|No. 100 Squadron RAF|
File:100 Squadron RAF crest.png|
Official Squadron Badge of No. 100 Squadron RAF
|Active||23 February 1917 – present|
|Branch||Royal Air Force|
|Role||Target facilities role, exercise and training support|
Malay: Sarang tebuan jangen dijolok|
("Never stir up a hornet's nest")
|Aircraft operated||BAE Hawk|
Western Front 1917-1918, Ypres 1917*, Somme 1918*, Independent Force and Germany 1918*, Malaya 1941-1942*, Fortress Europe 1943-1944*, Biscay Ports 1943-1945, Ruhr 1943-1945, Berlin 1943-1945*, German Ports 1943-1945, Baltic 1943-1945, France and Germany 1944-1945, Normandy 1944*, Walcheren|
Honours marked with an asterisk* are emblazoned on the Squadron Standard
|Squadron Badge heraldry||"In front of two bones in saltire, a skull"|
History[edit | edit source]
First World War[edit | edit source]
No. 100 was established on 23 February 1917 at Hingham in Norfolk as the Royal Flying Corps' first squadron formed specifically as a night bombing unit and comprised elements of the Home Defence Wing. The unit was mobilised and crossed from Portsmouth on 21 March 1917 to France and was first based at St Andre-aux-Bois, where it received twelve FE2bs aircraft on complement. These aircraft had been withdrawn from other units where they had operated in daylight, so modifications were required to adapt them for 100 Squadron's operational role.
On 1 April 1917, the unit moved to Izel-le-Hameau and took a further four aircraft on complement, in the form of BE2es. The squadron began operations on the night of 5/6 April 1917, when eleven FE2b aircraft attacked Douai airfield, where Manfred von Richthofen's 'Flying Circus' was based; Richthofen referred to this raid in his book, 'Der Rote Kampfflieger'. One hundred and twenty-eight 20 lb (9 kg) and four 40 lb (18 kg) bombs were dropped; four aircraft hangars were reported as having been set on fire and one of the attacking aircraft was lost. On 17 November 1918, 100 Squadron moved to RAF Saint Inglevert.
On 4 March 1918, the squadron was sent to Ochey, near Nancy, to form the nucleus of the Independent Air Force under Major General Hugh Trenchard. In August of that year, the unit converted to Handley Page 0/400 heavy bombers and therefore longer range sorties over industrial sites in Germany became possible. The squadron conducted these raids throughout the rest of the war; an aircraft from the unit was the last in war-time to return to base (on the night before the Armistice) from a raid.
Inter war period[edit | edit source]
After the end of the war, the squadron remained on the continent until September 1919 as a cadre before transferring to RAF Baldonnel, near Dublin and re-forming to full strength, re-equipping with Bristol F.2 Fighters for army co-operaration. Close air support operations were flown during the Irish War of Independence. Following the end of hostilities the squadron was moved to Spitalgate, Lincs. in February 1922 and converted to bombing, this time with Vickers Vimys and DH9As.
In May 1924, the unit was re-equipped with the Fairey Fawn. With these aircraft, the squadron performed air-mail carrying services breaking the General Strike of 1926. In September of that year, the squadron took Hawker Horsley aircraft on complement and in November 1930 moved to Donibristle, Fife, converting to torpedo-bombing. Its revised official designation as 'No. 100 (Torpedo-Bomber) Squadron' came later, in 1933.
A further re-equipment came in November 1932, when the Vickers Vildebeest came on complement and with this aircraft the squadron was deployed as part of the operation to defend Singapore, arriving at Seletar in January 1934.
Second World War[edit | edit source]
The squadron was put at readiness shortly after war was declared but, for the period to December 1941, there was little involvement operationally whilst still based at Seletar. In November and December 1941 detachments were sent to Fisherman's Bend, in Victoria, Australia. Intended replacement aircraft (Bristol Beauforts) for the remaining squadron were not forthcoming and, as part of operations against advancing Japanese forces, the unit's obsolete Vildebeest aircraft were used in strikes against enemy shipping. Because of this, during January 1942, the squadron lost most of its aircraft in engagements with Japanese fighters. Despite several attempts to remain operational as a combined unit along with No. 36 Squadron RAF, as Japan made advances in the Far East theatre, most personnel eventually became prisoners of war. Others were evacuated to Australia. (In February 1942, No. 100 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force was formed at RAAF Richmond, near Sydney, from a nucleus of 100 Squadron RAF personnel. Despite this link, the squadron was an RAAF squadron throughout its existence.)
On 15 December 1942, No. 100 Squadron RAF proper was re-formed in the UK, at RAF Grimsby, near Waltham, as a night-time heavy bomber squadron and was part of No. 1 Group, RAF Bomber Command. In January 1943, the squadron received the first of its new complement of Avro Lancasters; the first operation of the squadron was on March 4, 1943 against a U-Boat base at St Nazaire. A few days later the squadron was involved in a raid against Nuremberg in Germany and from then on, in support of Bomber Command's strategic role against Germany, took part in every major raid.
At the end of 1943, the squadron had completed the second largest number of successful operations of units within No. 1 Bomber Command and had the lowest 'loss' rate. On the night of June 5, 1944, the squadron bombed heavy gun batteries in support of the D-Day invasion.
For the last month of the war, the squadron moved to Elsham Wolds in Lincolnshire. In the latter stages of the war and post-war, the squadron was involved in the humanitarian Operations Manna and Exodus.
Post-war to date[edit | edit source]
Between 1946 and 1950 the squadron was based at RAF Hemswell operating Avro Lancasters and later Avro Lincolns. The squadron left Hemswell in 1950, relocating to Malaysia where it was involved with Operations Firedog and Musgrave. In January 1954, the unit deployed to Eastleigh in Kenya during the Mau Mau Uprising. Returning two months later, the squadron was re-equipped with English Electric Canberras, moving to Wittering in Cambridgeshire. It was disbanded on 1 September 1959 but re-formed at Wittering on 1 May 1962, equipped with Handley Page Victor B.2s, which, from early 1964, carried the Blue Steel missile nuclear weapon. Disbanded again on 30 September 1968, the squadron was re-formed as a target facilities unit in 1972, utilising Canberra aircraft at West Raynham, in Norfolk. 100 Sqn combined with 85 and 98 Squadrons and operated 26 Canberra aircraft from RAF Marham (Norfolk) before moving in 1982 to RAF Wyton in Cambridgeshire. In 1991, the squadron converted to HS Hawk T.1s, which are now used for training and front-line support roles. In 1994 the squadron moved to RAF Finningley. After the news that RAF Finningley would be shut, 100 Sqn moved without its ground crew to RAF Leeming.
Decorated personnel[edit | edit source]
- Wing Commander R V McIntyre, Commanding Officer of the squadron from April to November 1943. Awarded the DFC after completing a successful bomb-drop over Bochum on 13 May 1943, despite the aircraft having lost two engines to flak hits over Cologne. On return, McIntyre brought the aircraft in to RAF Coltishall, Norfolk for a successful crash landing.
Squadron flag[edit | edit source]
The squadron flag which depicts a skull and crossbones was apparently stolen from a French House of ill repute in 1918. It was later embellished with the squadron name and the motto Blood and Bones. The original flag disintegrated while being looked after by a Flight Lieutenant Trillwood during his time as a Japanese prisoner of war. The flag was originally red but was replaced by a black flag after the war. Following the 90th anniversary of the squadron, a replica of the original flag was presented to the squadron by Arthur White, a navigator with the squadron during the Second World War, in 2008.
Aircraft operated[edit | edit source]
- Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2b
- Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2e
- Bristol F.2b Fighter
- Airco DH.9A
- Vickers Vimy
- Handley Page 0/400
- Fairey Fawn II/III
- Hawker Horsley I/II
- Vickers Vildebeest I/II/III
- Bristol Beaufort II
- Avro Lancaster I/III
- Avro Lincoln B.2
- English Electric Canberra B.2/6 PR.7 E.15 & B.2/TT.18 T17 T19
- Handley Page Victor B.2/2R
- BAE Hawk
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- "100 Squadron". Royal Air Force. http://www.raf.mod.uk/organisation/100squadron.cfm. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- Stamford, Lincs., U.K.: FlyPast, Key Publishing Ltd 'The Boneyard' , April 2007 No. 309 Pages 15-18
- "Saint-Inglevert" (in French). Old Anciens Aerodromes. http://old.anciens-aerodromes.com/terrains%20aviations/StInglevert.htm. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- Stamford, Lincs., U.K.: FlyPast, Key Publishing Ltd 'The Boneyard' April 2007 No. 309 Page 18
- Stamford, Lincs., U.K.: FlyPast, Key Publishing Ltd 'The Boneyard' , April 2007 No. 309 Pages 15-19
- Stamford, Lincs., U.K.: FlyPast, Key Publishing Ltd 'The Boneyard' , April 2007 No. 309 Pages 20-21
- "War veteran sees red with replica sqn flag". Forces & Corporate Publishing. March/April 2008. pp. page 28.
- "No. 100 Squadron". Flight, 28 October 1955, pp. 673–676, 678.
- White, Arthur. Hornets' Nest: History of 100 Squadron, Royal Air Force, 1917-94. Worcester, Worcestershire, UK: Square One Publications, 1994.
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