|Mark 13 torpedo|
A Mark 13B torpedo being loaded onto a TBF Avenger aboard the Wasp in 1944; the torpedo is fitted with wooden breakaway nose and tail protection which is shed upon hitting the water
|Place of origin||United States|
|Used by||United States Navy|
|Wars||World War II|
|Designer||Bureau of Ordnance|
Bureau of Aeronautics
|Manufacturer||Naval Torpedo Station|
Pontiac Motor Division
Mod 2A - Mod 13
|Effective range||6300 yards|
|Warhead weight||600 pounds|
|Mk 8, contact|
|Douglas TBD Devastator|
Grumman TBF Avenger
At the close of the war, the Mark 13 was considered one of the most reliable air-dropped torpedoes available, "universally accepted as the best aircraft torpedo owned by any nation." They were also used on PT boats.
Design[edit | edit source]
Originating in a 1925 design study, the Mark 13 was subject to changing USN requirements through its early years with resulting on-and-off development. Early models—even when dropped low to the water at slow speeds—were prone to running on the surface, or not running at all. By late 1944, the design had been modified to allow reliable drops from as high as 2,400 ft (730 m), at speeds up to 410 knots (760 km/h). The final Mark 13 weighed 2,216 lb (1,005 kg); 600 lb (270 kg) of this was the high explosive Torpex.
The Mark 13 was designed with unusually squat dimensions for its type: diameter was 22.4 inches (570 mm) and length 13 feet 5 inches (4.09 m). In the water, the Mark 13 could reach a speed of 33.5 knots (62.0 km/h; 38.6 mph) for up to 6,300 yards (5,800 m). The Mark 13 ran 12.8 knots (23.7 km/h; 14.7 mph) slower than the Mark 14 torpedo. 17,000 were produced during the war.
The Mark 13 was very similar in design to the Mark 14 and Mark 15 torpedoes which suffered from problems such as submerged running approximately ten feet lower than set, contact exploder duds and magnetic trigger premature explosions. The Mark 13 design avoided these problems with its larger diameter, lesser mass, lesser negative buoyancy, slower running speed and the lack of a magnetic influence feature in its Mark IV exploder.
See also[edit | edit source]
[edit | edit source]
- The short film Aerial Torpedo Attack - High Speed High Altitude is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]
Notes[edit | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mark 13 torpedo.|
- ^ National Museum of the United States Air Force. Mark 13 Torpedo". Archived on July 9, 2006.
- USA Torpedoes of WWII". Retrieved 2 August 2005. NavWeaps (18 February 2005). "
- ^ Milford, Frederick J. U. S. Navy Torpedoes; Part One: The great torpedo scandal, 1941–43. The Submarine Review, April 1996. Archived on October 14, 2007.
- ^ Milford, Frederick J. U. S. Navy Torpedoes; Part Two: The great torpedo scandal, 1941–43. The Submarine Review, October 1996. Archived on December 10, 2005.
References[edit | edit source]
- Jolie, E.W. (15 September 1978). "A Brief History of U.S. Navy Torpedo Development". http://www.hnsa.org/doc/jolie/part1.htm. Retrieved 2013-06-05.
- Torpedo Mark 13, OP 629(A), Description, Adjustment, Care, and Operation. United States Navy. July 1942. http://www.hnsa.org/doc/torpedomk13/torp003.htm.
- Rowland, Buford. "U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance in Worl War II". http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/Admin-Hist/BuOrd/BuOrd-6.html. Retrieved 2013-06-05.
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