|Colonel Mark Gray MBE RM|
Colonel Mark Gray MBE RM, Commanding Officer FPGRM, 2011
|Place of birth||Weymouth, Dorset|
|Years of service||1984 – present.|
|Rank||Colonel Royal Marines|
Zulu Company, 45 Commando Royal Marines|
Royal Navy Counter-Piracy Task Group 2010
Operation Haven (Northern Iraq)|
Operation Banner (Northern Ireland)
UNPROFOR (Former Yugoslavia)
Operation Tellar (Nicaragua)
Operation Highbrow (Beirut)
Operation Telic (Iraq)
Operation Capri (Somalia)
Operation Herrick (Afghanistan)
Order of Duke Domagoj (Croatia)
Gray is well known for having stopped a disaster at the Peruća hydroelectric dam during the Croatian offensive of 27–28 January 1993 when he raised the spillway channel and reduced the level of water in the lake. This prevented collapse of the dam when the withdrawing Serbs detonated 30 tons of explosives they had placed there.
Early life[edit | edit source]
Gray was educated at Bradfield College and Durham University, where he studied Russian. He joined the Royal Marines in 1984 and has seen service in Northern Ireland (Operation Banner), Northern Iraq (Operation Provide Comfort 1991), before being deployed to the former Yugoslavia through UNPROFOR.
Peruća incident[edit | edit source]
In 1992 Gray defied land mines and booby traps to open a sluice gate on top of the Peruća dam in Croatia shortly before the occupying Serbs detonated explosives deep inside it. This action had been unknown to the public until described to the Science Festival in 1995 by engineering Professor Paul Back from Oxford University. He described how Serbian militia had expelled UN observers from the 65-metre-high dam in January, 1993, and set off huge explosives in a maintenance gallery that ran the dam's length at foundation level. "This was an attempt to use the 540 million cubic metres of stored water as a weapon of mass destruction to the downstream land and population, " said Professor Back. "Some 20,000 people would have been drowned or rendered homeless had the dam failed as intended. " Severe damage was caused to three points in the dam corresponding to where the saboteurs had placed their explosives. In the central section alone it was estimated that 15 tons of explosive material had been used. At each of these three points the top of the dam, made of rock fill with a clay core, sagged by two metres, said Professor Back, who was a member of a British team despatched by the Overseas Development Administration to inspect it and advise on repairs after the Croatians reoccupied it. "During the tenure of the UN observers, but while the dam was in Serb hands, Gray had visited the site and observed that the Serbs were holding the water level well above the correct full supply level, " he said. "On his own initiative, and exceeding his authority, he opened the surface spillway gate sufficiently to slowly reduce the water level. He managed to lower the water level by some metres by the time the attempt to destroy the dam took place. Had he not been able to reduce the level, there is no doubt that the dam would have failed as water would have poured over the slumped crest after the explosions." As it was, Professor Back said it was only a miracle that the dam had not failed. With gunfire echoing in the hills engineers had to race against time before the ongoing erosion of the dam's clay core caused a blow-through and total collapse. Professor Back said he learned later that Major Gray could have been disciplined for exceeding his authority. "I wrote to the Ministry of Defence and told him he should be given a medal instead." Gray’s biographical details show no record of any medal being awarded for this act. Items of Major Gray’s UN equipment are on display at the Royal Marines Museum.
After UNPROFOR[edit | edit source]
In 1998, while in command of Z Company, 45 Commando Royal Marines he took part in Operation ‘’Tellar’’, providing relief in Nicaragua in the wake of Hurricane Mitch and in 1999 an exercise in the United States.
He has had staff appointments at the Permanent Joint Headquarters, Navy Resources and Plans in the Ministry of Defence, the Headquarters of the Multi-National Force – Iraq in Baghdad and the US Joint Chiefs of Staff in The Pentagon (as the deputy CDS liaison officer during the build up and conduct of the 2003 Iraq invasion), at the end of which he was accorded the privilege of addressing both US Houses of Congress, “one of the few Royal Marines to have entered the Capitol Building in uniform since his predecessors burned it down on 24 August 1814 ”.
After Iraq[edit | edit source]
He has taught at the Joint Services Command and Staff College, Shrivenham. On promotion to Colonel he was appointed to the staff of Fleet Commander Operations, where he was the Head of Operational Policy. He also attended the US Marine Corps Command and Staff College in 1997, graduating with distinction.
He was appointed Commanding Officer Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines in July 2009. In January 2010, the Unit picked up a prestigious counter-piracy award. From September to December 2010 he commanded the Operation Capri Naval Task Group, comprising the ships RFA Fort Victoria, HMS Northumberland and HMS Montrose, along with boarding teams from FPGRM, conducting counter-piracy operations in Somali waters. During this time the Task Group captured six pirate teams.
Other[edit | edit source]
Honours and Awards[edit | edit source]
He was awarded the MBE in the Queen's Birthday Honours 2002, for his part in planning the major UK Armed Forces exercise in Oman in 2001, Exercise Saif Sareea II. In 1995, he featured on the front page of The Times newspaper, being recognised for his role in the incident at the Peruća dam.
On 27 January 2013, on the 20th anniversary of the Peruća incident, Gray was awarded Order of Duke Domagoj by the President of Croatia Ivo Josipović. The award was gazetted on 29 March 2013.
Awards and Campaign Medals[edit | edit source]
[edit | edit source]
|Order of Duke Domagoj|
|Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge|
|NATO Non-Article V Medal with “Africa” Clasp|
|NATO Non-Article V Medal with “ISAF” Clasp|
References[edit | edit source]
- Tom Wilkie (16 September 1995). "Unsung army officer saved 20,000 lives". http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-4740175.html.
- Dangerous Forces: Dams, Dikes, and Nuclear Stations
- Croatian Memorial Document Center of the Homeland War
- Commanding Officer, Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines
- Alan MacDermid (16 September 1995). "Serb sabotage foiled by British officer. How unsung hero saved 20,000 from dam disaster". http://www.heraldscotland.com/sport/spl/aberdeen/serb-sabotage-foiled-by-british-officer-how-unsung-hero-saved-20-000-from-dam-disaster-1.661522.
- Royal Marines Museum New Exhibition, 24 June 2011
- Philippa Thomas (18 November 1998). "Mitch: Picking up the pieces". http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1998/11/98/hurricane_mitch/216906.stm.
- Betty Hayden Snider (18 September 1999). "Great Scot! Queen’s Marines Land". http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1298&dat=19990918&id=mQMzAAAAIBAJ&sjid=VggGAAAAIBAJ&pg=6806,4525320.
- Service Appointments: Navy, of 26 September 2008
- Navy News June 2009, Assignments
- Staff Reporter (22 January 2010). "Faslane Marines honoured for Piracy Fight". http://www.shippingtimes.co.uk/item_10277.html.
- Tina Kemp (29 January 2010). "Faslane Marines rewarded for piracy crackdown". http://www.lennoxherald.co.uk/dunbartonshire-news/dunbartonshire-news/dumbarton-news/2010/01/29/faslane-marines-rewarded-for-piracy-crackdown-114557-25689088/.
- The CNN Wire Staff (18 October 2010). "Vessel released from pirate control; suspected pirate ship destroyed". http://articles.cnn.com/2010-10-18/world/indian.ocean.pirates_1_pirate-vessel-pirate-ship-pirate-control?_s=PM:WORLD.
- Suspected Pirate Boat Boarded and Destroyed – Combined Maritime Forces, 18 October 2010
- Pirate Gang defeated by Nottingham commander-led Royal Marine team – CP World, 4 December 2010
- Navy team boards and destroys Pirate Ship – MOD, 3 November 2010
- RFA Fort Victoria thwarts another pirate attack – MOD, 1 December 2010
- A Fort for Good – Navy News, January 2011
- Deborah Linton (7 December 2010). "Marine swaps war with Taliban for catching pirates". http://menmedia.co.uk/manchestereveningnews/news/s/1388254_marine_swaps_war_with_taliban_for_catching_pirates.
- Appointments – Battlespace, Vol 13, Issue 2011
- Gen Allen visits troops in Paktika – ISAF, 19 December 2011
- Allen Checks Troop Outposts on Afghan Border – US DOD, 21 December 2010
- Military honours: Royal Navy – BBC, 14 June 2002
- Commonwealth and Military Honours - The Guardian, 15 June 2002
- Nuttall, Nick (16 September 1995). "Royal Marine saved 20,000 by foiling dambuster plot". London. pp. 1–2. 65,374. http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/archive/. Retrieved 16 September 1995.
- Slavica Vuković (27 January 2013). "Časnik Gray riskirao život, tajno pustio vodu i spasio dolinu Cetine" (in Croatian). Officer Gray risked his life secretly draining water and saving the Cetina River valley. http://www.vecernji.hr/vijesti/casnik-gray-riskirao-zivot-tajno-pustio-vodu-i-spasio-dolinu-cetine-clanak-502768. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Toni Paštar (27 January 2013). "Nicholas Gray: Da nisam sačuvao Peruču, izginulo bi 20.000 ljudi" (in Croatian). Nicholas Gray: If I had not saved Peruča, 20,000 people would have been killed. http://urednik.slobodnadalmacija.hr/Hrvatska/tabid/66/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/200599/Default.aspx. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- SM/HINA (27 January 2013). "Oslobađanje Peruče je nastavak operacije Maslenica '93" (in Croatian). The liberation of Peruča was a continuation of Operation Maslenica '93. http://www.rtl.hr/vijesti/novosti/636718/oslobadjanje-peruce-je-nastavak-operacije-maslenica-93/. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- Toni Paštar (27 January 2013). "Josipović i Gotovina na obljetnici oslobođenja Peruče; Predsjednik odlikovao Britanca koji je spasio branu" (in Croatian). Josipović and Gotovina on the anniversary of liberation of Peruča; President decorated Briton who saved the dam. http://www.slobodnadalmacija.hr/Split-%C5%BEupanija/tabid/76/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/200589/Default.aspx. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "20th Anniversary of "Peruča" Action". Press Release. Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Croatia. 27 January 2013. http://www.morh.hr/en/news-press-releases-annoucments/press-release/20.-obljetnica-akcije-peruca.html. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "British Officer Commemorated For Role In Croatian Homeland War". Croatia Week. 27 January 2013. http://www.croatiaweek.com/british-officer-commemorated-for-role-in-croatian-homeland-war/. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Gallagher, Brian (30 January 2013). "UK-Croatia relations: A number of developments". Croatia Business Report. http://croatiabusinessreport.wordpress.com/2013/01/30/uk-croatia-relations-a-number-of-developments/. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
- Anđela Juričić (27 January 2013). "20. godišnjica vojne akcije Peruča" (in Croatian). 20th anniversary of the military action Peruča. http://www.narodni-list.hr/posts/313010. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- "Odluka o odlikovanju umirovljenog brigadira Marka Nicholasa Graya Redom kneza Domagoja s ogrlicom" (in Croatian). Zagreb. 29 March 2013. http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2013_03_38_685.html. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- "Kraljevski marinac Mark Nicholas Gray" (in Croatian). Royal Marine Mark Nicholas Gray. Croatian Radiotelevision. 20 May 2013. http://www.hrt.hr/index.php?id=hrt-prikazuje-clanak&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=210562&cHash=7a4153ebad.
- "Kraljevski marinac Mark Nicholas Gray" (in Croatian). Royal Marine Mark Nicholas Gray. You Tube (Croatian Radiotelevision). 20 May 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=afNbMShHGOE.
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