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Malaysian Army
Tentera Darat Malaysia
تنترا دارت مليسيا
150px
Flag and Crest of Malaysian Army
army.mod.gov.my
Active Since 1 March 1933, but started under Penang rifle volunteers in 1861
Country  Malaysia
Allegiance King of Malaysia
Branch Malaysian Armed Forces
Type Army
Role Defence and Dominance of Malaysia's soil
Size 80,000[1] active personnel
50,000[1] reserve
Motto(s) Gagah Setia (English: Strong and Loyal)
Colors       Red and       Gold
Anniversaries 1 March
Engagements World War II
1st Malayan Emergency (1948-1960)
2nd Malayan Emergency (1968-1989)
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation
United Nations Operation in the Congo
Battle of Mogadishu
Kosovo War
United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group
2006 East Timorese Crisis (OA)
MALCON-UNIFIL
United Nations Protection Force
ISAF
2013 Lahad Datu standoff
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief Tuanku Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah, Yang di-Pertuan Agong
Ceremonial chief General Raja Mohamed Affandi Raja Mohamed Noor

The Malaysian Army (Malay language: Tentera Darat Malaysia; Jawi: تنترا دارت مليسيا) is the land component of the Malaysian Armed Forces. Steeped in British Army traditions, the Malaysian Army does not carry the title ‘royal’ (diraja) as do the Royal Malaysian Air Force and the Royal Malaysian Navy. Instead, the title is bestowed on selected army corps and regiments who have been accorded the honour by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, who is the Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces.

History[edit | edit source]

Circa October 1941, Malay Regiment operatives at a bayonet practice before the Battle of Singapore.

The first military units in Malaysia can be traced back to the Malay States Volunteer Rifles which existed from 1915 to 1936. The birth of the Malaysian Army came about when the Federal Council of the Federated Malay States passed the Malay Regiment Bill on 23 January 1933. This allowed the initial recruitment of 25 males for the First Experimental Malay Company on 1 March 1933. Major G. McI. S. Bruce of the Lincolnshire Regiment was the first Commanding Officer.

By 1 January 1935, the Experimental Company became The Malay Regiment with a complement of 150 men. A battalion was formed on 1 January 1938 and eventually a second battalion on 1 December 1941.

The 1st Bn Malay Regiment was famous for its defence of Opium Hill or Bukit Chandu in Singapore. The ‘Battle of Opium Hill’ on 14 February 1942 involved 42 soldiers commanded by Lt. Adnan Bin Saidi who defended their position against attack from the 18th Division of the Japanese Imperial Army under Lt. Gen. Renya Mutaguchi. After World War II and during the Malayan Emergency, the number of battalions was increased to 7 in the early 50s.

The Kor Armor DiRaja (Royal Armoured Corps) can trace its roots to the formation on 1 September 1952 of the Federation Reconnaissance Squadron. It was later merged with the Federation Regiment to form the Federation Reconnaissance Corps. The name underwent a few transformations from the Malaysian Reconnaissance Corps (16 September 1967), Royal Malaysian Reconnaissance Corps (May 1979) to Royal Cavalry Corps (December 1979) and finally to Kor Armor DiRaja (Royal Armoured Corps) on 8 December 1986.

Organization and structure[edit | edit source]

Malaysian Army is located in Malaysia
2nd Div
3rd Div
and
10th Abn Bde
11th Bde
Special
Forces
Bde
Malaysian Army major combat unit locations
Source: Jane's World Armies Issue 23, 2008

See also Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces

The Malaysian Army is currently organised into four Divisions and are placed under the Field Army Headquarters. Three of which (the 2nd, 3rd and 4th Divisions) are based in the Malaysian Peninsular, while the fourth (the 1st Division) is based in East Malaysia. The Grup Gerak Khas (Special Forces group), 10th Parachute Brigade and the Pasukan Udara Tentera Darat (army aviation) are independent formations and directly subordinate to the Chief of the Army.

The Malaysian Army currently has 17 Corps or Regiments. These are grouped into 3 main components: the Combat Element, the Combat Support Element and the Support Elements.

Soldiers from the Malaysian Army secure a portion of jungle after arriving in a landing craft, air cushion, (LCAC) vehicle from USS Boxer (LHD-4) during Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) Malaysia.

Rank Structure[edit | edit source]

The Malaysian Army uses a rank structure [1] inherited from the British Army. the Malaysian Army rank structure has 17 levels from Private (Prebet) to General (Jeneral). These ranks are divided into 2 groups - Officer (Pegawai) and Other Ranks (Lain-Lain Pangkat) which includes the Non-Commissioned Officer (Pegawai Tanpa Tauliah) ranks.

Officers[edit | edit source]

Officers are sub-divided into 3 groups:-

Senior Officers This group consists of officers holding the ranks of Lieutenant Colonel (Leftenan Kolonel), Colonel (Kolonel), Brigadier General (Brigedier Jeneral), Major General (Mejar Jeneral), Lieutenant General (Leftenan Jeneral) and General (Jeneral)

Field Officers Field Officers are officers holding the rank of Major (Mejar)

Junior Officers This group consists of Second Lieutenant (Leftenan Muda), Lieutenant (Leftenan) and Captain (Kapten) grade officers.

Other Ranks This group begins at Private (Prebet) and works its way up to Warrant Officer I (Pegawai Waran I). This is further subdivided into 3 groups:

Senior NCO (PTT Kanan) This group includes NCOs holding the rank of Sergeant (Sarjan), Staff Sergeant (Staff Sarjan), Warrant Officer II (Pegawai Waran II) and Warrant Officer I (Pegawai Waran I).

Junior NCO (PTT Rendah) This group includes NCOs holding the rank of Lance Corporal (Lans Koperal) and Corporal (Koperal).

Private (Prebet) Private soldiers in the Malaysian Army do not wear any rank devices on their uniform. There are no distinctions made between junior or senior Privates.

Corps and regiments[edit | edit source]

Combat element[edit | edit source]

Malaysian Army Condor APC's in Somalia (UNOSOM II)

This is the most senior regiment of the Malaysian Army. Its ranks are recruited from amongst the Malay population. The Regiment has 25 battalions. The 1st Battalion, the most senior in the Regiment, currently undertakes ceremonial and Royal Guard duties. The remainder are configured as 20 Standard Infantry Battalions, two Mechanised Infantry Battalions and two Parachute Infantry Battalions. The regiment uses rifle green berets except two battalions that wear maroon berets. See 17 RAMD Para Weblog The 19th Bn Royal Malay Regiment (Mech) was involved in the rescue of US Rangers and Delta Force operatives in Somalia during the Battle of Mogadishu. The unit of 32 Radpanzer Condor APCs and 113 men from MALBATT 1 went in with the United States 10th Mountain Division to rescue the trapped Rangers. Four APCs were immobilised and were destroyed by US helicopter gunships. 19 Royal Malay Regiment suffered 1 soldier killed in action (KIA), PFC Mat Aznan Awang while 8 others were wounded in action (WIA). Pfc Mat Aznan Awang was later promoted posthumously to Corporal and was awarded with Pingat Seri Pahlawan Gagah Perkasa, the nation's highest gallantry award. In total, 7 officers and 26 NCOs were awarded various medals for their valour during the operation, the highest number of men recommended for medals in a single unit in a single operation.

Kapten Norul Hisyam of the 8th Royal Ranger Regiment, Malaysian Army, teaches patrol, ambush, and jungle attack to U.S. Marines and sailors.

This is a multi-racial unit organised along similar lines to the Rejimen Askar Melayu DiRaja. There are currently 10 battalions within this regiment. The Regiment traces its roots to the Sarawak Rangers and the Sarawak Constabulary, famed jungle trackers who had a deadly reputation during the Malayan Emergency and during the Communist Party of Malaya’s insurgency in Malaysia. The 8th Bn Royal Ranger Regiment (8 Renjer) was the first infantry battalion in the Malaysian Army to undergo conversion into an airborne battalion. The unit is currently assigned to the elite 10 Brigade (Para). The Malaysian Army's most decorated soldier, WOI (Rtd) Kanang anak Langkau was a Regimental Sergeant Major of 8 Ranger .

This is a newly created regiment from the 300 series Territorial Army units in charge of the border. The Deputy Prime Minister and Defense Minister Dato Seri Najib Tun Razak announced on 1 July 2006 the formation of a new regiment specifically for border patrol. Members of the regiment will be taken from various regiments and corps, most notably from the Rejimen Askar Wataniah. It is believed that the army will form about 2 to 3 brigades of this new regiment.[2][3] The new regiment was officially raised on 9 February 2008 by Najib Tun Razak at Tanah Merah, Kelantan.[4]

  • Kor Armor DiRaja (Royal Armoured Corps) provides the armour capability for the Malaysian Army. Currently, the Corps consists of 5 battalions (sometimes errantly referred to as Regiments), which are equipped with various armoured personnel carriers (SIBMAS AFSV-90, Rheinmetall Condor, K-200 MIFV) and light combat vehicles. Rejimen ke-11 of the Kor Armor DiRaja is the sole user of 48 PT-91M Main Battle Tanks from Poland.

Combat Support element[edit | edit source]

  • Kor Polis Tentera DiRaja (Royal Military Police Corps) deploys as part of the field army, in support of army operations, and enforces proper conduct among army personnel. Aside from being responsible for base security, the military police are also tasked with preventing and investigating criminal activities on army property or by military personnel.
  • Rejimen Askar Jurutera DiRaja (Royal Engineers Regiment) is tasked with demolitions, bridge-laying and the repair of military infrastructure, such as airbase runways, or clearing obstacles in emergency situations.

Support elements[edit | edit source]

  • Kor Ordnans DiRaja (Royal Ordnance Corps) ensures that all military supplies and ordnance are stored, secured and inventoried properly.
  • Kor Agama Angkatan Tentera (Armed Forces Religious Corps) (KAGAT) performs religious (chaplainry) services for Muslim and Christian personnel of the Malaysian Army. It also provides counselling and conducts ritual prayers on the battlefield.
  • Kor Perkhidmatan DiRaja (Royal Logistics Corps) is in charge of transporting troops and supplies to the various units of the Malaysian Army.
  • Kor Kesihatan DiRaja (Royal Medical Corps) provides training for Army medics and other specialists. It runs the Armed Forces hospitals and provides the battlefield mobile hospitals. The unit has also provided relief MALMEDTIMs (Malaysian Medical Teams) to Pakistan, Afghanistan [2], West Sahara, Indonesia and Palestine.
  • Kor Perkhidmatan Am (General Services Corps) handles administration and financial management for the entire army.

Special Forces[edit | edit source]

  • Rejimen Gerak Khas (Special Forces Regiment) is the Malaysian Army's special forces and commando regiment. 21 Gerup Gerak Khas is the operational home of various specialists and the Commando battalions, which are capable of conducting unconventional warfare or special operations. One of the known foreign operations involving this regiment lead by the lagendary Kolonel Amsyar was in an attack by Somali militia on a convoy transporting UN Intelligence Chief in UNOSOM II on 18 July 1994. In the action, two members of the regiment were killed in action, while another four were wounded. Kolonel Amsyar survived during the firefight and kill hundreds of militia. One of the injured men was taken hostage by the militia and was released nine hours later.
  • 10 Paratrooper Brigade is an elite airborne unit tasked with being rapidly deployed inside or outside the boundaries of Malaysia. 10th Para is the key element of the Malaysian Rapid Deployment Force (Pasukan Aturgerak Cepat; PAC) and it is Malaysia primary main offensive force in time of war or emergencies.

Air unit[edit | edit source]

Reserves[edit | edit source]

  • Rejimen Askar Wataniah (Territorial Army) forms the second line of Malaysia's defence. Formed by college students, professionals and civilians, it provides support for the regular armed forces of Malaysia and is responsible for the security of key installations in times of conflict. Originally tasked with area and local defence, the Rejimen Askar Wataniah units have been reconfigured and will perform front line duties alongside regular units when the need arises. Rejimen Askar Wataniah units, such as armoured squadrons, are integral units of several Kor Armor DiRaja regiments.

Strength[edit | edit source]

The personnel strength of the Malaysian Army is approximately 80,000 personnel in the Active Army,[5] 50,000 in the Active Reserve[5] and 26,600 active and 244,700 reservists[5] in the Paramilitary.

The Malaysian Army consists of 4 infantry divisions, 9 infantry brigades, 1 special forces brigade, 1 airborne brigade and 1 mechanised brigade,[5] composed of:

  • 36 Light Infantry Battalions[5]
  • 3 Airborne Infantry Battalions[5]
  • 3 Mechanized Infantry Battalions[5]
  • 5 Armoured battalions (1 Tank Regiment)[5]
  • 1 light tank squadron[5]
  • 13 Artillery Regiments (3 Air Defence)[5]
  • 3 Special Forces Regiments[5]
  • 3 field engineer regiments[5]
  • 1 airborne infantry squadron[5]
  • 1 construction regiment[5]
  • 4 military police regiments[5]
  • 1 signals regiment[5]
  • 1 intelligence unit[5]
  • 1 helicopter squadron[5]

The territorial army includes:

  • 16 light infantry regiments[6]
  • 2 border surveillance brigades[6]
  • 5 highway surveillance battalions[6]
  • 2 field engineer regiments[6]

Equipment[edit | edit source]

Infantry Weapons[edit | edit source]

Picture Model Type Caliber Version Origin Notes
Pistol
80px Browning Hi-Power Semi-Automatic Pistol 9x19mm Parabellum Standard  Belgium Standard issue sidearms for senior-rank officers and special forces
HK P9S PDRM.jpg Heckler & Koch P9 Semi-Automatic Pistol 9x19mm Parabellum Standard  Germany Issued to some infantry units
Assault rifle
AUG A1 508mm 04.jpg Steyr AUG Assault rifle 5.56×45mm NATO AUG A1  Austria Made under license by SME Ordnance Sdn Bhd. Standard issue
PEO M4 Carbine RAS M68 CCO.jpg M4 carbine Assault rifle/Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO M4A1 United States Made under license by SME Ordnance Sdn Bhd.[7] Standard issue
M16A1 brimob.jpg M16 Assault rifle 5.56×45mm NATO M16A1 United States In service with reserve and Territorial Army Regiment
AR-15 Sporter SP1 Carbine.JPG M16 Carbine 5.56×45mm NATO Model 653 United States In service with 10 Paratrooper Brigade
Sniper Rifles
Harris Gun Works M-96 Sniper Rifles .50 BMG Standard United States
Accuracy International Arctic Warfare - Psg 90.jpg Accuracy International Arctic Warfare Sniper Rifles 7.62×51mm NATO PM/AW Variant  United Kingdom
Denel NTW-20 Anti-materiel rifle 20 × 82mm Standard  South Africa
Machine Guns
M249 FN MINIMI DA-SC-85-11586 c1.jpg FN Minimi Light machine gun 5.56x45mm NATO Standard  West Germany
HK 21 LMG RIGHT SIDE.jpg HK21 General-purpose machine guns 7.62×51mm NATO HK21E  West Germany
Ksp58.jpg FN MAG General-purpose machine guns 7.62×51mm NATO FN MAG 58  Belgium
Machine gun M2 1.jpg M2 Browning Heavy machine guns 12.7×99mm NATO M2HB United States
Grenade Launcher
MK19-02.jpg Mk 19 grenade launcher Grenade launcher 40mm grenade Standard United States
Marine shoots M32 at Fort Bragg for prepering to go to Afghanistan.jpg Milkor MGL Grenade launcher 40mm grenade Mk1  South Africa
M203 1.jpg M203 Grenade launcher 40mm grenade Standard United States Attached to M4 and M16
Mortar
81mmMORT L16.png L16 81mm mortar Mortar 81mm mortar Standard  United Kingdom

Special Forces Equipment[edit | edit source]

Tanks[edit | edit source]

Picture Vehicle Origin Type Inventory Notes
PT-91M Pendekar.jpg PT-91M Pendekar  Poland Main Battle Tank 48[8] Not including 15 as a support vehicles. Has 125mm main gun and Equipped with ERAWA 3 Explosive Reactive Armour and SAGEM Savan-15 fire control system
120px FV101 Scorpion  United Kingdom Light tank 26[5] Converted to light tank. Armed with Cockerill 90mm main gun

Armoured Vehicle[edit | edit source]

Picture Vehicle Origin Type Inventory Notes
ACV-300 Adnan.jpg ACV 300 Adnan  Turkey Infantry fighting vehicle 267[9] Includes ambulance, ARV, command post vehicle and 81mm & 120mm mortar carrier versions. 259 ACV-300 and 8 ACV-S.
2007 Seoul Air Show 063 K200.JPG K-200 KIFV  Republic of Korea Infantry fighting vehicle 103[6] Malaysian Army operate the upgraded variant (K200A1)
Alvis Stormer in 2009.jpg Alvis Stormer  United Kingdom Light armoured vehicles 25[5]
Deftech AV8  Turkey/ Malaysia Amphibious armored fighting vehicle 257[10] A prototype has been delivered by 2011 for final approval, and the order is expected to be filled between 2012 and 2015. 257 units will locally produced by the local company DRB-HICOM Defence Technologies Sdn Bhd (Deftech)

[11][12]

Sibmas AFSV-90 Muzium Tentera Darat.JPG SIBMAS  Belgium Armoured fire support vehicles 186[5] Including 24 as armoured recovery vehicle. Armed with Cockerill 90mm main gun
Malaysian Condor.jpg Condor APC  Germany Armored personnel carrier 315[6] Originally 460 units. Some were lost in the Battle of Mogadishu (1993) and others were used for peacekeeping missions in various countries
Herat2 (cropped).jpg URO VAMTAC  Spain Multi-purpose armoured vehicle 85[13] Multi-purpose armoured vehicle that strongly similar to U.S made Humvee. Mostly equipped with Mk 19 40mm AGL and M2 Browning HMG. 25 units are as Igla anti-air missile launcher platform

Utility Vehicles[edit | edit source]

Vehicle Origin Type Notes
HICOM Handalan I/II  Malaysia Troop carrier truck
Bandvagn 206  Sweden All-terrain carrier Saab ARTHUR radar mounted on for artillery hunting[14]
AV-VBL  Brazil Artillery command vehicle
IVECO M4010  Italy Field Ambulance
IVECO M4012  Italy Satellite Communication Vehicle
Land Rover Defender  United Kingdom Multi-purpose vehicle
Mercedes-Benz G-Class  Germany Multi-purpose/light assault vehicle GD290
All Terrain Mobility Platform  United Kingdom Air-mobile vehicle Used by army airborne unit

Major weaponary[edit | edit source]

Air-Defense Missiles[edit | edit source]

MBDA Rapier Jernas

Type Origin Version In service Notes
MBDA Rapier  United Kingdom Jernas 15 Launchers[15]
Starburst surface-to-air missile  United Kingdom Standard 48[6] VML / LML Launchers
Fei Nu-6  China Standard 60[6]
Anza (missile)  Pakistan Standard 500[16]
9K38 Igla  Soviet Union SA-18 40[6]

Anti Tank Missiles[edit | edit source]

Carl Gustav recoilless rifle

Type Origin Version In service Notes
Baktar-Shikan  Pakistan Standard 38[6]
MBDA ERYX  France Standard 24[6]
9K115 Metis  Soviet Union Standard 18[6]
9K115-2 Metis-M  Soviet Union Standard 29[6]
SS.11  France Phased out
C90-CR (M3)  Spain
Carl Gustav recoilless rifle  Sweden M2 236[6]
M40 recoilless rifle United States Standard 24[6]
RPG-7  Soviet Union Standard

Artillery[edit | edit source]

ASTROS-II MLRS has prove its efficiency in providing artillery support leading to another 18 additional orders[17]

Type Origin Version In service Notes
Astros II MLRS  Brazil Keris 300MM 36[6] Excluding 10× AV-VBL Artillery Command Vehicles[5]
Denel G5 howitzer  South Africa Howitzer Mk.3 22[6]
VSEL FH-70  European Union Standard 12[6]
OTO Melara Mod 56  Italy Standard 110[6][18] Pack Howitzer
M102 howitzer United States Standard 40[18] Pack Howitzer
Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon   Switzerland Standard 16[6] Anti Aircraft Artillery (AAA)
Bofors 40 mm gun  Sweden L/70 36[6] Anti-aircraft/multi-purpose autocannon

Army Air Wing[edit | edit source]

See also Malaysian Army Aviation

Photo Aircraft Origin Versions In service Notes
Malaysian Army Agusta A-109E LUH Vabre.jpg AgustaWestland AW109  Italy A109LUH 11[6] Generally used for observation but can be equipped with rocket pod and machineguns for light attack

Present Development[edit | edit source]

Since the recovery from the 1997 economic crisis, MA, along with other branches of the MAF, has regained momentum in its modernizing programs. The first major procurement was to set a milestone by building its first ever main battle tank regiment. MA received delivery of 48 PT-91M main battle tanks and other tank-based equipment, like ARV WZT-4 from Poland, fully completed contract of sale in March 2010. Despite adding some 28 units of South African G5 Mk III 155 mm howitzers, another major procurement was 18 units of Astros MRLS from Brazil, which delivery was completed in 2006. A second batch of 18 MRLS was ordered in 2007.[19] MA is also rapidly mechanizing its current inventory - 211 Adnan IFVs (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) were acquired by the army in 2004. Following a more recent procurement of the Pakistani Bakhtar-Shikan Anti-armor missile launcher, these were installed on the Adnans.

MA is now shifting its emphasis on enhancing its air wing. In September 2006, MA received its 11th and last Agusta-Westland A109H Light Utility Helicopter. These helicopters are to initially complement, and ultimately replace, the aging SA316B Aérospatiale Alouette III helicopters. Six of them were to be installed with light arms and to be tasked to a scout observation unit; a sample was shown in LIMA 07. The configuration of the remainder is unclear. Furthermore, the army will also receive S61A-4 Nuri multipurpose helicopters after they are retired from RMAF; these will form the backbone of the army’s very first air transport units - 881 and 882 squadrons of the army air wing.

In the same year, at the biannual Defence Services Asia (DSA) 2006, Malaysia announced that the U.S. made M4 Carbine service rifle will replace the Austrian made Steyr AUG service rifle for all three Malaysian Armed Forces services. The army will receive the new weapon soon.

There is also a requirement for an upgrade to the current air defence network. However, a dispute between the army and the air force on whether to introduce a mid-range SAM system had led to the procurement being put on hold. According to a recent interview of the army’s chief of staff, Ismail bin Haji Jamaluddin, the army has no intention of taking over the mid range air defence role.

Malaysia’s Soldier Modernisation Programme[edit | edit source]

As part of the Malaysian Armed Forces 4 Dimension (MAF 4D) strategic plan, a future soldier program known as Soldier Advanced Kombat Technology Integrated (SAKTI) has been established by the Ministry of Defence.[20] Malaysia’s work on its Future Soldier System has several aspects. There are currently no formal schedules for the programme, which is still in its initial phases with no formal issuing by the Army of a final requirement although industry, understood to include Sapura who are teamed with Thales on other projects have made submissions. Some technology development projects have come out, of such as earlier this year with the public display of the Malaysian Army Future Soldier Combat Uniform MK II.

References[edit | edit source]

Notes
  1. 1.0 1.1 Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  2. Kerajaan Cadang Wujud Rejimen Pengurusan Sempadan
  3. Broken link as of 16 Nov 2007
  4. Hamzah h.d (4 August 2008). "PENGISTIHARAN REJIMEN SEMPADAN - KOR BARU TENTERA DARAT YANG KE 16". Kuala Lumpur: J2k,Minda Pertahanan,Min-Def Blogspot. http://min-def.blogspot.com/2008/08/pengistiharan-rejimen-sempadan-kor-baru_03.html. Retrieved 2010-04-08. 
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 IISS (2012), p. 264
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 IISS (2012), p. 265
  7. http://www.thefirearmblog.com/blog/2012/06/05/malaysias-sme-ordnance-m4-carbine/
  8. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/twardymainbattletank/
  9. http://disarmament.un.org/UN_REGISTER.nsf/5cb8afbbb6536a298525647d00612b14/e367a49fd5109d0185256ec1005047b6?OpenDocument
  10. http://defense-studies.blogspot.com/2011/02/fnss-will-make-version-of-4x4-6x6-and.html
  11. http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/PARSing-Statements-Malaysias-New-Wheeled-APCs-06339/
  12. AV8 8x8 Wheeled Armoured Vehicle will be Revealed to the Public Soon
  13. http://www.army-technology.com/projects/uro-vamtac-vehicle/
  14. http://malaysiaflyingherald.wordpress.com/2013/02/21/the-malaysian-army-and-ew/
  15. Rapier Ground Based Missile Defence System, United Kingdom, army-technology.com
  16. "Anza Mk II anti-aircraft missile for elite Rapid Deployment Force". Worldsources Online. 2003-10-15. Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. https://archive.is/IIha. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  17. http://www.kosmo.com.my/kosmo/content.asp?y=2012&dt=0307&pub=Kosmo&sec=Negara&pg=ne_09.htm
  18. 18.0 18.1 Script error: No such module "citation/CS1".
  19. Astros II Artillery Saturation Rocket System Army Technology
  20. http://malaysiaflyingherald.wordpress.com/2013/01/08/malaysias-sakti-future-soldier-programme/
Works cited
  • International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2012). The Military Balance 2012. London: IISS. ISSN 0459-7222. 

External links[edit | edit source]


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