|New Mexico Army National Guard|
[[File:|240x240px|frameless}}|Seal of the Army National Guard|alt=]]|
Seal of the Army National Guard
|Branch||Army National Guard|
|Type||ARNG Headquarters Command|
|Part of||New Mexico National Guard|
The New Mexico Army National Guard is a component of the United States Army and the United States National Guard. Nationwide, the Army National Guard comprises approximately one half of the US Army's available combat forces and approximately one third of its support organization. National coordination of various state National Guard units are maintained through the National Guard Bureau.
New Mexico Army National Guard units are trained and equipped as part of the United States Army. The same ran ks and insignia are used and National Guardsmen are eligible to receive all United States military awards. The New Mexico Guard also bestows a number of state awards for local services rendered in or to the state of New Mexico.
History[edit | edit source]
The first Territorial Militia was provided for by a system of laws devised by General Stephen W. Kearny, commonly known as the Kearny Code, after Kearny occupied New Mexico in 1846. Then in 1851 the first territorial Legislature created the office of Adjutant General and placed the territorial Militia under its jurisdiction.
In 1862, the Territorial Militia, also known as the New Mexico Volunteers, played a decisive role in the defeat of Confederate forces in the Battle of Glorieta. During 1863 and 1864, the Militia was also active in Navajo and other Indian campaigns of the period.
The New Mexico Volunteer Militia was redesignated 17 March 1897 as the New Mexico National Guard.
After the Spanish-American War began in 1898, volunteer forces were organized, which included Teddy Roosevelt's "Rough Riders." Many New Mexico Guardsmen helped form the 2nd Squadron, 1st United States Cavalry, which served with Roosevelt at the legendary charge of San Juan Hill.
After the war with Spain, units of the New Mexico National Guard were again placed in active service on the Mexican border to pursue Pancho Villa after Mexican forces raided Columbus, New Mexico in 1916. The Guard spent one year on this border duty, hardening themselves to the rough field conditions of the desert southwest.
In 1921, the Guard in New Mexico was reorganized into the 111th Cavalry Regiment (United States), the 120th Engineers, and Battery A, 158th Field Artillery. In 1939, the War Department suggested the 111th Cavalry convert to another branch of service and the officers of the command jointly selected Coast Artillery. In 1940, the 111th was re-designated the 200th Coast Artillery and the 158th was reorganized as the 104th Anti-Tank Battalion. On January 6, 1940, these units, along with the 120th Engineer Regiment, were called to active duty for what was supposed to be a one-year training period.
In August 1941, the 200th was given notice that it had been selected for an overseas assignment of great importance. At about 0300 hours on December 8, 1941, the 200th went on full alert when the night radio crew picked up commercial broadcasts telling of the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
During the 1983-1989 time frame the New Mexico Army National Guard began a complete modernization program to gain high technology type units. The 5th Battalion, 200th Air Defense Artillery (Roland) was fielded at McGregor Range (a part of Fort Bliss located in New Mexico). This unit was disbanded in September 1988, due to Federal budget cuts. A complete conversion of Duster Battalions to the MIM-72 Chaparral Battalions was accomplished. A new anti-aircraft missile Battalion equipped with the MIM-23 Hawk was put in place at Rio Rancho, New Mexico.
On 1 October 1993, the Headquarters Battery, 2d Battalion, 200th Air Defense Artillery was expanded to form the 2d Battalion, 200th Air Defense Artillery. The Battalion was converted, reorganized, and redesignated 15 December 1995 as the 202d Field Artillery, a parent regiment under the United States Army Regimental System, to consist of the 1st Battalion.
On 1 February 2008, the 111th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, New Mexico National Guard, ceased its air defense mission and was reorganized and redesignated as a maneuver enhancement brigade.
Units[edit | edit source]
- 1st and 2nd Battalions, 200th Infantry Regiment
- 93rd Troop Command
- 44th Army Band
- 111th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade
- 515th Regiment (Regional Training Institute)
References[edit | edit source]
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