|Armed and Security Forces of Mali|
Forces Armées et de Sécurité du Mali
National flag of Mali
|Founded||10 October 1960|
|Service branches||Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, and National Police (Sûreté Nationale)|
|Minister of Defence||Yamoussa Camara|
|Chief of staff||Brigadier General Gabriel Podiougou (appointed in June 2008)|
|Conscription||Compulsory military service|
|Active personnel||7,350 plus 4,800 paramilitary forces|
|Budget||$68 million ($5 million procurement) (FY03)|
|Percent of GDP||2% (FY01)|
Mali's armed forces are the Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, and National Police (Sûreté Nationale). They number some 7,000 and are under the control of the Minister of Armed Forces and Veterans. The Library of Congress as of January 2005 stated that "[t]he military is underpaid, poorly equipped, and in need of rationalization. Its organisation has suffered from the incorporation of Tuareg irregular forces into the regular military following a 1992 agreement between the government and Tuareg rebel forces." In 2009, the IISS Military Balance listed 7,350 soldiers in the Army, 400 in the Air Force, and 50 in the Navy. The Gendarmerie and local police forces (under the Ministry of Interior and Security) maintain internal security. The IISS listed paramilitary total force as 4,800 soldiers: 1,800 in the Gendarmerie (8 companies), 2,000 in the Republican Guard, and 1,000 police officers. A few Malians receive military training in the United States, France, and Germany. Military expenditures total about 13% of the national budget. Mali is an active contributor to peacekeeping forces in West and Central Africa; the Library of Congress said that in 2004 Mali was participating in United Nations operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC, 28 personnel including 27 observers), Liberia (UNMIL, 252 personnel, including 4 observers), and Sierra Leone (3 observers).
History[edit | edit source]
The Malian armed forces were initially formed by Malian conscript and volunteer veterans of the French Armed Forces. In the months preceding the formation of the Malian armed forces, the French Armed Forces withdrew from their bases in Mali. Among the last bases to be closed were those at Kati, on 8 June 1961, Tessalit (un base aérienne secondaire), on 8 July 1961, Gao (la base aérienne 163 de Gao), on 2 August 1961, and Air Base 162 at Bamako (la base aérienne 162 de Bamako), on 5 September 1961.
"On 1 October 1960, the Malian army was created and solemnly installed through a speech by Chief of Staff Captain Sekou Traore. On 12 October the same year the population of Bamako attended for the first time an army parade under the command of Captain Tiemoko Konate. Organizationally, says Sega Sissoko, is the only battalion of Ségou and includes units scattered across the territory. A memo from the Chief of Staff ordered a realignment of the battalion. Following on, a command and services detachment in Bamako was created, and the engineer company in Ségou, the first Saharan motorized company of Gao, the Saharan Motor Company of Kidal, the Arouane nomad group, nomadic group of Timetrine (in the commune of Timtaghène), the 1st Reconnaissance Company and Nioro 2nd Reconnaissance Company Tessalit. As of January 16, 1961, Mali's army totaled 1232 men."
In the sixties and seventies, Mali's army and air force relied primarily on the Soviet Union for materiel and training.
On 19 November 1968, a group of young Malian officers staged a bloodless coup and set up a 14-member military junta, with Lieutenant Moussa Traoré as president. The military leaders attempted to pursue economic reforms, but for several years faced debilitating internal political struggles and the disastrous Sahelian drought. A new constitution, approved in 1974, created a one-party state and was designed to move Mali toward civilian rule. However, the military leaders remained in power. Single-party presidential and legislative elections were held in June 1979, and General Moussa Traoré received 99% of the votes. His efforts at consolidating the single-party government were challenged in 1980 by student-led anti-government demonstrations, which were brutally put down, and by three coup attempts. The Traore government ruled throughout the 1970s and 1980s. On 26 March 1991, after four days of intense anti-government rioting, a group of 17 military officers, led by current President Amadou Toumani Touré, arrested President Traoré and suspended the constitution. They formed a civilian-heavy provisional ruling body, and initiated a process that led to democratic elections. The First Tuareg Rebellion began in 1990 when Tuareg separatists attacked government buildings around Gao. The armed forces' reprisals led to a full-blown rebellion in which the absence of opportunities for Tuareg in the army was a major complaint. The conflict died down after Alpha Konaré formed a new government and made reparations in 1992. Also, Mali created a new self-governing region, the Kidal Region, and provided for greater Tuareg integration into Malian society. In 1994, Tuareg, reputed to have been trained and armed by Libya, attacked Gao, which again led to major Malian Army reprisals and to the creation of the Ghanda Koi Songhai militia to combat the Tuareg. Mali effectively fell into civil war.
As of June 2008, service commanders were Colonel Boubacar Togola (Armée de Terre), Colonel Waly Sissoko (Armée de l’Air), Lieutenant-Colonel Daouda Sogoba (Garde Nationale) et du Colonel Adama Dembélé (Gendarmerie Nationale).
The Malian army largely collapsed during the war against Tuareg separatists and Islamist rebels in early 2012. In a span of less than fourth months at the start of 2012, the Malian army was defeated by the rebels who seized more than 60% of the former Malian territory, taking all camps and position of the army, capturing and killing hundreds of Malian soldiers, while hundred others deserted or defected.
Following the rebel advance, a group of soldiers from the Kati camp near Bamako staged a coup[when?] which overthrew Malian president Amadou Toure. After the junta seized power, they successfully repelled a counter coup on 30 April by loyalists from the red berets elite units.
Army[edit | edit source]
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Tuareg Rebellion, the Army has struggled to maintain its size, despite recent military aid from the United States. It is organised into two tank battalions (T-55, T-54  and T-34/85, tanks, including possibly a light armoured battalion of PT-76's  and Type 62 light tanks), four infantry battalions, one Special Forces battalion, one airborne battalion (possibly the 33rd Parachute Infantry Regiment, Djikoroni, in Bamako), two artillery battalions, one engineer battalion (34th), 2 AD artillery batteries, and one SAM battery. Manpower is provided by two-year selective conscription. Mali apparently has six military regions, according to Jane's World Armies. 1st Military Region and 13th Combined Arms Regiment may be in Gao. 3rd Military Region appears to be at Kati. The 4th Military Region is at Kayes  and the 5th Military Region is at Timbuktu. The 512 Regiment was reported within the 5th Military Region in 2004. On 13 April 2010, Agence France Press reported that French training would be given to the 62nd Motorized Infantry Regiment of the 6th Military Region, based at Sévaré. The same story said that the regiment consisted of three Rapid Intervention Companies (CIR) and AFP said it was 'considered the elite troops of the Malian army.' Mali is one of four Saharan states which has created a Joint Military Staff Committee, to be based at Tamanrasset in southern Algeria. Algeria, Mauritania, Niger, and Mali will take part.
The Army controls the small navy (approx. 130 sailors and 3 river patrol boats).
List of Malian generals[edit | edit source]
|Nº||Grade||Nom et Prénom||Corps d'origine||Date de nomination|
|01||Général de Brigade||Abdoulaye SOUMARÉ (deceased)||Infantry||29 décembre 1960|
|02||Général d'Armée||Moussa Traoré||Infantry||1974/79|
|03||Général de Division||Amadou Baba DIARRA (deceased)||Armour||1981/84|
|04||Général de Division||Filifing SISSOKO (deceased)||Air Force||1982/84|
|05||Général de Division||Sékou LY (décédé)||Armour||1984/86|
|06||Général de Brigade||Bougary SANGARÉ (décédé)||Infantry||1985/89|
|07||Général de Brigade||Abdoulaye OUOLOGUEM (décédé)||Infantry||1985/89|
|08||Général de Brigade||Amara DANFAGA (décédé)||Infantry||1985/90|
|09||Général de Brigade||Sory Ibrahim SILLA (décédé)||Infantry||1987/90|
|10||Général de Brigade||Mamadou COULIBALY||Air Force||1987/91|
|11||Général d'Armée||Amadou Toumani TOURÉ||Infantry||20 janvier 1995|
|12||Général de Division||Bourama Siré TRAORÉ||Air Force||1997/99|
|13||Général de Division||Cheick O. DIARRA (décédé)||Air Force||1997/99|
|14||Général de Division||Kafougouna KONÉ||Infantry||1997/99|
|15||Général de Division||Tiécoura DOUMBIA||Artillery||1997/99|
|16||Général de Brigade||Mamadou DOUCOURÉ||Air Force||1997/99|
|17||Général de Brigade||Abdoul Karim DIOP||Engineers||1997/99|
|18||Général de Brigade||Siriman KEITA (décédé)||Infantry||1999/2000|
|19||Général de Brigade||Seydou TRAORÉ||Infantry||2005|
|20||Général de Brigade||Salif TRAORÉ||Air Force||2006|
|21||Général de Brigade||Sadio GASSAMA||Infantry||01 janvier 2007|
|22||Général de Brigade||Toumani SISSOKO||Infantry||01 janvier 2007|
|23||Général de Brigade||Pangassy SANGARÉ||Armour||01 janvier 2007|
|24||Général de Brigade||Tiefolo TOGOLA||Infantry||01 janvier 2007|
|25||Général de Brigade||Brahima COULIBALY||Artillery||01 janvier 2007|
|26||Général de Brigade||Lassana KONÉ||Armour||01 janvier 2007|
|27||Général de Division||Youssouf BAMBA||Air Force||01 janvier 2007|
|28||Général de Division||Souleymane SIDIBÉ||Gendarmerie||01 janvier 2007|
|29||Général de Brigade||Naïny TOURÉ||Gendarmerie||01 janvier 2007|
|30||Général de Division||Gabriel POUDIOUGOU||Infantry||12 juin 2008|
|31||Général de Brigade||Mahamane TOURÉ||Infantry||01 octobre 2010|
|32||Général de Brigade||Mamadou DIALLO||Infantry||01 octobre 2010|
|33||Général de Brigade||Kalifa KEITA||Armour||01 octobre 2010|
|34||Général de Brigade||Bégrélé SIORO||Air Force||01 octobre 2010|
|35||Général de Brigade||Mamadou TOGOLA||Air Force||01 octobre 2010|
|36||Général de Brigade||Siaka SANGARÉ||Air Force||01 octobre 2010|
|37||Général de Brigade||Samballa DIALLO||Gendarmerie||01 octobre 2010|
|38||Général de Brigade||Sirakoro SANGARÉ||Engineers||01 octobre 2010|
|39||Général de Brigade||Djibril SANGARÉ||DCSSA||01 octobre 2010|
|40||Général de Brigade||Mohamed COULIBALY||DCSSA||01 octobre 2010|
|41||Général de Brigade||Kani DIABATÉ||DCSSA||01 octobre 2010|
|42||Général de Brigade||Minkoro KANÉ||Infantry||01 octobre 2010|
|43||Général de Brigade||Youssouf GOITA||Infantry||01 octobre 2010|
|44||Général de Brigade||Yakouba SIDIBÉ||Artillery||01 octobre 2010|
|45||Général de Brigade||Ismaïla CISSÉ||Artillery||01 octobre 2010|
|46||Général de Brigade||Lamine DIABIRA||Armour||01 octobre 2010|
|47||Général de Brigade||Cheick Fanta M. MAIGA||Administration||01 octobre 2010|
|48||Général de Brigade||Hamet SIDIBÉ||Air Force||01 octobre 2010|
|49||Général de Brigade||Hamidou SISSOKO||Gendarmerie||01 octobre 2010|
|50||Général de Brigade||Idrissa DJILLA||Engineers||01 octobre 2010|
|51||Général de Brigade||Sékou Hamed NIAMBÉlÉ||DTTA (transmission)||01 octobre 2010|
|52||Général de Brigade||Mady MACALOU||DCSSA||01 octobre 2010|
|53||Général de Brigade||Fanta KONIPO (décédé)||DCSSA||01 octobre 2010|
|54||Général de Brigade||Amadou Baba TOURÉ (décéssed)||Infantry||01 octobre 2010|
|55||Général de Brigade||Waly SISSOKO||Air Force||01 janvier 2012|
|56||Général de Brigade||Soumana KOUYATE||Air Force||01 janvier 2012|
|57||Général de Brigade||Mady Boubou KAMISSOKO||Gendarmerie||01 janvier 2012|
|58||Général de Brigade||Mamadou Lamine BALLO||Engineers||01 janvier 2012|
|59||Général de Brigade||Antoine Ibrahima NIENTAO||DCSSA||01 janvier 2012|
Sources: Mali Actu du 17 février 2012: Liste des généraux du Mali sous ATT : À quoi servaient-ils ? Quel sera leur sort ? and Le Monde-Duniya du 12 avril 2012: Les Generaux du MALI
Training establishments[edit | edit source]
The Malian armed forces have at least two significant training establishments:
- Joint Military School at Koulikoro (fr:École militaire interarmes de Koulikoro)
- Alioune Blondin Beye Peacekeeping Training School at Bamako (fr:École de maintien de la paix Alioune Blondin Beye de Bamako)
The Alioune Bloundin Beye school is the tactical-level component of a trio of three ECOWAS peacekeeping training schools: the Alioune Bloundin Beye school, the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre in Accra, Ghana (operational level), and the Nigerian National Defence College (strategic level).
Mali Air Force[edit | edit source]
The Mali Air Force (Armée de l'air du Mali) was founded in 1961 with French supplied military aid. This included MH.1521 Broussard utility monoplane followed by two C-47 transports until Soviet aid starting in 1962 with four Antonov AN-2 Colt biplane transports and four Mi-4 light helicopters. In the mid-1960s the Soviets delivered five MIG-17F fighters and a single MIG 15UTI fighter trainer to equip a squadron based at Bamako-Sénou initially with Soviet pilots. Two Ilyushin Il-14 transports and a Mil Mi-8 helicopter were delivered in 1971 followed by two Antonov AN-24 transports. In 1976 an AN-26 transport was acquired along with a second AN-26 in 1983. Also in 1970s the first of 12 MiG-21MF fighter and two MIG 21UM trainers were delivered. In 1983 six Aero L-29 jet trainers were delivered to form an Ecole de Pilotage (pilots school).
The current inventory of the air force:
|Aero L-29 Delfín||Advanced trainer||(6)||Received from USSR in 1983|
|Antonov An-2 Colt||Transport||AN-2P 'Colt'||(2)||Received from USSR in 1962|
|Antonov An-24 Coke||Transport||(2)||Received from USSR in 1976|
|Antonov An-26 Curl||Tactical transport||1||Received from USSR in 1976|
|Basler BT-67 Turbo Dakota||Transport||BT-67 Turbo Dakota||3|
|Eurocopter AS350 Ecureuil||Utility helicopter||AS 350B||1|
|Harbin Z-9||utility helicopter||Chinese variant of AS-365N Dauphin 2||2|
|Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 Fresco||Fighter/ Light attack||MiG-17F||(5)||Received from USSR in 1965|
|Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 Fishbed J||Air defence
|MiG-21BIS/MF/UM||(14)||Received from USSR in 1976|
|Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 Fagot||Combat trainer||MiG-15UTI||None||Received from USSR in 1965 Now gate guardian of the Senou Airbase on a concrete block|
|Mil Mi-8 Hip||Transport helicopter||1|
|Mil Mi-24 Hind||attack helicopter||Mi-24D||2 (1)||Received from Bulgaria in 2007 Deagel.com Mi-24 transaction reports One lost on 13 March 2013.|
|Yakovlev Yak-18 Max||Primary trainer||0 (2)||Received from USSR in 1983|
References[edit | edit source]
- DISCOURS DE AMADOU TOUMANI TOURE, PRESIDENT DE LA REPUBLIQUE, : CINQUANTENAIRE DU 20 JANVIER (Speech by Amadou Toumani Toure, President of the Republic Demi-Centennial of 20 January), primature.gov.ml, 20 January 2011. The President of Mali's Demi-Centennial Army Day speech, with a detailed history of the formation of the Malian Armed Forces and withdrawal of French forces.
- 49EME ANNIVERSAIRE DU 20 JANVIER, Discours de Amadou Toumani TOURE, Président de la République,(49th Anniversary of 20 January, speech by Amadou Toumani Toure, President of the Republic of Mali), primature.gov.ml, 20 January 2010. The President of Mali on the History of the Malian Armed forces.
- Fete de l'armee: Beintot un demi siecle. S. Konate. L’Essor n°16365, 2009-01-19. Reprinted on primature.gov.ml.
- Mali, Algeria plan joint patrols on Saharan border, Reuters, Tiemoko Diallo, 15 July 2008.
- Financial Times, World Desk Reference Mali Defense
- CIA World Fact Book, 2003
- Library of Congress, Country Profile, January 2005
- IISS Military Balance 2009 p.310
- Herbert Howe, Ambiguous Order: Military Forces in African States, Lynne Rienner, 2005, p.277
- État-major général des armées : Le colonel Gabriel Poudiougou promu Général de brigade. L'Indépendant, 12/06/2008
- Dixon, Robyn; Labous, Jane (4 April 2012). "Gains of Mali's Tuareg rebels appear permanent, analysts say". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2012/apr/04/world/la-fg-mali-tuaregs-20120404.
- Pflanz, Mike (1 May 2012). "Mali counter-coup fails". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/mali/9238385/Mali-counter-coup-fails.html.
- May include 35ème régiment blindé in the vicinity of Kati - http://www.malikounda.com/nouvelle_voir.php?idNouvelle=10935
- United States European Command, 1/10 Special Forces Group Supports Pan Sahel Initiative, 2004
- State Department, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/34329.pdf
- Ennaharonline.com, French troops for anti-terrorist training in Mali, 13 April 2010.
- "Saharan states to open joint military headquarters". BBC. 21 April 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8633851.stm. Retrieved 22 April 2010. . See also http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/us-embassy-cables-documents/231198 - 09ALGIERS0048, on Tamanrassat committee
- http://www.ambafrance-gh.org/spip.php?article115. Retrieved September 2011
- World Aircraft Information Files. Brightstar Publishing, London. Files 337, Sheet 04.
- Air Forces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. May 2013. pp. 30.
This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2003 edition".
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- 'Insurgency, disarmament, and insecurity in Northern Mali 1990-2004,' in Nicolas Florquin and Eric G. Berman (eds.) Armed and Aimless Armed Groups, Guns, and Human Security in the ECOWAS Region, Small Arms Survey, ISBN 2-8288-0063-6, May 2005
- Mahamadou Nimaga, 'Mali', in Alan Bryden, Boubacar N'Diaye, 'Security Sector Governance in Francophone West Africa: Realities and Opportunities,' DCAF/Lit Verlag, 2011.
[edit | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Military of Mali.|
- Soldiers training during the Northern Mali conflict
- http://www.jamana.org/lesechos/articles/2005/septembre/ec1_actu15_0905.html - two new Malian generals, total eight
- http://www.wikileaks.ch/cable/2009/12/09BAMAKO815.html - "Closing ceremony of JCET training for Malian army"
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