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Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1993-051-07, Tafel mit KZ-Kennzeichen (Winkel) retouched

Nazi camp ID-emblems in a 1936 German illustration.

Nazi concentration camp badges, primarily triangles, were part of the system of identification in Nazi camps. They were used in the concentration camps in the Nazi-occupied countries to identify the reason the prisoners had been placed there.[1] The triangles were made of fabric and were sewn on jackets and trousers of the prisoners. These mandatory badges of shame had specific meanings indicated by their colour and shape. Such emblems helped guards assign tasks to the detainees: for example, a guard at a glance could see if someone were a convicted criminal (green patch) and thus likely of a "tough" temperament suitable for kapo duty. Someone with an "escape suspect" mark usually would not be assigned to work squads operating outside the camp fence. Someone wearing an F could be called upon to help translate guards' spoken instructions to a trainload of new arrivals from France. Some historical monuments quote the badge-imagery; the use of a triangle being a sort of visual shorthand to symbolize all camp victims. Also, the modern day use of a pink triangle emblem to symbolize gay rights is a response to the camp identification patches.

Badge coding systemEdit

The system of badges varied between the camps, and in the later stages of World War II, the use of badges dwindled in some camps, and became increasingly accidental in others. The following description is based on the badge coding system used before and during the early stages of the war in the Dachau concentration camp, which had one of the more elaborate coding systems.

Shape was chosen by analogy with the common triangular road hazard signs in Germany that denote warnings to motorists. Here, a triangle is called inverted because its base is up while one of its angles points down.

Single trianglesEdit

  • Red triangle—political prisoners: social democrats, socialists, trade unionists, Freemasons, communists, and anarchists.
  • Green triangle— "professional criminals" (convicts, often working in the camps as Kapos).
  • Blue triangle—foreign forced laborers, emigrants.
  • Purple triangle—Jehovah's Witnesses, though a very small number of pacifists and members of other religious organizations were also imprisoned under this classification. (The German term Bibelforscher has sometimes been misinterpreted as "Bible Students" in general; however, Bibelforscher was a name German-speaking Jehovah's Witnesses formerly gave themselves.) [2]
  • Pink triangle—sexual offenders, mostly homosexual men but rarely rapists, zoophiles and paedophiles.[3]
  • Black triangle—people who were deemed "asocial elements" and "work shy" including
  • Brown triangle—Roma (Gypsies) (previously wore the black triangle).[6]
  • Uninverted red triangle—an enemy POW, spy or a deserter.

People who wore the green and pink triangles were convicted in criminal courts and may have been transferred to the criminal prison systems after the camps were liberated.

Double trianglesEdit

Double-triangle badges resembled two superimposed triangles forming a Star of David, a Jewish symbol.

  • Two superimposed yellow triangles, the "Yellow badge"—a Jew
  • Red inverted triangle superimposed upon a yellow one—a Jewish political prisoner
  • Green inverted triangle upon a yellow one—a Jewish "habitual criminal"
  • Purple inverted triangle superimposed upon a yellow one—a Jehovah's Witness of Jewish descent[7]
  • Pink inverted triangle superimposed upon a yellow one—a Jewish "sexual offender"
  • Black inverted triangle superimposed upon a yellow one—"asocial" and "work shy" Jews
  • Voided black inverted triangle superimposed over a yellow triangle—a Jew convicted of miscegenation and labelled as a "race defiler"
  • Yellow inverted triangle superimposed over a black triangle—an Aryan (woman) convicted of miscegenation and labelled as a "race defiler"

Like those who wore pink and green triangles, people in the bottom two categories would have been convicted in criminal courts.

Other badgesEdit

In addition to colour-coding, some groups had to put letter insignia on their triangles to denote country of origin. Red triangle with a letter, for example: "B" (Belgier, Belgians), "F" (Franzosen, French), "H" (Holländer, Dutch), "I" (Italiener, Italians), "J"[8] (Jugoslawen, Yugoslavs), "N" (Norweger, Norwegian), "P" (Polen, Poles), "S" (Republikanische Spanier, Republican Spanish) "T" (Tschechen, Czechs), "U" (Ungarn, Hungarians).[citation needed]

Also, repeated offenders would receive bars over their stars or triangles, a different colour for a different crime.

  • A political prisoner would have a red bar over his/her star or triangle
  • A professional criminal would have a green bar
  • A foreign forced laborer would have a blue bar
  • A Jehovah's Witness would have a purple bar
  • A homosexual or sex offender would have a pink bar
  • An "asocial" would have a black bar
  • A Roma (Gypsy) would have a brown bar

Many various markings and combinations existed. A prisoner would usually have at least two, and possibly more than six.

Some camps assigned Nacht und Nebel prisoners with two large letters, NN, in yellow.

Penal battalion, penal company, etc., are military units consisting of convicted persons for which military service was either the assigned punishment or a voluntary replacement of imprisonment.

Detainees wearing civilian clothing (more common later in the war) instead of the striped uniforms were often marked with a prominent X on the back.[9] This made for an ersatz prisoner uniform. For permanence, such Xs were made with white oil paint, with sewn-on cloth strips, or were cut (with underlying jacket-liner fabric providing the contrasting color). Detainees would be compelled to sew their number and (if applicable) a triangle emblem onto the fronts of such X-ed clothing.[10]

Table of camp inmate markingsEdit

Political enemies Professional criminals Foreign forced laborers or Emigrants Jehovah's Witnesses (Bible Students) Sex offenders (usually male homosexuals) "Asocials" Roma (Gypsies)
Basic colours Red triangle Green triangle Blue triangle Purple triangle Pink triangle Black triangle Brown triangle svg
Markings for repeaters Red triangle repeater Green triangle repeater Blue triangle repeater Purple triangle repeater Pink triangle repeater Black triangle repeater Brown triangle repeater svg
Inmates of penal battalions (German: Strafkompanie) Red triangle penal Green triangle penal Blue triangle penal Purple triangle penal Pink triangle penal Black triangle penal Maroon triangle penal
Markings for Jews Red triangle jew Green triangle jew Blue triangle jew Purple triangle jew Pink triangle jew Black triangle jew Brown triangle jew
Special markings Male race defiler
Jewish race defiler
Female race defiler2
Female race defiler
Escape suspect
Escape suspect
Inmate number

Inmate number



Special inmate

Special inmates' brown armband

Sleeve badges
<p>Applicable marks were worn in descending order as follows: inmate number, repeater bar, triangle or star, member of penal battalion, escape suspect. In this case, the inmate is a Jewish convict with multiple convictions, serving in a penal battalion, Strafkompanie.
Red triangle Pole
Pole: "P" on a red triangle
Red triangle Czech
Czech: "T" (the German word for Czech is Tscheche) on a red triangle
Armed forces red triangle
Member of the armed forces: red triangle, an enemy POW or a deserter.
Nationality Political prisoner
Belgium Belgian political prisoner triangle (2)
Czechoslovakia Red triangle Czech
France Red triangle French
Poland Red triangle Pole
Spain Preso politico es

Postwar useEdit

Triangle-motifs appear on many postwar memorials to the victims of the Nazis. Most triangles are plain while some others bear nationality-letters. The otherwise potentially puzzling designs are a direct reference to the identification patches used in the camps. On such monuments, typically an inverted (point down, base up) triangle (especially if red) evokes all victims, including also the non-Jewish victims like Slavs, Poles, communists, gays, Roma (see Porajmos), the handicapped (see Action T4), and Soviet POWs. An inverted triangle colored pink would symbolize gay male victims. A non-inverted (base down, point up) triangle and/or a yellow triangle is generally more evocative of the Jewish victims.

NotesEdit

  1. Nazis Open Dachau Concentration Camp
  2. http://books.google.com/books/about/Between_Resistance_and_Martyrdom.html?id=cjRiEV0CSQUC
  3. Plant, The Pink Triangle.
  4. Claudia Schoppmann: Nationalsozialistische Sexualpolitik und weibliche Homosexualität (Dissertation, FU Berlin, 1990.) Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1991 (revisited 2nd edition 1997). ISBN 3-89085-538-5
  5. "Black triangle women". 2001-02-01. http://www.oxfordstudent.com/ht2001wk3/Columns/black_triangle_women. Retrieved 2008-02-02. [dead link]
  6. Jewish Virtual Museum: Badges
  7. Note that since "Jew" was defined along "racial" lines, such as by the Nuremberg Laws, Jews could be classified as Jehovah's Witnesses.
  8. Politika: У Аушвицу, на вест о ослобођењу Београда
  9. Rochelle G. Saidel (2006). The Jewish Women of Ravensbruck Concentration Camp (pg 76). http://books.google.com/books?id=zglu2RvoLmgC&lpg=PA76&ots=ElAQpjF6Aw&dq=%22an%20x%22%20%22concentration%20camp%22%20-%22x-men%22%20-%22x-ray%22&pg=PA77#v=onepage&q=%22an%20x%22%20%22concentration%20camp%22%20-%22x-men%22%20-%22x-ray%22&f=false. Retrieved May 20, 2013. 
  10. Rochelle G. Saidel (2006). The Jewish Women of Ravensbruck Concentration Camp (pg 76). http://books.google.com/books?id=zglu2RvoLmgC&lpg=PA76&ots=ElAQpjF6Aw&dq=%22an%20x%22%20%22concentration%20camp%22%20-%22x-men%22%20-%22x-ray%22&pg=PA77#v=onepage&q=%22an%20x%22%20%22concentration%20camp%22%20-%22x-men%22%20-%22x-ray%22&f=false. Retrieved May 20, 2013. 

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit

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