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MiG-31
Russian Air Force MiG-31 inflight Pichugin.jpg
Russian Air Force MiG-31 in flight
Role Interceptor aircraft
Manufacturer Mikoyan
First flight 16 September 1975
Introduction 6 May 1981
Status In service
Primary users Russian Air Force
Kazakhstan Air Force
Number built approx. 400[1]
Developed from Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-25

The Mikoyan MiG-31 (Russian: Микоян МиГ-31; NATO reporting name: Foxhound) is a supersonic interceptor aircraft developed to replace the MiG-25 "Foxbat". The MiG-31 was designed by the Mikoyan design bureau based on the MiG-25.[2]

DevelopmentEdit

The MiG-25, despite Western panic about its tremendous performance, made substantial design sacrifices in capability for the sake of achieving high speed, altitude, and rate of climb. It lacked maneuverability at interception speeds and was difficult to fly at low altitudes. The MiG-25's speed was limited to Mach 2.83 in operations, but it could reach a maximum speed of Mach 3.2 or more with the risk of damaging the engines beyond repair.[3][4]

Development of the MiG-25's replacement began with the Ye-155MP (Russian: Е-155МП) prototype which first flew on 16 September 1975.[5] Although it bore a superficial resemblance to a stretched MiG-25 with a longer fuselage for the radar operator cockpit, it was in many respects a new design. The MiG-25 used 80% nickel steel in its structure to allow welding.[6]

The most important development was introducing an advanced radar capable of both look-up and look-down engagement (locating targets above and below the aircraft), as well as multiple target tracking. This finally gave the Soviets an interceptor able to engage the most likely Western intruders at long range.[citation needed]

MiG-31 Foxhound

A MiG-31 in 1989

Like its MiG-25 predecessor, the MiG-31 was surrounded by early speculation and misinformation concerning its design and abilities. The West learned of the new interceptor from Lieutenant Viktor Belenko, a pilot who defected to Japan in 1976 with his MiG-25P. Belenko described an upcoming "Super Foxbat" with two seats and an ability to intercept cruise missiles. According to his testimony, the new interceptor was to have air intakes similar to the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23, which the MiG-31 does not have, at least not in production variants.[citation needed]

Series production of the MiG-31 began in 1979 and about 400 were produced by 2000.[1]

Some upgrade programs have found their way in the MiG-31 fleet, like the MiG-31BM multirole version with upgraded avionics, new multimode radar, hands-on-throttle-and-stick (HOTAS) controls, liquid crystal (LCD) color multi-function displays (MFDs), ability to carry the Vympel R-77 missile and various Russian air-to-ground missiles (AGMs) such as the Kh-31 anti-radiation missile (ARM), a new and more powerful computer, and digital data links.[7] A project to upgrade the Russian MiG-31 fleet to the MiG-31BM standard was begun in 2010;[8] 60 or more aircraft are to be upgraded to MiG-31BM standard by 2020.[9]

ReplacementEdit

Russia hopes to field a replacement for the MiG-31 by 2020, with all aircraft retired by 2028. Development of a new aircraft has begun. Development of a new interceptor is favored over restarting MiG-31 production.[10]

DesignEdit

Like the MiG-25, MiG-31 is a large twin-engine aircraft with side-mounted air intakes, a shoulder-mounted wing with an aspect ratio of 2.94, and twin vertical tailfins. Unlike the MiG-25, it has two seats, with the rear occupied by a dedicated weapon systems officer.[citation needed]

Airframe and enginesEdit

MiG-31 in flight

MiG-31 in flight

The wings and airframe of the MiG-31 are stronger than those of the MiG-25, permitting supersonic flight at low altitudes. Its Aviadvigatel D30-F6 turbofans, rated at 152 kN thrust, allow a maximum speed of Mach 1.23 at low altitude. High-altitude speed is temperature-redlined to Mach 2.83—the thrust-to-drag ratio is sufficient for speeds in excess of Mach 3, but such speeds pose unacceptable hazards to engine and airframe life in routine use.[3]

MiG-31 is limited to only 5 g at supersonic speeds.[3] At combat weight, its wing loading is marginal and its thrust to weight ratio is favorable. However, it is not designed for close combat or rapid turning.[3]

Electronics suiteEdit

DN-ST-92-02246

MiG-31 showing its Zaslon phased-array radar

The MiG-31 was the world's first operational fighter with a passive electronically scanned array radar (PESA), the Zaslon S-800. Its maximum range against fighter-sized targets is approximately 200 km (125 mi), and it can track up to 10 targets and simultaneously attack four of them with its AA-9 'Amos' missiles. It is claimed to have limited astern coverage, possibly due to drag chute housing above and between the engines. The radar is matched with an infrared search and tracking (IRST) system in a retractable undernose fairing.[3]

RadarsEdit

Adopted in 1981

  • the range detection of air targets: 200 km (for the purpose of with the EPR 19 m2 on a collision angles with probability 0.5)
  • target detection distance with EPR 3 m2 with a probability of 0.5 догонных angles: 35 km[11][12]
  • number of detected targets: 24
  • the number of targets for attack: 8
  • the range of automatic tracking: 120 km
  • detection of thermal goals - 56 km

The basic differences between versions МиГ-31БМ:[13]

The onboard radar complex MiG-31БМ is capable of simultaneously detecting 24 air targets, 8 of which can be simultaneously attacked by missiles R-33S. Achieved a possibility to intercept targets flying at a speed corresponding to M=6, improved other characteristics of the complex.[citation needed]

Modernized variants of the aircraft can be equipped with radar missiles X-31S, X 25MP or X-25МПУ (up to six units), anti-ship UR X-31A (up to six), class missiles air-to-surface X-29and X 59 (up to three) or X-59M (up to two units), up to six corrected air bombs KAB-1500 or eight KAB-500 with television or laser-guided. Maximum mass of payload is to 9000 kg.[citation needed]

The MiG-31M-, MiG-31D-, and MiG-31BS-standard aircraft have an upgraded Zaslon-M radar, with larger antenna and greater detection range (said to be 400 km (250 mi) against AWACS-size targets) and the ability to attack multiple targets — air and ground — simultaneously. The Zaslon-M has a 1.4m diameter (larger) antenna, 50% to 100% better performance than Zaslon. In April 1994 it was used with an R-37 to hit a target at 300 km distance.[citation needed] It has a search range 400 km versus a 19/20 sq m RCS target and can track 24 targets at once, engaging six[14][15](282 km for 5m2[16]).

CockpitEdit

The aircraft is a two-seater with the rear seat occupant controlling the radar. Although cockpit controls are duplicated across cockpits, it is normal for the aircraft to be flown only from the front seat. The pilot flies the aircraft by means of a centre stick and left hand throttles. The rear cockpit has only two small vision ports on the sides of the canopy. It is argued that the presence of the WSO (Weapon Systems Operator) in the rear cockpit improves aircraft effectiveness since the WSO is entirely dedicated to radar operations and weapons deployment. This decreases the workload of the pilot and increases efficiency. Both cockpits are fitted with zero/zero ejection seats which allow the crew to eject at any altitude and airspeed.[3]

It has been claimed by Russian Federation Defence Ministry chief Colonel Yuri Balyko, that the upgrade will increase the combat effectiveness of the aircraft several times over.[17]

ArmamentEdit

MiG-31 Foxhound aircraft armed with AA-9 missiles in flight

MiG-31 armed with R-33 missiles

The MiG-31's main armament is four R-33 air-to-air missiles (NATO codename AA-9 'Amos') carried under the belly. The R-33 is the Russian equivalent of the U.S. Navy's AIM-54 Phoenix.

Unlike the MiG-25, the MiG-31 has an internal cannon, a six-barrel, 23 mm GSh-6-23 with 800 rounds of ammunition, mounted above the starboard main landing gear bay. The GSh-6-23 has a claimed rate of fire of over 10,000 rounds per minute. However, after two Su-24 were lost because of premature shell detonation in 1983, plus some different problems with gun usage (system failures, etc.), usage of the GSh-6-23 was stopped by a decision of the Soviet AF Command. The aircraft in the Russian AF were flying with fully operational guns, but without ammunition in January 2009.[18]

Operational historyEdit

MiG-31 790 IAP Khotilovo airbase

A side view of a MiG-31 from 790th Fighter Order of Kutuzov Aviation Regiment on the runway of Khotilovo airbase, Tver region.

The MiG-31 entered operational service with the Soviet Air Defence Forces (PVO) in 1982.[citation needed]

With the designation Ye-266, a re-engined Ye-155 shattered world records. It reached an absolute maximum altitude of 123,524 ft, or 37,650 m, and set a time to height record of 35,000 m in 4 minutes, 11.78 seconds, both which were set by test pilot Alexander Fedotov. Ostapenko, his deputy, set a record of 30,000 m in 3 minutes, 9.8 seconds.[19]

Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991, however, the budget for spares (MIG-31 AOG desk was created to solve this problem) and maintenance collapsed, leaving many squadrons unable to maintain their complex aircraft.[citation needed]

Approximately 370 are in Russian service, with another 30 or so in Kazakhstan.[20]

On 6 September 2011, a MiG-31 crashed near Bolgary village, Perm region, Russia.[21] The aircraft crashed shortly after takeoff, killing both pilots. Another, non-fatal crash occurred in 2010. The entire fleet was grounded pending an investigation.[22]

ExportEdit

Syria ordered eight MiG-31E aircraft in 2007 for Syrian Air Force.[23][24] However, the order has been suspended in May 2009 reportedly either due to Israeli pressure or lack of Syrian funds.[25]

VariantsEdit

MiG-31 790 IAP Khotilovo airbase 2

A front view of a MiG-31 on the ramp of Khotilovo airbase, Tver region.

A new version of the MiG-31 with upgraded avionics, the MiG-31B, was introduced in 1990. Its development was the result of the Soviet discovery that Phazotron radar division engineer Adolf Tolkachev had sold information on advanced radars to the West. Tolkachev was executed, and a new version of the compromised radar was hastily developed. Many earlier MiG-31s were upgraded to the new standard, designated MiG-31BM.[26]

Development of a more comprehensive advanced version, the MiG-31M, began in 1983 and first flew in 1986, but the dissolution of the Soviet Union prevented it from entering full production.[citation needed] The MiG-31M standard adds some additional features like Global Positioning System (GPS) and GLONASS receivers, and three color CRT MFDs in the rear cockpit.[citation needed]

OperatorsEdit

Mikoyan MiG-31 Operators

Mikoyan MiG-31 Operators 2010

Current operators
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg Kazakhstan
Flag of Russia.svg Russia

Former operatorsEdit

Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Soviet Union

Specifications (MiG-31)Edit

MiG-31
MiG-31BM on the MAKS-2009 (01)

MiG-31BM on display at MAKS Airshow on 22 August 2009

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-31E at MAKS 2005

MiG-31E at 2005 MAKS Airshow

Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-31E landing at Sormovo (2007)

MiG-31E landing at Sormovo Airfield in 2007

Data from Great Book of Modern Warplanes,[2] MiG-31E data,[28]Combat Aircraft since 1945 [1]

General characteristics
  • Crew: Two (pilot and weapons system officer)
  • Length: 22.69 m (74 ft 5 in)
  • Wingspan: 13.46 m (44 ft 2 in)
  • Height: 6.15 m (20 ft 2 in)
  • Wing area: 61.6 m² (663 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 21,820 kg (48,100 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 41,000 kg (90,400 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 46,200 kg (101,900 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Soloviev D-30F6 afterburning turbofans
    • Dry thrust: 93 kN (20,900 lbf) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 152 kN (34,172 lbf) each

Performance

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Wilson 2000, p. 103.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Spick 2000
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Dawes, Alan. "Mikoyan's Long-Legged Hunting Dog." Air International, December 2002, pp. 396–401.
  4. Gunston and Spick 1983, pp. 132–133.
  5. Eden 2004, p. 323.
  6. Eden 2004, p. 308.
  7. "Russian air force completing MiG-31BM modernization program. Retrieved: 24 January 2011.
  8. Skrynnikov, R. "Defense: Russian air force completing MiG-31BM modernization program." RIA Novosti, 13 August 2010. Retrieved: 17 August 2010.
  9. Ankov, Vitaliy. "Russia to modernize 60 MiG-31 interceptors by 2020." RIA Novosti, 2 January 2012. Retrieved: 25 November 2012.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Russia to Field MiG-31 Replacement by 2020 - Rian.ru, April 11, 2013
  11. armament control System SUV «Barrier» of the MiG-31
  12. http://www.roe.ru/cataloque/air_craft/aircraft_16-19.pdf
  13. worldweapon.ru, MiG-31БМ
  14. Zaslon radar at Janes Defence web-site
  15. Zaslon radar at Russia Airforce Handbook - Google Books
  16. "Zaslon-M radar." Fighterplanes. Retrieved: 16 July 2012.
  17. "MiG-31 Upgrade Will Quadruple Its Effectiveness – Expert." royfc.com. Retrieved: 24 January 2011.
  18. Williams, Anthony G. "Amendments and additional notes to 'Rapid Fire'." Retrieved: 24 January 2011.
  19. "World Records." OKB MIG. Retrieved: 11 May 2011.
  20. "Russian Federation Air Force (RFAF) Aviatsiya Voyenno (AV)." globalsecurity.org. Retrieved: 24 January 2011.
  21. Petrov, Sergei. "Flight recorder found at MiG-31 crash site." rian.ru, 7 September 2011.
  22. "Investigators seizing crashed MiG-31 fighter documentation." itar-tass.com. Retrieved: 16 July 2012.
  23. Air Forces Monthly, August 2007 issue
  24. Karnozov, Vladimir. "Syria signs for eight MiG-31 interceptors." Flight International, 21 June 2007.
  25. "Syrian MiG-31 Order suspended." mosnews.com. Retrieved: 24 January 2011.
  26. RIA Novosti "Defense: Russian air force completing MiG-31BM modernization program." RIA Novosti. Retrieved: 17 August 2010.
  27. Zelin, Alexander (Commander of the Russian Air Force). "Zelin." ng.ru. Retrieved: 19 March 2012.
  28. "MiG-31E." RAC MiG. Retrieved: 22 July 2008.
  29. "MiG-31E Interceptor." roe.ru. Retrieved: 16 July 2012.

BibliographyEdit

  • Eden, Paul, ed. "Mikoyan MiG-25 'Foxbat'". "Mikoyan MiG-31 'Foxhound'". Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. London: Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 1-904687-84-9.
  • Gordon, Yefim. MiG-25 'Foxbat,' MiG-31 'Foxhound:" Russia's Defensive Front Line. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing, 1997. ISBN 1-85780-064-8.
  • Spick, Mike. "MiG-31 'Foxhound'". The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI, 2000. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4.
  • Wilson, Stewart. Combat Aircraft since 1945. Fyshwick, Australia: Aerospace Publications, 2000. ISBN 1-875671-50-1.
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