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Ningbo massacre
Date 1542
Location Ningbo
Result Ming Chinese victory
Belligerents
Ming Dynasty China Kingdom of Portugal
Casualties and losses
Estimates range from either 800 or 3,000 Portuguese dead

The Ningbo massacre of 1542 was a massacre of the Ming Dynasty military against the Portuguese settlement in Ningbo.

MassacreEdit

After the Portuguese used coercion and bribed their way into obtaining a trade mission in Ningbo,[1] they inflicted savage behaviour against the Chinese. In retaliation, in 1545 the entire Portuguese community of Ningbo were exterminated by Chinese forces.[2][3][4][5][6] The Portuguese began trading in Ningbo around 1522. By 1542, the Portuguese had a sizable community in Ningbo (or, more likely, on nearby small islands). Portuguese activities from their Ningbo base included pillaging and attacking multiple Chinese port cities around Ningbo for plunder and spoil. They also enslaved people during their raids.[7][8] The resulting complaints made it to the province's governor who commanded the settlement destroyed and the inhabitants wiped out. In 1542 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their expulsion in 1545, when a force of 60,000 Chinese troops descended on the community, 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed.[9][10][11][12] The Emperor ruled that all Portuguese encountered everywhere should be killed on the spot. The casualties in total, with the 800 dead Portuguese totaled 12,000 dead Christians. The result of this massacre in addition to another at Ch'uanchow resulted in the Portuguese survivors fleeing to Macao, where they were allowed by china to start a colony.[13][14][15] The historian Kenneth Scott Latourette said that "the Portuguese had chiefly themselves to thank" for the massacres the Chinese committed against them.[16][17] The Portuguese commander Albuquerque once stated "a Chinese junk man knew more about courtesy and humanity than a European knights". The Chinese had massacred them after the Portuguese engaged in pillaging and murder in Chinese villages. "A Lesson" was delivered to the Portuguese in this manner from the Chinese.[18] The section of Macao they settled on was San Chuan island. They had to pay rent to China.[19]

In 1564, Portugal commanded the trade of India, Japan, and China, though their pride was deeply shocked at the supreme indifference with which the Chinese treated them. Their atrocities at Ningpo and Macao, and their subsequent servility, had opened the eyes of the Celestials to their true character, and unfortunately for other European adventurers, they had come to the conclusion that all western nations were alike. The senate of Macao complained to the viceroy of Goa, of the contempt with which the Chinese authorities treated them, confessing however that, “it was owing more to the Portuguese themselves than to the Chinese.” The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macao, in 1631.[20]
The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, Volume 7 (1845)

Zhejiand and Fujian Viceroy Yung Cheng created schools out of Churches and expelled to Macao Christian missionaries, in a series of anti Christian measures. He requested that the Imperial government enable him to go even further in these actions against Christians, stating they " sowed doubt and division among the people making it question the value of its own customs . . ." " condemning Chinese sages and ancestors as demons ..." and countenancing " manners which offended the accepted standards of behaviour."[21]

The Chinese and Foreigners. The position and treaty rights of foreigners in China have hitherto been maintained by military force; and though Mr. Burlingame's mission appears to be especially directed to the abolishment of the " force policy," yet without force, that is, a show of military force for protection, the position of foreigners of every class would not be tenable in China a month. Foreigners have at different periods settled in China; but after remaining for a time, they have been massacred. For instance, Mohammedans and others settled at Canton in the ninth century; and in 889, it is said that 120,000 foreign settlers were massacred. Again in the sixteenth century, the Portuguese commenced trade and formed a settlement at Ningpo; Spaniards and other foreigners also settled here. But in 1542, the whole settlement, consisting of over 3,000 persons, was destroyed, most of the settlers being put to death. Also at Cha-pu, about seventy or eighty miles north of Ningpo, on the Hangchow bay, there was a settlement of foreigners for the purposes of trade, about two hundred years since, who at length were massacred. It is often reported among the people at Ningpo, and other places in China where there are foreigners residing, that they and all the natives connected with them are to be put to death. So rife was such a report at Ningpo, two years since, and the excitement began to be so great that the foreign consuls requested the native officials to issue proclamations to quiet the people, and threaten punishment to those circulating inflammatory reports.[22] (eastern china mission - Letter from Mr. Kwolton)
The Missionary magazine, Volume 49 (1869)

ReferencesEdit

  • PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from Johnson's universal cyclopedia: a new edition, by A.J. Johnson Company, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States.
  • PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from Universal cyclopædia and atlas, Volume 8, a publication from 1909 now in the public domain in the United States.
  • PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from Johnson's universal cyclopaedia, Volume 6, by Charles Kendall Adams, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States.
  • PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from Universal cyclopaedia and atlas, Volume 8, by Charles Kendall Adams, Rossiter Johnson, a publication from 1902 now in the public domain in the United States.
  • PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from appleton's new practical cyclopedia, a publication from 1910 now in the public domain in the United States.
  • PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from Appleton's new practical cyclopedia: a new work of reference based upon the best authorities, and systematically arranged for use in home and school, by Marcus Benjamin, Arthur Elmore Bostwick, Gerald Van Casteel, George Jotham Hagar, a publication from 1910 now in the public domain in the United States.
  • PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from The universal cyclopaedia, a publication from 1900 now in the public domain in the United States.
  • PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from Universal cyclopædia and atlas, Volume 8, by Charles Kendall Adams, Rossiter Johnson, a publication from 1901 now in the public domain in the United States.
  • PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from The Missionary magazine, Volume 49, by American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, a publication from 1869 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. Alexandra Etheldred Grantham (1927). Hills of blue: a picture-roll of Chinese history from far beginnings to the death of Chʼien Lung, A, Part 1799. Methuen & co. ltd.. p. 465. http://books.google.com/books?ei=KuXfTru0MaTx0gHTnfm7Bw&ct=result&id=d3wbAAAAIAAJ&dq=Only+a+few+years+later+the+irrepressible+Portuguese+had+by+intimidation+and+bribery+acquired+a+footing+in+a+part+of+Chekiang+near+Ningpo%2C+another+in+Fukien+near+Amoy.+For+a+time+they+prospered%2C+but+though+their+own+great+Albuquerque+had&q=1545. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "Only a few years later the irrepressible Portuguese had by intimidation and bribery acquired a footing in a part of Chekiang near Ningpo, another in Fukien near Amoy. For a time they prospered, but though their own great Albuquerque had...At last when they suddenly swooped down a village looting, burning, murdering, Chinese patience came to an equally sudden end. Both settlements, the Chekiang one in 1545, the other in 1543, were wiped out." 
  2. Ernest S. Dodge (1976). Islands and Empires: Western Impact on the Pacific and East Asia. Volume 7 of Europe and the World in Age of Expansion. U of Minnesota Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-8166-0853-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=B9jOp9SlQIwC&pg=PA226&dq=The+Portuguese,+who+considered+all+Eastern+peoples+legitimate+prey,+established+trading+settlements+at+Ningpo+and+in+Fukien,+but+both+were+wiped+out+by+massacres+in+1545+and+1549.&hl=en&ei=_C2fTurjFqrb0QHx9NytCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Portuguese%2C%20who%20considered%20all%20Eastern%20peoples%20legitimate%20prey%2C%20established%20trading%20settlements%20at%20Ningpo%20and%20in%20Fukien%2C%20but%20both%20were%20wiped%20out%20by%20massacres%20in%201545%20and%201549.&f=false. Retrieved 18 October 2011. "The Portuguese, who considered all Eastern peoples legitimate prey, established trading settlements at Ningpo and in Fukien, but both were wiped out by massacres in 1545 and 1549. For some years the Portuguese were second only to the" 
  3. Kenneth Scott Latourette (1964). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2 (4, reprint ed.). Macmillan. p. 235. http://books.google.com/books?ei=gzCfTsmcFYXI0AGv6PySCQ&ct=result&id=MkBwAAAAMAAJ&dq=A+settlement+which+the+Portuguese+established+near+Ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+a+massacre+%281545%29%2C+and+a+similar+fate+overtook+a+trading+colony+in+Fukien+%281549%29.+For+a+time+the+Portuguese+retained+a+precarious+tenure+only+on+islands+south+of+Canton&q=Ningpo+massacre+1545. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  4. Kenneth Scott Latourette (1486). The Chinese, their history and culture, Volumes 1-2. 9 (2 ed.). Macmillan. p. 313. http://books.google.com/books?ei=4TCfTpa8NKby0gHktryACQ&ct=result&id=ixAhAAAAMAAJ&dq=A+settlement+which+the+Portuguese+established+near+Ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+a+massacre+%281545%29%2C+and+a+similar+fate+overtook+a+trading+colony+in+Fukien+%281549%29.+For+a+time+the+Portuguese+retained+a+precarious+tenure+only+on+islands+south+of+Canton&q=ningpo+massacre+1545. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545), and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time the Portuguese retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton" (the University of Michigan)
  5. John William Parry (1969). Spices: The story of spices. The spices described. Volume 1 of Spices. Chemical Pub. Co.. p. 102. http://books.google.com/books?id=llo-AQAAIAAJ&q=The+Portuguese+succeeded+in+establishing+a+settlement+near+Ningpo+which+was+wiped+out+by+massacre+in+1545;+another+Portuguese+settlement+in+Fukien+province+met+a+similar+fate+in+1549,+but+they+finally+succeeded+in+establishing+a&dq=The+Portuguese+succeeded+in+establishing+a+settlement+near+Ningpo+which+was+wiped+out+by+massacre+in+1545;+another+Portuguese+settlement+in+Fukien+province+met+a+similar+fate+in+1549,+but+they+finally+succeeded+in+establishing+a&hl=en&ei=lzGfTrWnGsL40gGyh-2JCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "The Portuguese succeeded in establishing a settlement near Ningpo which was wiped out by massacre in 1545; another Portuguese settlement in Fukien province met a similar fate in 1549, but they finally succeeded in establishing a" (the University of California)
  6. Witold Rodziński (1983). A history of China, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Pergamon Press. p. 203. ISBN 0-08-021806-7. http://books.google.com/books?ei=pjGfTvKME-H20gG_68DzCA&ct=result&id=X63tAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+1545+the+Portuguese+colony+in+Ningpo+was+completely+wiped+out+after+three+years+of+existence+and+later%2C+in+1+549%2C+the+same+fate+met+the+settlement+in+Ch%27+iianchou.+Somewhat+later%2C+the+Portuguese+did+succeed+finally+in+gaining&q=1545+wiped. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "A further attempt was made by the Portuguese in 1 522 by Af fonso de Mello Coutinho which also suffered defeat. In spite of these initial setbacks the Portuguese succeeded, probably by bribing local officials, in establishing themselves in Ningpo (Chekiang) and in Ch' uanchou (Fukien), where considerable trade with the Chinese was developed. In both cases, however, the unspeakably brutal behavious of the Portuguese caused a revulsion of Chinese feeling against the newcomers. In 1545 the Portuguese colony in Ningpo was completely wiped out after three years of existence and later, in 1 549, the same fate met the settlement in Ch' iianchou. Somewhat later, the Portuguese did succeed finally in gaining" (the University of Michigan)
  7. Sergeĭ Leonidovich Tikhvinskiĭ (1983). Modern history of China. Progress Publishers. p. 57. http://books.google.com/books?id=dCrVAAAAMAAJ&q=In+the+late+1540s,+there+were+more+than+3,000+people+there,+some+1,200+of+them+Portuguese.+From+this+base+the+latter+raided+neighbouring+coastal+cities,+pillaging+and+taking+people+into+slavery.+The+Chinese+authorities+responded+with+armed+expeditions+against+them+and,+finally,+the+Portuguese+had+to+abandon+the+factory+in+1540.&dq=In+the+late+1540s,+there+were+more+than+3,000+people+there,+some+1,200+of+them+Portuguese.+From+this+base+the+latter+raided+neighbouring+coastal+cities,+pillaging+and+taking+people+into+slavery.+The+Chinese+authorities+responded+with+armed+expeditions+against+them+and,+finally,+the+Portuguese+had+to+abandon+the+factory+in+1540.&hl=en&ei=NZO5TsSHJ-SJsgL_wZnYCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 4 November 2011. "Thereafter they made the factory near Ningbo their chief trading outlet. In the late 1540s, there were more than 3,000 people there, some 1,200 of them Portuguese. From this base the latter raided neighbouring coastal cities, pillaging and taking people into slavery. The Chinese authorities responded with armed expeditions against them and, finally, the Portuguese had to abandon the factory" (Indiana University)
  8. Sergeĭ Leonidovich Tikhvinskiĭ (1983). Modern history of China. Progress Publishers. p. 57. http://books.google.com/books?id=sZdCAAAAYAAJ&q=1,200+portuguese+neighbouring+pillaging. Retrieved 4 November 2011. "Thereafter they made the factory near Ningbo their chief trading outlet. In the late 1540s, there were more than 3,000 people there, some 1,200 of them Portuguese. From this base the latter raided neighbouring coastal cities, pillaging and taking people into slavery. The Chinese authorities responded with armed expeditions against them and, finally, the Portuguese had to abandon the factory" (the University of Virginia)
  9. A.J. Johnson Company (1895). Charles Kendall Adams. ed. Johnson's universal cyclopedia: a new edition. Volume 6 of Johnson's Universal Cyclopædia. NEW YORK: D. Appleton, A.J. Johnson. p. 202. http://books.google.com/books?id=VsEXAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA202&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=7pUlTrCjAqHe0QGy5JTLCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Ningpo has long been an important center of trade. In 1522 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their"expulsion in 1542, when 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed. The city was occupied by the British from Oct. 13, 1841, to May 7, 1842, and was cap"tured Dec. 9,1861, by the Taipings, who, however, were compelled by the foreign fleets then in the river to retire on May 10, 1862. It is an important center of missionary work. Pop. estimated (1893) 255,000." (Original from the University of California)
  10. Universal cyclopædia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. 1909. p. 490. http://books.google.com/books?id=_N1TAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA490&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=npUlTtjfHojg0QGZlInQCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Ningpo has long been an important center of trade. In 1522 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their expulsion in 1542, when 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed. The city was occupied by the British from Oct. 13, 1841, to May 7, 1842, and was captured Dec. 9,1861, by the Taipings, who, however, were compelled by the foreign fleets then in the river to retire on May 10, 1862. It is an important center of missionary work. Pop. estimated (1893) 255,000." (Original from the New York Public Library)
  11. Charles Kendall Adams (1895). Johnson's universal cyclopaedia, Volume 6. NEW YORK: A.J. Johnson Co.. p. 202. http://books.google.com/books?id=jjFOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA202&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=WJUlToH1Mcjl0QHy8rj2Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Ningpo has long been an important center of trade. In 1522 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their expulsion in 1542, when 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed. The city was occupied by the British from Oct. 13, 1841, to May 7, 1842, and was captured Dec. 9,1861, by the Taipings, who, however, were compelled by the foreign fleets then in the river to retire on May 10, 1*862. It is an important center of missionary work. Pop. estimated (1893) 2o5,000." (Original from Princeton University)
  12. Charles Kendall Adams, Rossiter Johnson (1902). Universal cyclopaedia and atlas, Volume 8. NEW YORK: D. Appleton and Company. p. 490. http://books.google.com/books?id=ntdTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA490&dq=Ningpo+has+long+been+an+important+center+of+trade.+In+1522+the+Portuguese+settled+here+by+permission+and+flourished,+but+their+rapacity+led+to+their+expulsion+in+1542,+when+800+of+the+1,200+Portuguese+residents+were+massacred,+and+25+Portuguese+vessels+and+42+junks+were+destroyed.+The+city+was+occupied+by+the+British+from+Oct.+13,+1841,+to+May+7,+1842,+and+was+captured+Dec.+9,1861,+by+the+Taipings,+who,+however,+were+compelled+by+the+foreign+fleets+then+in+the+river+to+retire+on+May+10,+1*862.+It+is+an+important+center+of+missionary+work.+Pop.+estimated+(1893)+2o5,000&hl=en&ei=D5UlTvm8EeTd0QHW76X1Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Ningpo%20has%20long%20been%20an%20important%20center%20of%20trade.%20In%201522%20the%20Portuguese%20settled%20here%20by%20permission%20and%20flourished%2C%20but%20their%20rapacity%20led%20to%20their%20expulsion%20in%201542%2C%20when%20800%20of%20the%201%2C200%20Portuguese%20residents%20were%20massacred%2C%20and%2025%20Portuguese%20vessels%20and%2042%20junks%20were%20destroyed.%20The%20city%20was%20occupied%20by%20the%20British%20from%20Oct.%2013%2C%201841%2C%20to%20May%207%2C%201842%2C%20and%20was%20captured%20Dec.%209%2C1861%2C%20by%20the%20Taipings%2C%20who%2C%20however%2C%20were%20compelled%20by%20the%20foreign%20fleets%20then%20in%20the%20river%20to%20retire%20on%20May%2010%2C%201*862.%20It%20is%20an%20important%20center%20of%20missionary%20work.%20Pop.%20estimated%20(1893)%202o5%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 18 July 2011. "Ningpo has long ljeen an important center of trade. In 1522 the Portuguese settled here by permission and flourished, but their rapacity led to their expulsion in 1542, when 800 of the 1,200 Portuguese residents were massacred, and 25 Portuguese vessels and 42 junks were destroyed. The city was occupied by the British from Oct. 13, 1841, to May 7, 1842, and was captured Dec. 9,1861, by the Taipings, who, however, were compelled by the foreign fleets then in the river to retire on May 10, 1862. It is an important center of missionary work. Pop. estimated (1893) 255,000." (Original from the New York Public Library)
  13. Grover Clark (1971). The great wall crumbles (illustrated, reprint ed.). Ayer Publishing. p. 180. ISBN 0-8369-6609-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=8xVt9UpiQEsC&pg=PA180&dq=1545+the+settlement+at+ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+the+chinese&hl=en&ei=2PLeTo_UN-7D0AHy-4m9Bw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=1545%20the%20settlement%20at%20ningpo%20was%20wiped%20out%20by%20the%20chinese&f=false. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "Nevertheless, the Portuguese succeeded in establishing settlement up the coast at Ningpo and Ch'uanchow, which prospered for a time. But the Portuguese, by outrageous exactions and killings, brought Chinese indignation down on their heads again. In 1545, the settlement at Ningpo was wiped out by the Chinese, 12,000 Christians, including 800 Portuguese being killed in the process, it is said. This was after the Chinese emperor issued a decree ordering the extermination of the Portuguese wherever they were found, because of their cruel and lawless conduct. The Portuguese settlement at Ch'uanchow was not destroyed by the Chinese until 1549. A few Portuguese survived. They went to a small island near Macao, fifty odd miles from Canton. Somewhat later, they helped the Chinese put down some pirates and in return got permission, in 1557, to build a few drying sheds at Macao itself. The camel had his head in the tent." 
  14. Grover Clark (1935). The great wall crumbles. The Macmillan Company. p. 180. http://books.google.com/books?ei=U97fTqKGIajv0gHxtpTDBw&ct=result&id=RnoGAQAAIAAJ&dq=1545+the+settlement+at+ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+the+chinese&q=1545+wiped. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "But the Portuguese, by outrageous exactions and killings, brought Chinese indignation down on their heads again. In 1545, the settlement at Ningpo was wiped out by the Chinese, 12000 Christians, including 800 Portuguese being killed in" 
  15. Grover Clark (1935). The great wall crumbles. The Macmillan Company. p. 180. http://books.google.com/books?ei=U97fTqKGIajv0gHxtpTDBw&ct=result&id=RnoGAQAAIAAJ&dq=1545+the+settlement+at+ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+the+chinese&q=1545+wiped. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "But the Portuguese, by outrageous exactions and killings, brought Chinese indignation down on their heads again. In 1545, the settlement at Ningpo was wiped out by the Chinese, 12000 Christians, including 800 Portuguese being killed in" 
  16. Kenneth Scott Latourette (1934). The Chinese: their history and culture, Volume 1 (2 ed.). Macmillan. p. 313. http://books.google.com/books?ei=vN7fTpztGoXL0QHm5YW9Ag&ct=result&id=ZKYwAAAAMAAJ&dq=1545+the+settlement+at+ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+the+chinese&q=1545. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545) and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time they retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton. For this ill fortune the Portuguese had chiefly themselves to thank. Truculent and lawless regarding all Eastern peoples as legitimate prey, they were little if any better than the" (the University of Michigan)
  17. Kenneth Scott Latourette (1946). The Chinese, their history and culture (3 ed.). the Macmillan Company. p. 296. http://books.google.com/books?ei=vN7fTpztGoXL0QHm5YW9Ag&ct=result&id=2HMdAAAAMAAJ&dq=1545+the+settlement+at+ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+the+chinese&q=1545. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "A settlement which the Portuguese established near Ningpo was wiped out by a massacre (1545) and a similar fate overtook a trading colony in Fukien (1549). For a time they retained a precarious tenure only on islands south of Canton. For this ill fortune the Portuguese had chiefly themselves to thank. Truculent and lawless regarding all Eastern peoples as" (the University of Michigan)
  18. Alexandra Etheldred Grantham (1927). Hills of Blue: a picture-roll of Chinese history from far beginnings to the death of Ch'ien Lung, A.D. 1799, Part 1799. Methuen & co. ltd.. p. 465. http://books.google.com/books?ei=4N7fTsfPEuX40gHQvMSHBw&ct=result&id=Vf49AAAAMAAJ&dq=At+last+when+they+suddenly+swooped+down+on+a+village+looting%2C+burning%2C+murdering+%2C+Chinese+patience+came+to+an+equally+sudden+end.+Both+settlements%2C+the+Chekiang+one+in+1545%2C+the+other+in+1543%2C+were+wiped+out.+This+seems+to+have+taught&q=1545+1543+wiped+out. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "Chekiang near Ningpo, another in Fukien near Amoy. For a time they prospered, but though their own great Albuquerque had said a Chinese junk man knew more about courtesy and humanity than a European knights, they treated the native population so abominably they won the unenviable epithet of foreign devils...At last when they suddenly swooped down on a village looting, burning, murdering , Chinese patience came to an equally sudden end. Both settlements, the Chekiang one in 1545, the other in 1543, were wiped out. This seems to have taught the Portuguese a lesson." (the University of Michigan)
  19. Herbert Henry Gowen (1936). Asia: a short history from the earliest times to the present day (revised ed.). Little, Brown, and Company. p. 112. http://books.google.com/books?ei=O-LfTvDSBqL00gG0r5yqBw&ct=result&id=GOkbAAAAMAAJ&dq=Their+rapaciousness+was+such+that+in+1545+the+entire+colony+at+Ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+massacre.+The+survivors+assembled+on+a+small+island+near+Macao%2C+and+in+1557+obtained+permission+to+use+the+latter+place+for+drying-sheds+%3B+so+Macao%2C&q=1545. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "Learning that the Malays were appealing to the Emperor of China as their suzerain lord, Raphael Perestrello went on a prospecting expedition toward the east...But much of the trouble which came to these first Portuguese arrivals in China they brought upon themselves. Their rapaciousness was such that in 1545 the entire colony at Ningpo was wiped out by massacre. The survivors assembled on a small island near Macao, and in 1557 obtained permission to use the latter place for drying-sheds ; so Macao,...so Macao, part of the island of San Chuan, became a Portuguese settlement, for which, however, rent continued to be paid till 1848" (the University of Michigan)
  20. The Mirror of literature, amusement, and instruction, Volume 7. LONDON: J. Limbird. 1845. p. 262. http://books.google.com/books?id=AvRZAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA262&dq=In+I564,+Portugal+commanded+the+trade+of+India,+Japan,+and+China,+though+their+pride+was+deeply+shocked+at+the+supreme+indifference+with+which+the+Chinese+treated+them.+Their+atrocities+at+Ningpo+and+Macao,+and+their+subsequent&hl=en&ei=mqG5Tv_DFcjNhAfYvqyaBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=In%20I564%2C%20Portugal%20commanded%20the%20trade%20of%20India%2C%20Japan%2C%20and%20China%2C%20though%20their%20pride%20was%20deeply%20shocked%20at%20the%20supreme%20indifference%20with%20which%20the%20Chinese%20treated%20them.%20Their%20atrocities%20at%20Ningpo%20and%20Macao%2C%20and%20their%20subsequent&f=false. Retrieved 4 November 2011. "In I564, Portugal commanded the trade of India, Japan, and China, though their pride was deeply shocked at the supreme indifference with which the Chinese treated them. Their atrocities at Ningpo and Macao, and their subsequent servility, had opened the eyes of the Celestials to their true character, and unfortunately for other European adventurers, they had come to the conclusion that all western nations were alike. The senate of Macao complained to the viceroy of Goa, of the contempt with which the Chinese authorities treated them, confessing however that, “it was owing more to the Portuguese themselves than to the Chinese.” The Chinese were obliged to restrict the commerce of Portugal to the port of Macao, in 1631. A partnership was then formed with some Chinese dealers in Canton, who were to furnish exports and take delivery of imports at Macao. This scheme did not suit the Chinese; they were dissatisfied with their partners, and speedily dissolved the connection." (Princeton University)
  21. Alexandra Etheldred von Herder Grantham (1927). Hills of Blue: a picture-roll of Chinese history from far beginnings to the death of Ch'ien Lung, A.D. 1799, Part 1799. Methuen & co. ltd.. p. 538. http://books.google.com/books?ei=vN7fTpztGoXL0QHm5YW9Ag&ct=result&id=dXRCAAAAIAAJ&dq=1545+the+settlement+at+ningpo+was+wiped+out+by+the+chinese&q=chekiang. Retrieved 7 December 2011. "In the very first year of Yung Cheng the viceroy of Chekiang and Fukien, having banished missionaries out of his own province to Macao, and transformed Christian churches into schools, memoralized the Throne begging for an extension of those measure of the anything but fanciful ground that the foreign preachers " sowed doubt and division among the people making it question the value of its own customs . . ." " condemning Chinese sages and ancestors as demons ..." and countenancing " manners which offended the accepted standards of behaviour."" (the University of California)
  22. American Baptist Foreign Mission Society (1869). The Missionary magazine, Volume 49. XLIX. BOSTON: MISSIONARY ROOMS, 12 BEDFORD STREET: American Baptist Missionary Union. p. 385. http://books.google.com/books?id=AB7PAAAAMAAJ&q=cantonese+portuguese+ningpo#v=snippet&q=cantonese%20portuguese%20ningpo&f=false. Retrieved 14 December 2011. "The Chinese and Foreigners. The position and treaty rights of foreigners in China have hitherto been maintained by military force; and though Mr. Burlingame's mission appears to be especially directed to the abolishment of the " force policy," yet without force, that is, a show of military force for protection, the position of foreigners of every class would not be tenable in China a month. Foreigners have at different periods settled in China; but after remaining for a time, they have been massacred. For instance, Mohammedans and others settled at Canton in the ninth century; and in 889, it is said that 120,000 foreign settlers were massacred. Again in the sixteenth century, the Portuguese commenced trade and formed a settlement at Ningpo; Spaniards and other foreigners also settled here. But in 1542, the whole settlement, consisting of over 3,000 persons, was destroyed, most of the settlers being put to death. Also at Cha-pu, about seventy or eighty miles north of Ningpo, on the Hangchow bay, there was a settlement of foreigners for the purposes of trade, about two hundred years since, who at length were massacred. It is often reported among the people at Ningpo, and other places in China where there are foreigners residing, that they and all the natives connected with them are to be put to death. So rife was such a report at Ningpo, two years since, and the excitement began to be so great that the foreign consuls requested the native officials to issue proclamations to quiet the people, and threaten punishment to those circulating inflammatory reports. There has been a massacre of Portuguese at Ningpo since my residence here. Every Portuguese swho could be found was murdered in open day. This was done by the Cantonese, in consequence of getting into a quarrel with them about convoying vessels at sea. At that time the Cantonese requested of the authorities (secretly of course) to be .allowed to massacre all foreigners, whether Portuguese, English, or Americans. And no doubt nothing but fear of English troops prevented such a permission being given. Recently at Tung-chow and Chefu, in the Shan-tung province, days have been set for putting to death all foreigners ; so that the consuls had to take the matter in hand, and request the officials to issue proclamations, and to punish those circulating such reports. In view of these facts, it is by no means improbable that China may witness massacres like those of the " Indian mutiny." I repeat, a false impression has been created in the people and government of the United States respecting the feeling of the Chinese towards foreigners, and respecting the security of foreigners in the land. " Force," which the ambassador, at the instigation of the Chinese government, deprecates, " force " is the only thing that can give us even a footing here, to say nothing of expansion, — extending our work far into the interior. No treaty can for a moment be maintained without it. . Thanks to British guns and the Providence of God for all the privileges that we peaceful Americans enjoy." Original from the University of Wisconsin - Madison

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