Marinus Willett (July 31, 1740 – August 22, 1830) was an American soldier and political leader from New York. He was characterized by historian Mark M. Boatner as "one of the truly outstanding American leaders of the Revolution."
Willett was born in Jamaica, New York, on Long Island, the son of Edward Willett a school teacher and tavern operator.
Marinus Willett served in the militia during the French and Indian War. He received a commission as 2nd lieutenant in a New York regiment under the command of Oliver DeLancey Sr. which took part in General James Abercrombie's expedition to Fort Ticonderoga in 1758. His regiment was part of John Bradstreet's army in the Battle of Fort Frontenac. He became ill and stayed at Fort Stanwix until he recovered.
Tradition is between the wars he worked as a cabinetmaker.
Sons of Liberty
During the early stages of the American Revolution, Willett became an informal leader of the Sons of Liberty in New York City. His main participation was as a rabble-rouser and street brawler. When news arrived on April 23, 1775 of the battles at Lexington and Concord he and others broke into the New York City arsenal and seized the weapons. On June 6, 1775 when the British soldiers in New York decided to evacuate the city, Willett stopped the soldiers from taking spare arms with them. On July 20, 1775 he and other members of the Sons of Liberty procured a sloop, surprised the guard, and captured a British storehouse at Turtle Bay.
American Revolutionary War
On June 28, 1775, he joined the Continental Army with a commission of captain in the 1st New York Regiment, commanded by Alexander McDougall. Six weeks later the regiment took part in Richard Montgomery's Invasion of Canada (1775) and in December the Battle of Quebec (1775). In January, 1776 the enlistments in the regiment expired and the men started home. Willett arrived in New York City in March. In the defence of New York City later that year Willett lost a captain's commission in the 4th New York Regiment and participated as a militiaman.
In November, 1776 he was made Lieutenant Colonel of the 3rd New York Regiment which was commanded by Peter Gansevoort. He spent the winter recruiting. In March, 1777 he was given command of Fort Constitution in the New York Highlands. From this fort he engaged in a successful attack on one hundred British soldiers burning a house. The fort was abandoned when other nearby forts fell. In May, he was transferred to Fort Stanwix to join the rest of his regiment, where he was second in command.
On August 6, 1777, during the Battle of Oriskany he led a sortie for the fort which plundered the nearly Indian and Sir John Johnson's Tories camp. His force suffered no casualties. He was presented with a sword from the Continental Congress for this exploit. After the American defeat at Oriskany, he and another officer slipped through British lines down the Mohawk to Fort Dayton for help. They only took spontoons as weapons and whiskey, cheese, and crackers for food. At Fort Dayton he learned that Major General Schuyler had already dispatched a second relief force under the command of Benedict Arnold. Willett proceeded to Albany where he meet with Arnold and then returned to Fort Dayton with Arnold's army.
On August 20, Willett presided as a judge of Walter Butler who had been captured and was being tried as a spy. Butler was found guilty and sentenced to death. Butler was sent to Albany to await execution. In September, he left to visit his wife. While the 3rd New York Regiment was idle spending the winter at Fort Stanwix, virtually all the officers petitioned to be transferred to the main army. Gansevoort gave Willett leave to visit George Washington in Philadelphia and the forts in Connecticut. In June, 1778 he was given leave to join Washington's' Main Army. He served as an aide to General Charles Scott and took part in the Battle of Monmouth. On March 15, 1779, he was given command of a new militia regiment, a position he neither accepted nor declined. He was second in command of the attack on Onondaga in April, 1779.
In the summer of 1779, he was with the 3rd New York Regiment as it took part in the Sullivan Campaign. Afterwards it was for a short time stationed in the New York Highlands before joining the main army at Morristown. In January, he took part in a raid on Staten Island. This raid appears to be a separate raid from that conducted by Lord Stirling.
In early 1780, he was given command of the 5th New York Regiment a regiment that was severely understrength because of battles in the New York Highlands. In September, he was one of three officers of the New York Line who presented their grievances to the New York legislator. The men had not been paid since January and they asked for compensation in the form of land. He was made a full colonel of the regiment on December 22, 1779. On January 1, 1781 the number of New York regiments was reduced to two and Willett lost his command. He went home to his wife in Danbury.
In April, 1781, he was made a colonel of the militia and given responsibility for the defence of the Mohawk Valley. Although the Tryon County militia was nominally 1,100 men, he did not believe that more than five hundred would turn out. His headquarters were at Fort Plain. He had about four hundred men which he split between Saratoga, Ballston, German Flatts, Canajoharie, Fort Hunter, Catskill, Johnstown, and Schoharie. By this time Fort Stanwix had been abandoned. Willett wrote of the militia that "I don't think I shall give a very wild account if I say, that one third have been killed, or carried captive by the enemy; one third removed to the interior places of the country; and one third deserted to the enemy"
In July 1781, he led the militia in the Battle of Sharon Springs where he ambushed a force of Indians and Loyalists under the command of John Doxtader. In October, he led the militia against a mixed force under the command of Major John Ross at the Battle of Johnstown. Afterwards, the Americans marched to German Flatts as their scouts tracked the retreating force, which had been reduced to eating its horses. A forced march through a heavy snowstorm brought Willet's force within two miles of the Loyalist camp by nightfall of October 29, but he eschewed a night attack in the storm. Attacking the next morning, he found that the Loyalists had already broken camp. Captain Walter Butler was killed in the pursuit but the Loyalist force dispersed in the forest.
In late 1781, several companies of New Hampshire troops were added to his command. In February, 1783, George Washington directed him to capture Fort Ontario, but Willet's force gave up the attempt when the possibility of surprise was lost.
Washington visited the Mohawk valley in 1783 and he instructed Willett to improve the roads and waterway to Lake Oneida. In October, Willett's troops went home after being disbanded without ceremony.
After the war he aligned himself with George Clinton and the anti-federalist party. He and several other members of the Sons of Liberty were elected to the State Assembly in December 1783. He was Sheriff of New York County from 1784 to 1787 and from 1791 to 1795. He was now in charge of repressing the riotous behaviour he formerly committed. In 1787, he took part in the putting down of Shays' Rebellion. In 1788, he helped George Clinton in his fight against the United States Constitution. Willett was a delegate from New York City to the state convention where he and other anti-federalist were defeated. As late as 1790, he was still trying to repeal or amend the United States Constitution.
In 1790 he was sent by President Washington to the Creek Indians to persuade their leader Alexander McGillivray to continue treaty efforts. Willett was successful and a delegation of Creeks under McGillvray visited New York City, then capital of the United States, resulting in the Treaty of New York.
In 1791, he was appointed by Clinton to another term as the sheriff of New York City. Willett acquired considerable land and part of the former DeLancey estate.
In April 1792, he was appointed a brigadier-general to serve in the Northwest Indian War, but he declined. He wrote to George Washington that he thought the United States should not engage in a war with these Indians. He was also offered the position of peace emissary to the Indians which he also declined.
In 1801, he was appointed superintendent of construction of the fortifications of New York.
He was the 48th Mayor of New York City from 1807 to 1808, after De Witt Clinton was removed from office. The state's lieutenant governor, John Broome, died in office in August 1810. Willett ran unsuccessfully for that office in 1811, losing to De Witt Clinton.
He died August 22, 1830 and was buried in the churchyard of Trinity Church, corner of Broadway and Wall Street, in New York City. His funeral had 10,000 mourners.
Willett Street in Manhattan's lower east side is named for the former sheriff and mayor of New York City. The northern course of Willett Street, above Delancey Street, is presently occupied by the Samuel Gompers Houses.
A street in Albany, New York, bordering Washington Park is named for Willett. A memorial plaque commemorating Willett was fixed to a boulder in 1907 in the park. The boulder was struck many times by vehicles missing a sharp turn in the park along Henry Johnson Boulevard. The boulder and its plaque was moved from the traffic island to the corner of State and Willett Streets in 2006 to give the memorial a safer place in anticipation of the park's 200th anniversary. He is buried in the New York City Marble Cemetery.
His role in the French and Indian war receives brief mention in the Newbery Award winning children's book The Matchlock Gun.
- Lowenthal, pg. 16
- Lowenthal, pg. 59
- The New York Civil List
- Colin McDonald (March 8, 2006). "A rock in a hard place rolls on to new home". Albany Times Union. p. B1. http://albarchive.merlinone.net/mweb/wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=6387675. Retrieved 2010-06-05.
- New York City Marble Cemetery "Landmark Designation". New York City Marble Cemetery, official cite. March 4, 1969. http://www.nycmc.org/landmark.html New York City Marble Cemetery. Retrieved 2011-05-13.
- Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: McKay, 1966; revised 1974. ISBN 0-8117-0578-1.
- Lowenthal, Larry, Marinus Willett, Defender of the Northern Frontier, New York, 2000
- National Park Service's Marinus Willett Collections Management and Education Center
- Trinity Church's interactive churchyard map showing the location of Marinus Willett's grave vault
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|