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Nepali Army
नेपाली सेना
Roundel of Nepal.svg
Roundel of the Nepalese Army
Active 1768
Country    Nepal
Allegiance Government of Nepal
Type Army
Size 95,000 active personnel
50,000 reserve personnel[1]
Garrison/HQ Kathmandu
Anniversaries Maha Shivaratri
General Purna Chandra Thapa
Kalu Pande
Ram Krishna Kunwar
Vamsharaj Pande
Abhiman Singh Basnyat
Damodar Pande
Amar Singh Thapa

Nepal Army's Guruju Paltan (a ceremonial infantry company) in traditional uniform

Khukuri, Karda & Chakmak; Khukuri is the symbolic weapon of the Nepalese Army (formerly Gorkhali Army)

The Nepali Army (Nepali language: नेपाली सेना), formerly Gorkhali Army (Nepali language: गोरखाली सेना) and the Royal Nepalese Army (Nepali language: शाही नेपाली सेना), is the military land warfare force of Nepal that originated from Gorkha Kingdom. The army was formerly known as the "Gorkhali Army" during the unification of Nepal and later as "The Royal Nepalese Army (RNA)" during the monarchy period in Nepal. It was renamed the Nepalese Army on 28 May 2008 after the abolition of the 240-year-old Shah dynasty.

The Nepalese Army participated in various battles of the Unification campaign of Nepal, Limbuwan-Gorkha War, Gurkha-Sikh War, First and Second Sino-Nepalese War, Anglo-Nepalese War, the last Nepalese-Tibetan War, World War I, World War II, and the Nepalese Civil War. As UN peacekeeping forces, the Army has participated in the Somali Civil War, Sierra Leone Civil War, Eritrean–Ethiopian War and Second Sudanese Civil War.

The current headquarters of the Nepalese Army is Bhadrakali Kathmandu. The incumbent Chief of Army Staff of the Nepalese Army is General Purna Chandra Thapa.

History[edit | edit source]

Nepali national soldiers by Gustave Le Bon, 1885

The Nepal unification campaign was a turning point in the history of the Nepalese army. Since unification was not possible without a strong army, the management of the armed forces had to be exceptional. Apart from the standard Malla era temples in Kathmandu, the army organized itself in Gorkha. Technicians and experts had to be brought in from abroad to manufacture war materials. After the Gorkhali troops captured Nuwakot, the hilly northern part of Kathmandu (Kantipur) in 1744, the Gorkhali armed forces came to be known as the Royal Nepalese Army.

Their performance impressed their enemies so much that the British East-India Company started recruiting Nepalese troops into their forces. The native British soldiers called the new soldiers "Gurkhas." The Gurkha-Sikh War began shortly after, in 1809. In 1946, the Royal Nepalese Army troops were led by Commanding General Sir Baber Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana at the Victory Parade in London.[citation needed]

Prior to 2006, the Nepalese Army was known as the Royal Nepalese Army and was under the control of the King of Nepal. Following the Loktantra Andolan (People's Movement for Democracy) on May 18, 2006, a bill was passed by the Nepalese parliament curtailing royal power, which included renaming the army.[2]

In 2004, Nepal spent $99.2 million on its military (1.5% of its GDP). Since 2002, the RNA had been involved in the Nepali Civil War. They were also used to quell the pro-democracy protesters in April 2006 Loktantra Andolan.

Organization[edit | edit source]

The Nepalese Army has about 95,000 infantry army and air service members protecting the sovereignty of Nepal. In August 2018, The Himalayan Times estimated total army forces to be around 96,000[3] while The Kathmandu Post estimated it to be 92,000.[4]

Supreme Command[edit | edit source]

The position of the Supreme Commander of the Nepalese Army is the President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. Until 2006, the King of Nepal (monarchy abolished) was in control of all military forces in the country. The National Army was renamed from Royal Nepalese Army to Nepalese Army after the recent national conversion from a monarchy to a republic on 28 May 2008.

The National Defence Council[edit | edit source]

This Council has seven members: the Prime Minister, the Defence Minister, the Chief of the Army Staff, Foreign Minister, Finance Minister, Home Minister, and the Chief Secretary.

The President of Nepal is the Supreme Commander-In-Chief.

Divisions[edit | edit source]

The Nepalese Army is divided into eight divisions, one each in the seven states and one in the Kathmandu Valley.

In addition to this, there are 7 independent units:

  • Army Aviation Directorate
  • Special Forces Brigade
  • VVIP Security
  • Artillery Brigade
  • Signals Brigade
  • Engineers Brigade
  • Air Defense Brigade

Women Participation in Nepal Army[edit | edit source]

Nepalese Army Lance Cpl. Nanu Tamang, with the Birendra Peace Operation Training Center, escorts a role player at the vehicle checkpoint training lane during Khaan Quest 2013 at the Five Hills Training Area in Mongolia.

The first unofficial participation of women in the Nepal Army was during the Anglo-Nepalese War in the Battle of Nalapani. The Battle of Nalapani was the first battle of the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–1816, fought between the forces of the British East India Company and Nepal, then ruled by the Gorkha Kingdom. Nepalese women were heavily involved in this battle, supporting the male Gurkha warriors.

Notable Women Officers In Nepal Army[edit | edit source]


  • Brigadier General Dr. Radha Shah = First women to become Brigadier General of Nepal Army
  • Brigadier General Dr. Narvada Thapa = First women staff of Nepal Army to get a doctorate (P.Hd)
  • Colonel Dr. Sarita K.C = First Nepalese army personnel to join UN Peacekeeping mission(UNIFIL)
  • Major Geeta Gurung = First women officer commanding of the unit in a peacekeeping mission, UNDOF from Nepal Army
  • Major Kriti Rajbhandari = First women observer military liaison officer from Nepal Army
  • Colonel Yvetta Rana = First women officer of Judge Advocate General Department of Nepal Army
  • Major Er.Bibhusa Mishra = First women officer to join the Engineering department of Nepal Army (2061 B.S.)
  • Lieutenant Colonel Sovana Rayamajhi = First women officer to join IT Department of Nepal Army
  • Major Er. Ranjana Kandel = First women Engineer officer to join EME of Nepal Army
  • Major Niru Dhungana = First batch of women military pilot
  • Major Anita Ale Magar = First batch of women military pilot
  • Major Shristhi Khadka = First women company commander of Nepal Army

Operations[edit | edit source]

The primary role of the NA is to defend the territorial integrity, sovereignty, and independence of Nepal. Their secondary role is to assist the Civilian Government of Nepal in the maintenance of internal security. Other duties include humanitarian assistance/disaster relief operations, assisting in national development, nature conservation efforts, and participation in an international peacekeeping mission.

Foreign Involvements[edit | edit source]

  • Royal Nepalese Army in Indian Sepoy Mutiny
  • Royal Nepalese Army in The First World War 1914–1918
  • Royal Nepalese Army in Waziristan War
  • Royal Nepalese Army in Afghan War −1919
  • Royal Nepalese Army in The Second World War
  • Royal Nepalese Army in Hyderabad Action – 1948

Domestic Operations[edit | edit source]

Disarmament of the Khampas – 1974

In 1974, the then Royal Nepalese Army (RNA) was mobilized to disarm the Tibetan Khampas, who had been using Nepalese soil as a base to engage in guerilla warfare against the People's Liberation Army in the Tibetan Autonomous Region of China. The Khampas operated mainly from a base secretly established at Mustang in northwest Nepal. The RNA, under diplomatic pressure from China and the international community, moved nine infantry units toward Mustang and gave the Khampas an ultimatum to either disarm themselves and surrender or face attack. The terms and conditions of their surrender were that they would be given Nepalese citizenship, land, and money, and free schooling for their children. The Khampa commander, General Wangdi, agreed to surrender but eventually fled the camp. He was later killed by RNA forces in Doti, in far western Nepal, while trying to loot a Nepal Police post, this was the first time the RNA had mobilized domestically in such large numbers.

International Operations[edit | edit source]

The Nepalese Army has contributed more than 100,000 peacekeepers to a variety of United Nations-sponsored peacekeeping missions such as:

A member of the Nepalese Quick Reactionary Force (QRF) stands ready with a variant of the Galil assault rifle.

  • MINUSMA – For the first time,[5][6] the Nepalese Army has a company of EOD of 140 personnel specially dedicated for improvised explosive device (IED) and ordnance disposal mission in Mali.

U.S./Nepal military relations[edit | edit source]

The U.S.-Nepali military relationship focuses on support for democratic institutions, civilian control of the military, and the professional military ethic to include respect for human rights. The US would support Nepal with arms, ammunition and additional commandos and soldiers if war began with its neighboring China but resisted giving any support if war broke out with India as in is an essential ally to the US in the Indo-Pacific against China and has also signed COMCASA with the US in the 2+2 meeting in September 2018. Both countries have had extensive contact over the years. Nepali Army units have served with distinction alongside American forces in places such as Haiti, Iraq, and Somalia.

U.S.-Nepali military engagement continues today through IMET, Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC), Global Peace Operations Initiative (GPOI), and various conferences and seminars. The U.S. military sends many Nepalese Army officers to America to attend military schooling, such as the Command and General Staff College and the U.S. Army War College. The IMET budget for FY2001 was $220,000.

The EIPC program is an inter-agency program between the Department of Defense and the Department of State to increase the pool of international peacekeepers and to promote interoperability. Nepal received about $1.9 million in EPIC funding.

Commander in Chief, Pacific (CINCPAC) coordinates military engagement with Nepal through the Office of Defense Cooperation (ODC). The ODC Nepal is located in the American Embassy Kathmandu.

Bases[edit | edit source]

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  • Kathmandu Army HQ
  • Panchkhal Military Base (UN Peacekeeping Training Center)

Nepalese Army Air Service Mil Mi-8 helicopter at Tribhuvan International Airport Kathmandu

Major Base Camps are located in all 77 districts of Nepal, with at least 20 major base camps and 500 Army in each district.

Schools[edit | edit source]

  • Nepalese Army Command and Staff College, Shivapuri
  • Nepalese Army War College, Nagarkot
  • Nepalese Military Academy, Kharipati
  • Nepalese Army Recruit Training Center, Trishuli
  • Nepalese Army Jungle Warfare School, Amlekhgunj
  • Nepalese Army High Altitude and Mountain Warfare School, Mustang
  • Nepalese Army Intelligence School, Kharipati
  • Nepalese Army Logistics School, Chhauni
  • Birendra Peace Keeping Operation Training Center, Panchkhal
  • Nepalese Army Para Training School, Maharajgunj
  • Nepalese Army EME school, Kharipati

Units[edit | edit source]

Major Commands[edit | edit source]

There were initially six divisions called Pritana (Nepali language: पृतना) in Nepal. Recently, two divisions are added. There is one head of the division known as Pritanapati who is ranked Major General.

Insignia Name Headquarters Motto Founded Year First General Officer Commanding (GOC) Current General Officer Commanding (GOC) Subordinate Unit(s)
Eastern Division Itahari Rastra Rakshya Param Kartabya January 29, 2003 (2059 Magh 15 B.S) Maj. Gen. Pradip Pratap Bam Malla Maj. Gen. Ananta karki
Mid Eastern Division (proposed) Province No. 2
Mid Division Hetauda Atal Bhakti Desh Prati November 16, 2004 (Marga 01, 2061) Maj Gen Thakur Subba Maj Gen Tara dhoj pandey
Valley Division Narayanhiti Palace, Kathmandu Shanti Surakshya Sarbada May 19, 2003 (2060 Jestha 5) Maj Gen Kiran Shumsher Thapa Maj. Gen. Niranjan kumar Shrestha
Western Division (Formerly Central Division) Pokhara Rakshya Nai Dharma Ho February 13, 2003 (Falgun 1, 2059)
renamed on September 17, 2004
Lt Gen Chitra Bahadur Gurung Maj Gen Kaji Bahadur Khatri
Mid Western Division (proposed) Province No. 5 Maj Gen Rajendra Karki Maj Gen Sanjay Thapa
North Western Division (Formerly Western Division and Mid Western Division) Surkhet (Formerly at Nepalganj) Sadaiba Samarpit Desh Prati 29th Nov, 2001 (14th Mangsir, 2058)
renamed on 23rd Oct, 2005 (6th Kartik, 2062) as Mid-Western Division
renamed as the North Western Division on 16 July 2017 (1st Shrawan, 2074)
Maj Gen Sadip Bahadur Shah Maj Gen Karmendra Bikram Limbu
Far Western Division Dipayal Bhakti Nai Sakti Ho July 5, 2004 (Ashad 21, 2061)
flag raised on May 1, 2005 (Baisakh 18, 2062)
Maj Gen Rajendra Thapa Brig Gen Nirmal Kumar Thapa

Tactical Units[edit | edit source]

The first four army units of the Nepalese Army are Shreenath, Kali Baksh (Kalibox), Barda Bahadur, and Sabuj companies in August 1762 by the King Prithvi Narayan Shah. The Purano Gorakh Company was founded on February 1763 as the fifth army unit of Nepal by its founding date.[7]

  • Shree Nath Battalion – established 1762
  • Shree Kali Buksh Battalion (Engineers) – established 1762
  • Shree Barda Bahadur Battalion – established 1762
  • Shree Sabuj Battalion – established 1762
  • Shree Purano Gorakh Battalion – established 1763
  • Shree Devi Datta Battalion – established 1783
  • Shree Naya Gorakh Battalion – established 1783
  • Shree Bhairavi Dal Battalion – established 1785
  • Shree Singhanath Battalion – established 1786 (Commando)
  • Shree Shreejung Battalion – established 1783
  • Shree Ranabhim Battalion – established 1783
  • Shree Naya Shree Nath Battalion – established 1783
  • Shree Vajradal Company – established 1806
  • Shree Shree Mehar Battalion - established 1836
  • Shree 'The Famous' Mahindra Dal Battalion -established 1844 A.D -1901 B.S.
  • Shree Rajdal Regiment (Artillery) (Currently expanded to three additional independent Artillery regiments)
  • Shree Ganeshdal Battalion – established 1846 – signals and communications
  • Shree Nepal Cavalry – established 1849 – Household Cavalry ceremonial unit since 1952
  • Shree Kali Prasad Battalion (Engineers) – established 1863
  • Shree Bhairavnath Battalion – established 1910 – (Parachute Battalion)
  • Shree Bhagvati Prasad Company – established 1927
  • Shree Khadga Dal Battalion - established 1937
  • Shree Parshwavarti Company – established 1936 – served as PM's Body Guard unit and disbanded 1952
  • Shree Gorkah Bahadur Battalion – established 1952 (best infantry unit of NA, then was developed for special duty of Royal Guards).
  • Shree Jagadal Battalion (Air Defence)
  • Shree Yuddha Kawaj Battalion (Mechanized Infantry)
  • Shree Mahabir Battalion (Rangers Battalion. Equivalent to U.S Army Rangers (Part of Nepalese Army Special Operation Force))
  • Shree Chandan Nath Battalion – established 2004 (Infantry Unit)
  • Shree Tara Dal Battalion – established 2002 (Infantry Unit)
  • Shree No 1 Disaster Management Battalion – established 2012
  • Shree No 2 Disaster Management Battalion – established 2012

Equipment[edit | edit source]

The majority of equipment used by the Nepalese Army is imported from other countries. India is the army's largest supplier of arms and ammunition as well as other logistical equipment, which are often furnished under generous military grants.[8] Germany, the United States, Belgium, Israel, and South Korea have also either supplied or offered arms to the Nepalese Army.[9]

The army is currently in possession of 160,000 firearms.[8] Its first standard rifle was the Belgian FN FAL, which it adopted in 1960.[9] Nepalese FALs were later complemented by unlicensed, Indian-manufactured variants of the same weapon, as well its British counterpart, the L1A1 Self-Loading Rifle.[9] Beginning in 2002 these were officially supplemented in army service by the American M-16 rifle, which took the FAL's place as the army's standard service rifle.[9] Nevertheless, the FAL and its respective variants remain the single most prolific weapon in Nepalese army service, with thousands of second-hand examples being supplied by India as late as 2005.[8]

Until 2003, the Nepalese Army's reserve armories housed a large number of rare and antique firearms, some dating back to the early nineteenth century.[8] These were mostly donated to Nepal by the British East India Company and later by the British Raj, although there were also a few previously undocumented, esoteric weapons designed by Nepalese gunsmiths.[8] Most of these were sold to an American firm, International Military Antiques, to raise funds for the army's purchase of modern weapons during the civil war.[8]

Small arms[edit | edit source]

Weapon Origin Type Calibre Notes
Hi-Power  Belgium Semi-automatic pistol 9×19mm FN P-35 variant.[10]
Submachine guns
M3 United States Submachine gun 9×19mm In reserve.[8]
MP5[8]  Germany
Sten[10]  United Kingdom
Uzi[11]  Israel
INSAS rifle[9]  India Assault rifle 5.56×45mm The Nepalese Army had about 25,000 rifles in 2006, supplied at a 70% subsidy by India.[12]
M-16 United States Standard service rifle of the Nepalese Army.[9]
M4 carbine
IMI Galil[8]  Israel
IWI Tavor Used by Army Special Forces, Ranger Battalion.
Tavor X95 Used by Army Special Forces, Ranger Battalion. Often seen with GL40 UBGL, shown to be OTB compatible.
IWI ACE 7.62×39mm Limited use by Military Police.[13]
AKM  Soviet Union Confiscated from Maoist guerrillas during insurgency.[8]
Type 56  China 300 purchased from China in 2010.[8]
L1A2 SLR  United Kingdom Battle rifle 7.62×51mm Unlicensed Indian variant designated 1A1.[9]
FN FAL[9]  Belgium
G36  Germany
PSG1[8]  Germany Sniper rifle
Ishapore 2A1  United Kingdom Bolt-action rifle Indian copy of the No. III Enfield, modified for use with 7.62 NATO. New production action and barrel, recycled buttstock from No. III Enfields.[8]
Machine guns
FN Minimi  Belgium Light machine gun 5.56×45mm 5,500 purchased from Belgium in 2002.[9] Principal LMG/ SAW
M249 United States 300 supplied as military aid from the US.[8] Functionally identical to FN Minimi
Bren L4A4[10]  United Kingdom 7.62×51mm Used in outposts and basic automatic fire training
FN MAG[10]  Belgium GPMG Principal GPMG, used on vehicle mounts.

Heavy weapons[edit | edit source]

Weapon Origin Type Calibre Notes
Air Defence
Bofors L/70[14]  Sweden Anti-aircraft gun 40mm
QF 3.7-inch AA gun[14]  United Kingdom 94mm 45 in service.
OTO Melara Mod 56  Italy Howitzer 105mm 14 in service.[15]
M29[10] United States Mortar 81mm
M30[10] Heavy mortar 106mm
120-PM-43  Soviet Union 120mm 70 in service; mostly supplied by India.[16]

Vehicles[edit | edit source]

Vehicle Origin Type Quantity Notes
Armoured cars
Daimler Ferret  United Kingdom Scout car 40[16] Ferret Mk4 variant.[16]
Armoured personnel carriers
Casspir  South Africa MRAP 37[17] Some donated by India.[16]
Aditya  India 124[16] Partly financed with military grants from India.[16]
OT-64  Czechoslovakia APC 8 Donated by the Czech Republic in 2008.[16]
WZ551  China 5 Acquired from China in 2005.[16]

Special Force[edit | edit source]

The Nepalese Army currently has two types of uniforms.

Formal Uniform[edit | edit source]

This uniform is used primarily for parading and official duties. In August 2010, the Nepalese Army introduced a new ceremonial uniform replacing those worn by the former Royal Army to make it more relevant to the changing context and time. The new uniform comprises an olive green tunic and trousers of modern style, green-colored shirt and tie, leather belt, and peaked cap.

Combat Uniform[edit | edit source]

The Nepalese Army uses this uniform for regular operational duties.

Nepalese army uses two types of camouflage patterns:

Rank Structure[edit | edit source]

Commissioned Officers
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) & Student officer
Nepal Nepal
No equivalent 22.Nepalese Army-FM.svg 19.Nepalese Army-LG.svg 18.Nepalese Army-MG.svg 17.Nepalese Army-BG.svg 16.Nepalese Army-COL.svg 15.Nepalese Army-LTC.svg 14.Nepalese Army-MAJ.svg 13.Nepalese Army-CAPT.svg 12.Nepalese Army-1LT.svg 11.Nepalese Army-2LT.svg No insignia
General of the Army
महारथी (प्रधानसेनापती)
Lieutenant General
Major General
Brigadier General
सहायक रथी
Lieutenant Colonel
प्रमुख सेनानी
Second Lieutenant
सहायक सेनानी
Officer cadet
अधिकृत क्याडेट
Other ranks
Equivalent NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Nepal Nepal
10.Nepalese Army-WO1.svg 09.Nepalese Army-WO2.svg 08.Nepalese Army-WO3.svg India-Army-OR-6.svg No equivalent India-Army-OR-4.svg India-Army-OR-3.svg No insignia No insignia
प्रमुख सुवेदार
Warrant Officer
Class II

Warrant Officer
Class I

Lance corporal
Other rank insignia
07.Nepalese Army-SGM.svg 06.Nepalese Army-MSG.svg 05.Nepalese Army-SFC.svg 04.Nepalese Army-SSG.svg
Sergeant Major Master Sergeant Sergeant First Class Staff Sergeant

Chiefs of the Nepalese Army[edit | edit source]

The Chief of the Nepalese Army have been mostly drawn from noble Chhetri families from Gorkha such as "Pande dynasty", "Basnyat dynasty", and "Thapa dynasty" before the rule of "Rana dynasty".[18] During the Shah monarchy, the officers were drawn from these aristocratic families.[18] During the Rana dynasty, Ranas overtook the position as birthright.[18] The first army chief of Nepal was King Prithvi Narayan Shah who drafted and commanded the Nepali (Gorkhali) Army.[19] The first civilian army chief was Kaji Kalu Pande who had significant role in the campaign of Nepal.[19] He was considered as army head due to the undertaking of duties and responsibilities of the army but not by the formalization of the title.[19]

Mukhtiyar Bhimsen Thapa was the first person to use Commander-in-Chief as the title of army chief.[20] King Rajendra Bikram Shah appointed Bhimsen to the post of Commander-in-Chief and praised Bhimsen for long service to the nation.[21] However, on 14 June 1837, the King took over the command of all the battalions put in charge of various courtiers, and himself became the Commander-in-Chief.[22][23] Immediately after the incarceration of the Thapas in 1837, Dalbhanjan Pande and Rana Jang Pande were the joint head of military administration.[24] However, Rana Jang was removed after 3 months on October 1837.[25][26][27][28]

Since the regime of Mukhtiyar Bhimsen, only seven army chiefs of Nepal were non-Rana Chhetris including Shahs while others were all Ranas till 2007.[20] Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) was replaced by Chief of the Army Staff (COAS) from the reign of General Singha Pratap Shah. The Chief of the Army Staff is also known as Chief Saab.

Battles[edit | edit source]

Nepalese army fought various battles on the unification campaign.

Battles Defending the Kingdom of Nepal[edit | edit source]

Battles of Unification of Kingdom of Nepal[edit | edit source]

Battles as allies[edit | edit source]

Medals and awards[edit | edit source]

  • Mahendra Mala
  • Parama Nepal Pratap Baskara
  • Ati Nepal Pratapa Bhaskara
  • Nepal Pratapa Bhaskara
  • Ojasvi Rajanya (Sovereign – A)
  • Ojasvi Rajanya (Sovereign – B)
  • Ojasvi Rajanya (Grand Master – A)
  • Ojasvi Rajanya (Grand Master – B)
  • Parama Ujjvala Keertimaya Nepal – Shreepada
  • Ati Ujjvala Keertimaya Nepal – Shreepada
  • Maha Ujjvala Keertimaya Nepal Shreepada

Social Adaptation[edit | edit source]

Nepal Army is portrayed in different movies and teleshows throughout Nepal and the world. The film "Ma Timi Bina Marihalchu Ni" featuring Bhuwan K.C. and Jharana Thapa is based on the story of Nepal Army.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Nepal Military Strength". Archived from the original on 16 January 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160116042753/http://www.globalfirepower.com/country-military-strength-detail.asp?country_id=Nepal. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  2. Haviland, Charles (2006-05-19). "Erasing the 'royal' in Nepal". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4998666.stm. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  3. https://thehimalayantimes.com/kathmandu/lieutenant-general-purna-chandra-thapa-to-take-charge-of-nepali-army-as-acting-chief-of-army-staff/
  4. http://kathmandupost.ekantipur.com/news/2018-08-10/new-chief-faces-daunting-task-rebuilding-nepal-armys-image.html
  5. "In a first, NA peacekeepers to dispose explosives under UN mission". http://www.myrepublica.com/portal/index.php?action=news_details&news_id=68719. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  6. "NA to deploy 140 soldiers to Mali for peacekeeping – News – :: The Kathmandu Post ::". http://www.ekantipur.com/the-kathmandu-post/2014/01/28/news/na-to-deploy-140-soldiers-to-mali-for-peacekeeping/258634.html. Retrieved 23 October 2014. 
  7. http://kathmandupost.ekantipur.com/printedition/news/2013-03-09/nepal-army-day-five-nepal-army-battalions-mark-250-years-of-combat-history.html
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 "Legacies of War in the Company of Peace: Firearms in Nepal". Geneva: Small Arms Survey. May 2013. Archived from the original on 8 July 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140708052928/http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/G-Issue-briefs/NAVA-IB2-Legacies-of-War.pdf. Retrieved 21 September 2016. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 Graduate Institute of International Studies (2003). Small Arms Survey 2003: Development Denied. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 97–113. ISBN 978-0199251759. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 Hogg, Ian (1991). Jane's Infantry Weapons (17 ed.). Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd. p. 747. ISBN 978-0710609632. 
  11. Sharma, Haridev (2012). Tripathi, Devi Prasad. ed. Nepal in Transition: A Way Forward. New Delhi: Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 57. ISBN 978-9381411070. 
  12. "Wikileaks news: Why Nepal king Gyanendra shed power". 6 September 2011. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/wikileaks-news-why-nepal-king-gyanendra-shed-power/articleshow/9881252.cms. Retrieved 29 May 2014. 
  13. "Exercise Shanti Prayas III Closing Ceremony". DVIDS. https://www.dvidshub.net/image/3282313/exercise-shanti-prayas-iii-closing-ceremony. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Pretty, Ronald. Jane's Weapon Systems, 1983–84 (1983 ed.). Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd. p. 876. ISBN 978-0-7106-0776-8. 
  15. Christopher F. Foss. Jane's Armour and Artillery (2002 ed.). Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd. p. 740. ISBN 978-0710623096. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. http://armstrade.sipri.org/armstrade/page/trade_register.php. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  17. Leon Engelbrecht. "South African Arms Exports". http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11274:-fact-file-south-african-arms-exports&catid=79:fact-files&Itemid=159. Retrieved 5 November 2014. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Adhikari 2012, p. 154.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Adhikari 2012, p. 153.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Adhikari 2012, p. 155.
  21. Pradhan 2012, p. 149.
  22. Acharya 2012, p. 215.
  23. Nepal 2007, p. 105.
  24. Nepal 2007, p. 106.
  25. Acharya 2012, p. 160.
  26. Oldfield 1880, p. 311.
  27. Nepal 2007, p. 109.
  28. Pradhan 2012, p. 164.

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