit | edit source]

Drayton underway in 1936

USS Drayton made her shakedown cruise to Europe late in 1936, and finished her final trials in the United States. She left Norfolk, Virginia, in June 1937 for San Diego, California, to join the Scouting Force. In July, Drayton assisted in the search for the lost American aviatrix, Amelia Earhart. For the next two years, she exercised along the west coast, the Hawaiian Islands, and the Caribbean. When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, Drayton was at sea but able to participate in the post-attack efforts in search of the enemy force. During the succeeding three months, she escorted a convoy to Christmas Island, screened a carrier in an airstrike on Bougainville Island, then screened a tanker to Suva Harbor, Fiji Islands.[19] In Late November 1942 Drayton became part of Task Force 67, which intercepted a Japanese naval force guarding transports en route to resupply Guadalcanal. The Battle of Tassafaronga followed.[42]

Throughout the summer of 1943, Drayton escorted Australian troops from Townsville, Australia, to Milne Bay, New Guinea.[19] In early September, Drayton supported the amphibious landing at Lae, New Guinea. Later in September, she participated in the amphibious landing at Finschhafen, New Guinea.[43] By December 1943, Drayton had escorted troops to Arawe, New Britain, then participated in the landings there and at Borgen Bay, near Cape Gloucester, New Britain.[44] The destroyer took part in the invasion of Los Negros Island, Admiralty Islands, during February 1944. She reported to the 7th Fleet in October and did patrol and escort duty in the Leyte Gulf, Philippines. In December 1944, while screening a convoy to San Pedro Bay, Philippines, a Japanese bomber attacked Drayton, killing two men and wounding seven. The next day, she fought-off enemy fighters; one crashed into a 5"/38 caliber gun mount, killing six men and wounding twelve. By August 1945 she was on her way to New York, arriving there in September. Drayton was decommissioned in October 1945 and sold for scrap in December 1946. She received 11 battle stars for her World War II service.[19]

Lamson[edit | edit source]

Lamson on fire at Ormoc Bay, Philippine Islands, December 1944

USS Lamson shipped out of Norfolk, Virginia, in June 1937 for San Diego, California, less than a year after her Naval service began. She engaged in exercises and tactical training until sailing for Pearl Harbor in October 1939. For the next two years, Lamson continued training from her base in Hawaii. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, she joined the post-attack efforts to search for the Japanese strike force.[20] In February 1942 she became part of the newly formed ANZAC Squadron, consisting of Australian, New Zealand, and American warships in Suva, Fiji Islands.[45] The following month, she operated with the squadron as a covering group southeast of Papua New Guinea.[46] In late November 1942, Lamson was assigned to Task Force 67 and took part in the Battle of Tassafaronga.[42]

For the next eight months, Lamson screened convoys en route to Guadalcanal. By August 1943, Lamson had moved on to Milne Bay, New Guinea, participating in the September amphibious landings at Lea and Finchhaffen. In December, Lamson engaged in the pre-invasion bombardment of Arawe and landings at Cape Gloucester, New Britain. After an overhaul and training at Pearl Harbor, Lamson joined the 7th Fleet in October 1944.[20] In early December 1944, Lamson participated in the amphibious landing at Ormoc Bay, Leyte, Philippine Islands. There she was struck by a Kamikaze that ignited the ship, killed 21 men and injured 50. Her fires were extinguished by a rescue tug and Lamson was saved.[47] After extensive repairs in the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, she returned to the Pacific and operated off Iwo Jima, returning to the U.S. in November 1945. In May 1946, she participated in the Atomic Bomb ABLE test and was sunk in the atomic explosion in July 1946. Lamson received five battle stars for her World War II service.[20]

Flusser[edit | edit source]

Flusser underway – date inknown

USS Flusser steamed her way to San Diego, California, in July 1937, after spending the first months of her Naval service in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. She was based in San Diego until 1939, then reassigned to Pearl Harbor. Flusser was at sea when the Japanese struck Pearl Harbor, but took part in the post-attack search. For the next six months, she carried out convoy duty between Pearl Harbor and the west coast, and engaged in escort and patrol duty out of southwest Pacific ports. From July 1942 to February 1943, Flusser was in overhaul status at Pearl Harbor. She returned to escort and training operations in the Solomon Islands and was later based at Milne Bay, New Guinea.[21] During September, Flusser was part of the amphibious landing forces at Lae and Finchhaffen, New Guinea.[48] In December 1943, the destroyer participated in the bombardment and landings at Arawe and Cape Gloucester, New Britain.[44] While attached to the Seventh Fleet in February, she supported the landing of troops at Los Negros Island in the Admiralty Islands. Between April and June 1944, Flusser was back in the yard for overhaul, this time at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard.[21]

After her overhaul, Flusser returned to Pearl Harbor. In August, she escorted a convoy to Eniwetok and moved on to Majuro. There, she carried out patrol duty of bypassed Japanese-held atolls in the Marshall Islands.[21] While on one of her patrols, Flusser became the target of a shore battery off Wotje Atoll that left nine of her crew members wounded.[49] In October, she sailed north to San Pedro Bay for duty in the Leyte Gulf and Surigao Strait. By early December 1944, Flusser had escorted convoys from Hollandia (Jayapura) to Leyte and taken part in the amphibious landing at Ormoc Bay. In March 1945, Flusser provided escort support for the landing near Cebu in the Philippines.[21] During June she participated in the Balikpapan, Borneo, campaign, escorting ships and covering the landing.[50] After occupation duty in Okinawa during September and October, she sailed to San Diego, California, arriving there in November 1945. During the summer of 1946, Flusser took part in the atomic weapons tests in the Marshall Islands. From there, she steamed to Pearl Harbor, then to Norfolk, Virginia. The destroyer was decommissioned there in December 1946 and sold in January 1948. Flusser received eight battle stars for her World War II service.[21]

Reid[edit | edit source]

Reid off Mare Island in 1943

USS Reid came into the service of the United States Navy in November 1936. From 1937 until 1941, she participated in training and fleet maneuvers in both the Atlantic and Pacific.[22] Reid was berthed at Pearl Harbor when the Japanese attacked on 7 December 1941, but she escaped without damage. Her gunners fired at the enemy attackers and in due course she headed out to sea.[51] After the attack, Reid did patrol duty in the Hawaiian waters. During the ensuing months, she escorted conveys to San Francisco, California, and returned to Pearl Harbor. Late in May 1942, Reid steamed north to bombard the Japanese positions in Kiska and supported landings at Adak, Alaska.[22] While conducting an anti-submarine patrol in August, she brought a Japanese submarine to the surface with a heavy depth charge barrage. Once surfaced, Reid opened fire on the submarine until it capsized and sunk. Five of the submarine’s crew survived and were rescued by Reid.[52] By October, she was patrolling the waters near New Caledonia, Samoa, and the Fiji Islands. In January 1943, Reid bombarded several Japanese locations on Guadalcanal.[22]

During September 1943, Reid provided support for the landings at Lae and Finchhafen, New Guinea. In December, Reid escorted troop transports for the landings at Arwe, New Britain, and participated in the landings at Cape Gloucester, New Britain. The following months she supported the landings at Los Negros Island, Admiralty Islands, followed by those at Hollandia, Wakde Island, Biak, and Noemfoor, New Guinea. Reid supported air strikes against Wake Island, and in November 1944 did patrol duty off Leyte in the Philippine Islands.[22] On 11 December 1944, Reid was operating with a convoy bound for Ormoc Bay, Leyte, to resupply the land forces there. Late that afternoon, a group of Japanese planes descended on the convoy and penetrated the defense, taking aim at Reid and another destroyer. In turn, the destroyers put up an anti-aircraft barrage that splashed some of the planes and damaged others. However, Reid became the focus and was hit by five suicide planes, causing powerful explosions. Within minutes, she went to the bottom. Over a hundred men perished.[53] Reid received seven battle stars for her World War II service.[22]

Case[edit | edit source]

USS Case began active duty in September 1936 and was assigned to the Pacific Fleet. In April 1940, Pearl Harbor became her home base. The year following, she participated in fleet exercises to Midway Island, Johnston Island, Palmyra Atoll, Samoa, and Auckland, New Zealand. Case was berthed at Pearl Harbor when the Japanese struck on 7 December 1941, but sustained no damage. After the attack, she escorted convoys between the west coast and Pearl Harbor until late May 1942. Case went north to support the pre-invasion bombardment of Kiska and do patrol duty off Adak, Alaska. In October, Case escorted a convoy to Pearl Harbor, then headed to the states for repair, returning to Pearl Harbor in November 1942. In January 1943, she sailed to Espiritu Santo for training and remained there until September. After overhaul in San Francisco, California, Case returned to Pearl Harbor in December 1943.[23] She proceeded to the Marshall Islands, taking part in attacks on Wotje Atoll and Maloelap Atoll in late January and Eniwetok in early February 1944. [54]

In April 1944, Case took part in air raids on Hollandia, Truk (Chuuk Lagoon), Satawan, and Ponape Island (Pohnpei). Her next assignment was with Task Group 58.4, participating in strikes on Japanese airfields in the Bonin Islands.[23] During June 1944, Case engaged in raids on the Mariana Islands and Vulcan Islands.[55] Following repair work at Eniwetok, Case resumed operations with the task group: screening for air strikes in July and attacks on the Bonin Islands in August and September. She took part in the bombardment of Marcus Island, before joining Task Group 38.1 for strikes on Luzon. While screening US cruisers bound for Saipan, Case rammed and sunk a Japanese midget submarine. Undamaged, she sailed to Saipan for offshore patrol duty until early December 1944.[23] Afterward, Case became involved in a raid on Iwo Jima airfields and helped sink two Japanese ships.[56] Following repairs at Saipan, she returned to Iwo Jima for patrol duty. Then, back to Saipan, where Case performed duties between Saipan and Iwo Jima until the end of the war. She left Iwo Jima for Norfolk, Virginia, where she was decommissioned in December 1945 and sold in December 1947. Case received seven battle stars for her World War II service.[23]

Conyngham[edit | edit source]

Conyngham off Mare Island January 1942

USS Conyngham made her maiden voyage to northern Europe in the spring of 1937, shortly after being commissioned. Following an overhaul in Boston, she sailed to San Diego, California. From October 1937 until April 1940, Conyngham operated along the west coast, the Hawaiian Islands and the Caribbean, then made her way to Pearl Harbor.[24] In March 1941, Conyngham left Pearl Harbor on a goodwill tour to Samoa, Sydney and Brisbane, Australia, and Suva, Tahiti, returning in April 1941.[57] Undamaged by the Japanese attack on 7 December 1941, she put to sea on patrol duty that continued through December. After a brief overhaul at the Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Conyngham performed escort duty between the west coast and New Hebrides. Her escort assignment was interrupted to screen carriers in the battle of Midway Island in June 1942.[24]

During October 1942, Conyngham participated in the battle of the Santa Cruz Islands and supported the attack at the Matanikau River, Guadalcanal.[58] In June 1943 she joined an amphibious force, which later carried out landings at Lae and Finchhafen, New Guinea.[48] In December, she took part in the landings at Arawe and Cape Gloucester, New Britain.[59] The next month, Conyngham participated in the landing at Saidor, New Guinea, and sailed to San Francisco for overhaul. Returning to duty in May 1944, she screened battleships in the Marianas Islands and remained there until August. Conyngham played a role in the landings at Leyte Gulf and ended the war at Subic Bay. Decommissioned in December 1946, Conyngham was used in the atomic weapons test at Bikini and sunk July 1948. She received 14 battle stars for her World War II service.[24]

Cassin[edit | edit source]

Cassin (capsized, right) and Downes (left) at Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941, shortly after the Japanese attack.

USS Cassin began naval service in August 1936, but alterations kept her from sea until March 1937. The next year, she joined forces at Pearl Harbor for annual fleet exercises. In April 1940, Cassin was assigned to a Hawaiian unit.[25] When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, Cassin was in dry-dock with the battleship Pennsylvania and the destroyer Downes. Both destroyers were at the southern end of the dock when an incendiary bomb struck Downes, starting unstoppable fires on both destroyers. Later, Cassin slipped off her blocks and rolled over on the burning Downes. Cassin was decommissioned, but enough of her was salvaged for another warship.[60]

Cassin was rebuilt and commissioned again in February 1944. She reported to Pearl Harbor in April and pulled escort duty until August.[25] In October, Cassin took part in the shelling of Marcus Island to destroy enemy installations.[61] After participating in the bombardment of Iwo Jima in November 1944 and January 1945, she escorted an ammunition ship to the newly invaded Iwo Jima. There, Cassin did radar picket and air-sea rescue duty.[25] With the war over, she took part in guarding the air evacuation of released prisons of war from Japan. In November 1945, Cassin deployed to Norfolk, Virginia, and decommissioned there in December 1945. She was sold for scrap in November 1947. Cassin received six battle stars for her World War II service.[25]

Shaw[edit | edit source]

Shaw exploding during Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941.

USS Shaw crossed the Atlantic on her shakedown cruise in April 1937, and returned to the Philadelphia Navy Yard in June. There, she began a year of yard work before completing acceptance trials. For the remainder of the year, Shaw conducted training exercises in the Atlantic. Sailing to the west coast, she was at the Mare Island Navy Yard from January to April 1939. By April 1940, Shaw moved on to Hawaiian waters, then back to the west coast in November for overhaul. She returned to Hawaii in February 1941, and later entered the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard for repairs.[26] On 7 December 1941, Shaw was still in dry dock when the Japanese attacked. She was hit by three bombs and severely damaged, with most of the ship’s crew ashore. Temporary repairs were made at Pearl Harbor and in February 1942 Shaw sailed to the west coast to complete them.[62]

With repairs completed, Shaw returned to Pearl Harbor in August 1942. She was then assigned to Task Force 61 and took part in the Battle of Santa Cruz Islands in mid-October. Reassigned to a unit of the 7th Amphibious Force, Shaw escorted reinforcements to Lae and Finchhafen, New Guinea, for the remainder of October and part of November. In late December, she escorted units engaged in the assault on Cape Gloucester, New Britain, where Shaw sustained casualties and damage. Thirty-six men were injured; three later died of their wounds. Temporary repairs were made at Milne Bay, New Guinea, and permanent repairs completed at San Francisco in May 1944. Shaw then returned to Pearl Harbor.[26] With Task Force 52, she participated in the offensive to regain the Japanese-held Mariana Islands.[63] In January 1945, with the San Fabian Attack Force, Shaw saw action at Manila Bay in the Philippine Islands.[64] She returned to the United States in April: stopping first at San Francisco for repairs, then routed to New York via Philadelphia for deactivation. Shaw was decommissioned in October 1945 and sold for scrap in July 1946. Shaw received 11 battle stars for her World War II service.[26]

Tucker[edit | edit source]

Tucker off the Norfolk Navy Yard in 1937.

USS Tucker was commissioned as a US Navy destroyer in July 1936. After her shakedown cruise, she joined the destroyer forces attached to the US Battle Fleet based in San Diego, California. In February 1939 the ship took part in a naval exercise in the Caribbean, personally observed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt from the cruiser Houston. After exercises in Hawaiian waters during the spring of 1940, Tucker operated between the west coast and Hawaii until the end of the year. By February 1941, she was back in Pearl Harbor. Tucker went on a goodwill tour that included Auckland, New Zealand, during March, before returning to Pearl Harbor. There, she participated in exercises at sea before sailing on to San Diego. By November 1941, Tucker was once again in Pearl Harbor.[27] When the Japanese attacked on 7 December 1941, Tucker was berthed at East Loch undergoing tender overhaul. She was undamaged, and returned fire on the Japanese forces.[51]

After the hostilities, Tucker patrolled off Pearl Harbor; then spent the next five months escorting convoys between the west coast and Hawaii. She later escorted the tender Wright to Tutuila, American Samoa, Suva, Fiji Islands, and to Noumea, New Caledonia. Tucker then escorted Wright back to Suva, arriving there during the month of June 1942. From Suva, she escorted the cargo ship Nira Luckenbach to Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, in August.[27] Tucker entered the harbor by the western entrance, striking a mine(s) that demolished her. The crew abandoned ship and was rescued by nearby vessels. Efforts to save her were in vain; she eventually jack-knifed and went to the bottom.[65] Tucker had steamed into a minefield placed there by US forces, but she was never informed of its existence. Three men were killed and three more were listed as missing. She was removed from the Navy list in December 1944. Tucker received one battle star for her World War II service.[27]

Downes[edit | edit source]

Downes left, Cassin right, at Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941, shortly after Japanese attack.

USS Downes entered the service of the US Navy in January 1937. The following November, she sailed from Norfolk, Virginia, to San Diego, California. While based there, Downes participated in exercises along the west coast, the Caribbean and in Hawaiian waters until April 1940. Pearl Harbor became her homeport. During the spring of 1941, Downes joined a cruise to Samoa, the Fiji Islands, and Australia, then visited the west coast later in the year.[28] When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, Downes was in dry-dock with battleship Pennsylvania and destroyer Cassin. Both destroyers were at the southern end of the dock when an incendiary bomb struck Downes, starting unstoppable fires on both ships. Later, Cassin slipped her blocks and rolled over onto the burning Downes. She was later decommissioned, but enough of Downes was salvaged for another warship.[66]

Downes was rebuilt and recommissioned in November 1943. During March 1944, she escorted a convoy to Pearl Harbor and on to Majuro in the Marshall Islands. By July, Downes began escort duty from Eniwetok to Saipan in support of the invasion of the Mariana Islands. Then she patrolled off Tinian during its invasion, and gave fire support during mop-up operations there.[28] Afterward, Downes took part in the bombardment of Marcus Island to create a diversion and destroy Japanese installations. Admiral Halsey later expressed his approval for accomplishing the desired results.[61] During the Battle of Leyte Gulf, Downes screened carriers during the air strikes on the Japanese fleet. She served in Iwo Jima from June 1944 until the end of the war. With the War’s end, Downes was ordered to return to the United States and arrived at Norfolk in November 1945. She was decommissioned in December 1945 and sold in November 1947. Downes received four battle stars for her World War II service.[28]

Cushing[edit | edit source]

Cushing off Puget Sound Navy Yard, Bremerton – 1936

USS Cushing reported to the Pacific Fleet in August 1936, soon after her Navy service began. She joined the unsuccessful search for the missing aviatrix Amelia Earhart during the month of July 1937. Then she moved on to San Diego for training exercises, continuing to operate on the west coast for the next several years. Cushing was under overhaul at the Mare Island Navy Yard when the Japanese struck Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941. Following the attack, she did convoy duty between the west coast and Pearl Harbor, and later operated off Midway Island on antisubmarine patrol. In August 1942, Cushing sailed to Pearl Harbor for training exercises and later joined operations around Guadalcanal.[29]

With Task Force 61, Cushing took part in the bitterly contested Battle of Santa Cruz in October 1942.[67] Outnumbered, the force stalled the Japanese from their advance toward Guadalcanal.[68] At the Battle of Guadalcanal, Cushing was perhaps the first US ship to strike the enemy on that November day in 1942. In the fighting that followed, she sustained several hits amidships and slowly began to lose power. Yet, Cushing was able to fire six torpedoes, by local control, at a Japanese battlewagon, with unknown results. By this time, she was dead in the water, an easy target for repeated enemy shelling. The results were disastrous and the order given to abandon ship. Six officers and 53 men were lost. Of the survivors rescued, 56 had been wounded and ten of them suffered fatal injuries. Cushing remained afloat until her magazines blew up, sinking the abandoned destroyer.[69] Cushing received three battle stars for her World War II service.[29]

Perkins[edit | edit source]

Perkins steaming through heavy seas, August 1937

USS Perkins was commissioned in September 1936 and San Diego, California, became her home port. She operated in the eastern Pacific prior to World War II, and was at the Mare Island Navy Yard when the Japanese struck Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. In mid-December, she escorted a convoy to Pearl Harbor, returned to Mare Island for new radar gear, and sailed back to Pearl Harbor in the latter part of January 1942. The following month, Perkins departed Pearl Harbor and joined Australian, New Zealand, and other US ships in the ANZAC Squadron, charged with protecting the eastern approaches to Australia and New Zealand. She continued operations with ANZAC until spring.[30] In May 1942, Perkins participated in the Battle of the Coral Sea.[70] After that, propeller problems took her to New Zealand and to Pearl Harbor, where the repairs were completed. While at Pearl Harbor, additional radar gear and 40mm guns were installed.[30]

By November 1942 Perkins was with Task Force 67, led by Rear Admiral Carleton H. Wright. When the force was ordered to intercept the Japanese and stop them from supplying Guadalcanal, the night Battle of Tassafaronga took place.[71] Undamaged in the encounter, Perkins headed for Tulagi where she bombarded the Guadalcanal coast and served on escort assignments until January 1943.[30] She joined Task Force 76, an amphibious group, in March.[72] In September 1943, Perkins bombarded Lae, New Guinea, and supported the landings there.[73] She took part in the successful landings at Finschafen, New Guinea.[74] Late in November, Perkins was bound from Milne Bay to Buna, steaming independently, when an Australian troopship rammed her. Within a short time, Perkins broke in two and sank; nine of the crew went down with her. A court of inquiry found the captain, the navigator, and the officer of the deck at fault for the collision.[75] Perkins received four battle stars for her World War II service.[30]

Smith[edit | edit source]

Smith burning after being hit by Japanese torpedo plane, October 1942.

USS Smith began her US naval service in September 1936, and operated on the west coast for the next five years. From the start of World War II until April 1942, she was based in San Francisco, California, attached to a destroyer squadron. In June, Smith was in Pearl Harbor, engaged in training exercises, then escorted a convoy back to San Francisco. After overhaul and sea trials in the bay area, Smith returned to Pearl Harbor in August. By October she was part of Task Force 61, participating in the Battle of Santa Cruz.[31] In the course of the battle, a Japanese torpedo plane crashed into her; the explosion ignited the forward part of the ship. The crew eventually extinguished the fires, and Smith was able to retain her position in the screen. When the air cleared, 28 were dead and 23 wounded.[76] She was patched up enough in New Caledonia to make her way to Pearl Harbor, where she was under overhaul until February 1943. The next few months, Smith performed anti-submarine patrols, did convoy duty, and participated in Navy exercises. In September and October, she was part of the amphibious landings at Lae and Finschafen, New Guinea. In late December 1943 Smith was attached to Task Force 76, and took part in landing a Marine division at Cape Gloucester, New Britain.[31]

In January 1944, Smith participated in the amphibious landing near Saidor, New Guinea, led by Rear Admiral Daniel E. Barbey.[77] In February, she bombarded designated targets in preparation for the landing at Los Negros in the Admiralty Islands. By the middle of March, Smith sailed to the west coast for overhaul. Completed in June, she returned to Pearl Harbor for training exercises and gunnery practice. Attached to the 7th Fleet in October, Smith sailed to the Leyte Gulf in the Philippine Islands. There, she was positioned northeast of Ponson Island as a fighter director ship for the landing at Ormoc Bay in December 1944.[31] During January 1945, Smith supported the landings in Lingayen Gulf, Philippine Islands.[78] In late June, she bombarded Balikpapan, Borneo, in preparation for the landing by an Australian unit. The next month Smith returned to the Philippines, followed by a trip to Japan in August 1945. In September she sailed to San Diego, then returned to Pearl Harbor in January 1946 and assumed an inactive status. Smith was decommissioned in June 1946 and struck from the Navy list in February 1947. Smith received six battle stars for her World War II service.[31]

Preston[edit | edit source]

Preston underway in the 1930s

USS Preston was in the service of the US Navy from October 1936 until November 1942. Following shakedown, she served briefly under the Chief of Naval Operations, then joined the US Fleet. Preston did peacetime training exercises into the month of December 1941, and performed patrol and escort duties along the west coast until June 1942. After that, she screened the carrier Saratoga to Hawaii, followed by four months of exercises: patrol and escort work in Hawaiian waters.[32]

In October she became part of Task Force 61, and participated in the battle of Santa Cruz.[79] In mid-November 1942, Preston sailed to the western end of Guadalcanal to intercept another run by the Japanese to bombard Henderson Field (Guadalcanal). In the ensuing skirmish, Preston was hit by a salvo from a Japanese cruiser that put both fire rooms out of commission and toppled the after stack. Her fires made an easy target; as they spread, the order was given to abandon ship. Afterward, Preston rolled onto her side, floated and sank, taking 116 of her crew with her. Preston received two battle stars for her World War II service.[32][80]

Dunlap[edit | edit source]

Dunlap firing a torpedo from starboard waist torpedo tubes, July 1942.

USS Dunlap became part of the US Navy in June 1937. A year later, she served as an escort at Philadelphia for SS Kungsholm, which carried the crown Prince of Sweden. By April 1940, Pearl Harbor was Dunlap's home port. When the Japanese attacked on 7 December 1941, Dunlap was at sea bound for Pearl Harbor; she entered port the following day. In January, she sortied for air strikes on the Marshall Islands, and in February she took part in a raid on Wake Island. Afterward, Dunlap patrolled the Hawaiian waters, escorted convoys between various ports on the west coast and returned to Pearl Harbor in October 1942. In December, the destroyer moved on to Noumea, New Caledonia, and operated from that base until July 1943.[33] Dunlap saw action at Vella Gulf in the Solomon Islands, which was a nighttime torpedo clash. In United States Destroyer Operations in World War II (1953), Theodore Roscoe wrote: "In the Battle of Vella Gulf, as this engagement was called, the enemy had not laid a hand on the American ships."[81]

After overhaul in San Diego, Dunlap performed patrol duty out of Adak, Alaska, in November and December of 1943 and sailed to Pearl Harbor. From January until March of 1944, she screened carriers in strikes on the Marshall Islands with the 5th Fleet. After that, Dunlap took part in strikes on the Soerabaja area of Java in May and returned to Pearl Harbor in June. The following month, she sailed to San Francisco to join the screen for USS Baltimore (CA-68), which carried President Franklin D. Roosevelt for conferences and inspections with top Pacific commanders of Pearl Harbor and Alaskan bases.[33] In early September 1944, Dunlap participated in the shelling of Wake Island.[82] In October 1944, she lent a hand in the bombardment of Marcus Island.[83] By January 1945, Dunlap was involved in the shelling of Iwo Jima, Haha-jima, and Chichi-jima.[84] On 3 September 1945, Commodore Magruder accepted the surrender of the Bonin Islands by Lt. General Tachibana on board the destroyer. Dunlap sailed to Norfolk, Virginia, in November 1945, where she was decommissioned in December 1945 and sold in December 1947. She received six battle stars for her World War II service.[33]

Fanning[edit | edit source]

Fanning at sea on 18 April 1942, supporting the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo, Japan.

USS Fanning was occupied with sea trials and minor repairs for the first six months of her naval service. But in April 1938, she escorted the light cruiser Philadelphia from Annapolis, Maryland, to the Caribbean with President Franklin D. Roosevelt aboard. Fanning sailed to New York for overhaul the following month; in September she moved on to her new base in San Diego, California. Over the next three years, her duties took her to the east coast and eventually to Hawaii. Fanning was at sea on 7 December 1941 when the Japanese struck Pearl Harbor, returning the following day. Underway for Tutuila in January 1942, Fanning encountered a blinding rainstorm and collided with Gridley. Both destroyers suffered bow damage and were forced to return to Pearl Harbor.[34] In April 1942 Fanning became part of Task Force 16, which supported the Doolittle raid on their air strike against Tokyo, Japan. After the mission, she returned to Pearl Harbor.[85]

For the first nine months of 1943, Fanning deployed against the Japanese on Guadalcanal, supported an occupation force on the Russell Islands, participated in patrol duty, and assisted in the protection of troops occupying Munda Island. In September, she was slated for an overhaul period on the west coast, then finished the year operating off the Aleutian Islands. By January 1944, Fanning was operating with Task Group 58.4 in the Marshall Islands. In March, she was part of the Combined Far Eastern Fleet, launching strikes against Sabang, Indonesia. Detached from the Eastern Fleet in May, Fanning sailed to the west coast. In July she left San Diego, escorting USS Baltimore (CA-68) to Alaska with President Roosevelt on board.[34] Her next assignment was with Task Group 30.2, shelling Marcus Island in October 1944 to create a diversion and destroy enemy installations.[61] During January 1945, Fanning took part in the shelling of Iwo Jima, Haha-jima, and Chichi-Jima.[86] The remainder of the war she was occupied with patrol and escort activities. In September 1945, Fanning sailed for the United States, decommissioned at Norfolk, Virginia, in December 1945 and later sold. Fanning received four battle stars for her World War II service.[34]

See also[edit | edit source]

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Reilly p. 28
  2. 2.0 2.1 Friedman p. 86
  3. Friedman pp. 87 & 88
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Friedman p. 88
  5. 5.0 5.1 Reilly p. 28
  6. Friedman p. 88
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Friedman p. 465
  8. Roscoe p. 20
  9. Hodges and Friedman p. 111
  10. 10.0 10.1 Hodges & Friedman p. 145
  11. Reilly p. 73
  12. Reilly p. 75
  13. McComb p. 9
  14. Reilly pp. 28–29
  15. McComb p. 11
  16. Reilly p. 35
  17. 17.00 17.01 17.02 17.03 17.04 17.05 17.06 17.07 17.08 17.09 17.10 17.11 "Mahan". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/m2/Mahan-ii.htm. Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 18.9 "Cummings". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/c16/-Cummingsii.htm. Retrieved 11 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Cummings" defined multiple times with different content
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 19.9 "Drayton". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/d6/-Drytonii.htm. Retrieved 11 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Drayton" defined multiple times with different content
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 20.9 "Lamson". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/l3/-Lamsonii.htm. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Lamson" defined multiple times with different content
  21. 21.00 21.01 21.02 21.03 21.04 21.05 21.06 21.07 21.08 21.09 21.10 21.11 "Flusser". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/f3/-Flusserii.htm. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Flusser" defined multiple times with different content
  22. 22.00 22.01 22.02 22.03 22.04 22.05 22.06 22.07 22.08 22.09 22.10 22.11 "Reid". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/r4/-Reidii.htm. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Reid" defined multiple times with different content
  23. 23.00 23.01 23.02 23.03 23.04 23.05 23.06 23.07 23.08 23.09 23.10 "Case". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/c4/Case-ii.htm. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Case" defined multiple times with different content
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.8 24.9 "Conyngham". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/c13/Conyngham-ii.htm. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Conyngham" defined multiple times with different content
  25. 25.00 25.01 25.02 25.03 25.04 25.05 25.06 25.07 25.08 25.09 25.10 "Cassin". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/c4/Cassin-ii.htm. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Cassin" defined multiple times with different content
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 26.5 26.6 26.7 26.8 26.9 "Shaw". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/s11/Shaw-ii.htm. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Shaw" defined multiple times with different content
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 27.4 27.5 27.6 27.7 27.8 27.9 "Tucker". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/t9/Tucker-ii.htm. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Tucker" defined multiple times with different content
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 28.6 28.7 28.8 28.9 "Downes". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/d5/Downes-ii.htm. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Downes" defined multiple times with different content
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.6 29.7 29.8 "Coushing". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/c16/Cushing-ii.htm. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Cushing" defined multiple times with different content
  30. 30.00 30.01 30.02 30.03 30.04 30.05 30.06 30.07 30.08 30.09 30.10 "Perkins". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/p5/Perkins-ii.htm. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Perkins" defined multiple times with different content
  31. 31.00 31.01 31.02 31.03 31.04 31.05 31.06 31.07 31.08 31.09 31.10 "Smith". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/s14/Smith-ii.htm. Retrieved 12 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Smith" defined multiple times with different content
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 32.4 32.5 32.6 32.7 32.8 "Preston". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/p11/Preston-ii.htm. Retrieved 13 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Preston" defined multiple times with different content
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 33.4 33.5 33.6 33.7 33.8 33.9 "Dunlap". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/d6/Dunlap-ii.htm. Retrieved 13 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Dunlap" defined multiple times with different content
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 34.5 34.6 34.7 34.8 34.9 "Fanning". Naval History & Heritage Command. http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/f1/Fanning-ii.htm. Retrieved 13 October 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "DANFS_Fanning" defined multiple times with different content
  35. Rohwer & Hummelchen p. 119
  36. Roscoe pp 185–188
  37. Roscoe pp 256–259 & 267-269
  38. Rohwer, p. 303
  39. Rohwer, p. 344
  40. Rohwer, p. 384
  41. Rohwer, p. 404
  42. 42.0 42.1 Roscoe pp. 206–209
  43. Roscoe pp. 256–259
  44. 44.0 44.1 Roscoe pp. 267–269
  45. Rohwer & Hummelchen p. 122
  46. Rohwer & Hummelchen p. 128
  47. Roscoe p. 445
  48. 48.0 48.1 Rohwer pp. 270 & 277
  49. Roscoe p. 394
  50. Rohwer & Hummelchen p. 357
  51. 51.0 51.1 Roscoe pp. 47–48
  52. Roscoe pp.152–153
  53. Roscoe p. 446
  54. Rohwer p. 303
  55. Rohwer p. 335
  56. Rohwer p. 379
  57. Rohwer p. 62
  58. Rohwer p. 207
  59. Rohwer pp. 293–294
  60. Roscoe pp. 46–47
  61. 61.0 61.1 61.2 Roscoe p. 416
  62. Roscoe p. 46
  63. Roscoe pp. 406–408
  64. Roscoe p. 456
  65. Roscoe p. 165
  66. Roscoe pp. 46–47
  67. Roscoe pp. 185–188
  68. Rohwer pp. 205–206
  69. Roscoe pp. 193–194
  70. Roscoe pp. 116–122
  71. Rohwer p. 216
  72. Rohwer p. 239
  73. Rohwer p. 270
  74. Rohwer p. 277
  75. Roscoe pp. 261–262
  76. Roscoe pp. 186–188
  77. Rohwer p. 297
  78. Rohwer p. 383
  79. Rohwer p. 205
  80. Rohwer & Hummelchen p. 176
  81. Roscoe pp. 233–237
  82. Rohwer & Hummelchen p. 301
  83. Rohwer & Hummelchen p. 308
  84. Rohwer & Hummelchen p. 327
  85. Roscoe pp. 115–116
  86. Rohwer p. 384

References[edit | edit source]

  • Friedman, Norman (2004). U.S. Destroyers. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-55750-442-5. 
  • McComb, Dave (2010). US Destroyers 1934–1945. Long Island City, New York: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-443-5. 
  • Reilly, John (1983). United States Navy Destroyers of World War II. Poole, Dorset, England: Blandford Press. ISBN 0-7137-1026-8. 
  • Roscoe, Theodore (1953). United States Destroyer Operations in World War II. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-726-7. 
  • Rohwer, Jürgen (2005). Chronology of the War at Sea, 1939–1945: The Naval History of World War Two. Annapolis, MD: US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-119-2. 
  • Rohwer, Jürgen; Hümmelchen, Gerhard (1992). Chronology Of The War At Sea 1939–1945. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-105-X. 



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