|No. 452 Squadron RAAF|
No. 452 Squadron Spitfire aircraft near Morotai in late 1944
8 April 1941 – 17 November 1945|
|Branch||Royal Australian Air Force|
Fighter Squadron (1941–1945)|
Air traffic control (2011–current)
|Part of||No. 44 Wing|
|Engagements||World War II|
Fortress Europe, 1940–1944|
|Keith "Bluey" Truscott|
UD (Apr 1941 – Mar 1942)|
QY (Jan 1943 – Nov 1945)
No. 452 Squadron is a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) air traffic control unit. It was originally formed in 1941 as a fighter squadron established in accordance with Article XV of the Empire Air Training Scheme during World War II, in England. The squadron flew Supermarine Spitfires for the entire war, initially over the United Kingdom and Nazi-occupied Europe. The squadron was later based in Australia and the Netherlands East Indies before being disbanded in 1945. It was re-raised in its current role in February 2011.
History[edit | edit source]
No. 452 Squadron RAAF was formed at RAF Kirton-in-Lindsey on 8 April 1941 under Article XV of the Empire Air Training Scheme; it was the first Australian squadron formed in Britain during the Second World War. On 22 May, the squadron became operational as a fighter squadron flying early model Supermarine Spitfires. In July, the squadron was moved to RAF Kenley, where they became part of No. 11 Group RAF.
No. 452 Squadron rapidly developed a formidable reputation in operations against German forces; in one month the squadron was credited with shooting down 22 German Bf-109 fighters. They were involved in many different kinds of operations, including offensive patrols, convoy escort and bomber escort missions over Europe. One of the most unusual came on 19 August 1941, when the Kenley Wing – along with others – was tasked with escorting a formation that included a Blenheim bomber that—with the co-operation of the Germans—dropped an artificial leg by parachute into Europe, for the use of the British ace Douglas Bader, who was a prisoner of war. The bombers then flew on to bomb the Gosnay power plant. In the dogfighting the took place during the operation, No. 452 Squadron was heavily engaged, shooting down one aircraft and scoring "probable" victories over two others, but also having several of its aircraft damaged.
Another notable operation was the attack on the German warships Scharnhorst, Prinz Eugen and Gneisenau which were attempting the "Channel Dash" from their French harbour on 11 February 1942, damaging one of the escorting destroyers. One of the squadron's best known pilots during this time was Keith "Bluey" Truscott, who was credited with 16 aerial victories between April 1941 and March 1942, and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) while serving with No. 452 Squadron in Britain. Although it was an RAAF unit, while it was in Europe, No. 452 Squadron also had some British personnel, from the Royal Air Force as well as other British Commonwealth air forces and other nationalities. One of these was the Irish ace Paddy Finucane. A number of Polish pilots also flew with the squadron.
The squadron moved to RAF Redhill in October 1941, remaining there until March 1942, when No. 452 Squadron replaced its sister, No. 457 Squadron, at RAF Andreas, Isle of Man, where it remained until it withdrew from operations in Britain in June of that year to return to Australia. Its final aerial victory came that month and the squadron's final tally in Europe was 70 enemy aircraft shot down and 17 damaged, for the loss of 22 pilots killed. It sailed for home on 21 June, arriving in Melbourne on 13 August and re-assembled at RAAF Base Richmond, New South Wales on 6 September. The squadron began a refresher training at Richmond, using a varied collection of aircraft because its Spitfires had been commandeered in transit by the Royal Air Force in the Middle East.
No. 452 Squadron became operational again on 17 January 1943, having received Spitfire MK Vc aircraft in October the previous year. Based at Batchelor Airfield in the Northern Territory it became part of No. 1 Wing RAAF, which defended Darwin from Japanese air raids. The squadron was relocated to Strauss Airfield on 1 February and, with the exception of a brief period between 9 and 27 March 1943 when it was deployed to RAAF Base Pearce to reinforce the air defences of Perth, it remained there (Strauss Airfield), protecting Darwin, until 30 June 1944, in May 1944 having become part of No. 80 Wing RAAF. The previous April, the squadron had received more advanced Mark VIII Spitfire. Throughout this period, the squadron was involved in several significant actions in which it shot down a number Japanese aircraft, with its first large-scale battle coming in early March.
On 1 July 1944 the squadron relocated again, this time to Sattler Airfield in the Northern Territory. Responsibility for defending Darwin had been handed over to two Royal Air Force squadrons, as a result, No. 452 Squadron was re-assigned undertake ground attack missions. The squadron began attacking targets in the Dutch East Indies; on 11 December 1944 it was sent to Morotai, where it was assigned to the 1st Tactical Air Force, to support the Australian operations in Kalimantan, flying mainly ground attack missions and anti-shipping strikes. The ground staff were sent to Juwata airfield on Tarakan in May 1945; however, operations did not start immediately as the landing field was not ready. Operations were undertaken against Kelabaken and Simalumong on 2 July; further attacks occurred on Tawoa on 10 July. A detachment of the squadron's Spitfires moved to Balikpapan on 15 July, and began operations to support Australian troops there. They remained there until the end of the war, flying their last sortie on 10 August 1945; its final aerial victory of the war came on 24 July when a Japanese bomber was shot down in a night-time raid over Balikpapan.
Operations continued after the war, albeit limited to defensive duties only. In October, No. 452 Squadron's aircraft were returned to Australia and it disbanded at Tarakan on 17 November 1945. Australian casualties amongst the squadron's personnel during the war amounted to 49 killed.
No. 452 Squadron was re-raised as an air traffic control unit on 16 February 2011. It forms part of No. 44 Wing and is headquartered at RAAF Base Darwin. It maintains subordinate flights at RAAF Base Darwin, RAAF Base Tindal, RAAF Base Amberley, RAAF Base Townsville and the Oakey Army Aviation Centre which provide air traffic control for these bases.
Aircraft operated[edit | edit source]
|April 1941||May 1941||Supermarine Spitfire||Mk.I|
|May 1941||August 1941||Supermarine Spitfire||Mk.IIa|
|August 1941||October 1943||Supermarine Spitfire||Mk.Vb|
|October 1943||April 1944||Supermarine Spitfire||Mk. Vc|
|April 1944||November 1945||Supermarine Spitfire||Mk.VIII|
Squadron bases[edit | edit source]
|8 April 1941||21 July 1941||RAF Kirton-in-Lindsey, Lincolnshire|
|21 July 1941||21 October 1941||RAF Kenley, Surrey|
|21 October 1941||14 January 1942||RAF Redhill, Surrey|
|14 January 1942||23 March 1942||RAF Kenley|
|23 March 1942||21 June 1942||RAF Andreas, Isle of Man||Ground echelon at RAF Atcham, Shropshire|
|21 June 1942||13 August 1942||en route to Australia|
|6 September 1942||17 January 1943||RAAF Richmond, New South Wales||RAAF Station Mascot|
|17 January 1943||1 February 1943||Batchelor Airfield, Northern Territory|
|1 February 1943||9 March 1943||Strauss Airfield, Northern Territory||Dets. at Wyndham, Western Australia|
and Milingimbi Island, Northern Territory
|9 March 1943||27 March 1943||RAAF Base Pearce, Western Australia||Guildford Airfield|
|27 March 1943||30 June 1944||Strauss Airfield, Northern Territory|
|1 July 1944||11 December 1944||Sattler Airfield, Northern Territory|
|11 December 1944||29 June 1945||Morotai, Dutch East Indies|
|29 June 1945||17 November 1945||Juwata Airfield, Tarakan||Det. at Balikpapan Airfield, Kalimantan|
Commanding officers[edit | edit source]
|8 April 1941||15 June 1941||Squadron Leader Roy Gilbert Dutton (RAF), DFC & Bar|
|15 June 1941||25 January 1942||Squadron Leader Robert Wilton Bungey|
|25 January 1942||18 March 1942||Squadron Leader Keith "Bluey" Truscott|
|18 March 1942||30 March 1943||Squadron Leader Ray Edward Thorold-Smith, DFC|
|30 March 1943||3 February 1944||Squadron Leader Ronald Sommerville MacDonald|
|3 February 1944||4 June 1945||Squadron Leader Louis Thomas Spence|
|4 June 1945||17 November 1945||Squadron Leader Kevin Milne Barclay|
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
Notes[edit | edit source]
- Bowyer & Rawlings 1979, p. 100.
- Flintham & Thomas 2003, p. 109.
- Bowyer & Rawlings 1979, p. 143.
- Flintham & Thomas 2003, p. 132.
- Barnes 2000, p. 260.
- "452 Squadron RAAF". Second World War, 1939–1945 units. Australian War Memorial. http://www.awm.gov.au/units/unit_11147.asp. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- Herington 1954, p. 133.
- "No. 452 Squadron". RAAF Museum. http://www.airforce.gov.au/raafmuseum/research/units/452sqn.htm. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Barnes 2000, pp. 260–261.
- Warner 2005, p. 366.
- Herington 1954, pp. 135–136.
- Barnes 2000, p. 261.
- Dennis et al 1995, p. 596.
- Stokes 1992, pp. 49–51.
- Cynk 1998, p. 238.
- Alexander 2006, pp. 159–161.
- RAAF Historical Section 1995, p. 122.
- Alexander 2006, pp. 109–111.
- Barnes 2000, p. 262.
- Odgers 1968, pp. 487–489.
- Barnes 2000, pp. 262–263.
- "Senator Feeney Celebrates the Reformation of Number 452 and 453 Squadrons at RAAF Base Williamtown". Media Release. Senator The Hon. David Feeney MP Parliamentary Secretary for Defence. 16 February 2011. http://www.minister.defence.gov.au/Feeneytpl.cfm?CurrentId=11466. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- Rawlings 1978, p. 444.
- Halley 1988, p. 475.
- Jefford 2001, p. 94.
- "452 Squadron RAAF in Australia During World War II". Ozatwar. http://www.ozatwar.com/raaf/452squadronraaf.htm. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Alexander, Kristen (2006). Clive Caldwell, Air Ace. St. Leonards, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-705-0. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=fR4-DykV8goC&dq=Kristen+Alexander&source=gbs_navlinks_s.
- Barnes, Norman (2000). The RAAF and the Flying Squadrons. St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-86508-130-2.
- Bowyer, Michael J.F.; Rawlings, John D.R. (1979). Squadron Codes, 1937–56. Cambridge, UK: Patrick Stephens. ISBN 0-85059-364-6.
- Cynk, Jerzy B. (1998). The Polish Air Force at War: The Official History. Volume 1. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishers. ISBN 9780764305597.
- Dennis, Peter; Grey, Jeffrey; Morris, Ewan; Prior, Robin (1995). The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (1st ed.). Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-553227-9.
- Flintham, Vic; Thomas, Andrew (2003). Combat Codes: A Full Explanation and Listing of British, Commonwealth and Allied Air Force Unit Codes Since 1938. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 1-84037-281-8.
- Halley, James J. (1988). The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth 1918–1988. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air Britain (Historians). ISBN 0-85130-164-9.
- Herington, John (1954). Second World War: Volume III – Air War Against Germany and Italy, 1939–1943. Australia in the War of 1939–1945 (1st ed.). Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 3633363. http://www.awm.gov.au/histories/chapter.asp?volume=28.
- Jefford, C.G. (2001) . RAF Squadrons: A Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and Their Antecedents Since 1912 (2nd ed.). Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 1-85310-053-6.
- Odgers, George (1968) . Air War Against Japan 1943–1945. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 3 – Air. II. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 246580191. http://www.awm.gov.au/histories/second_world_war/volume.asp?levelID=67913.
- RAAF Historical Section (1995). Units of the Royal Australian Air Force: A Concise History. Volume 2: Fighter Units. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN 0-644-42794-9.
- Rawlings, John D.R. (1978) . Fighter Squadrons of the RAF and Their Aircraft (2nd ed.). London: Macdonald & Jane's (Publishers). ISBN 0-354-01028-X.
- Smith, Frank; Geoffrey Pentland (1971). Spitfire Markings of the RAAF: Pacific Area 1942–45, Part 1. Dandenong, Victoria, Australia: Kookaburra Technical Publications. ISBN 0-85880-001-2.
- Smith, Frank; Peter Malone (1971). Spitfire Markings of the RAAF: Pacific Area 1944–45, Part 2. Dandenong, Victoria, Australia: Kookaburra Technical Publications. ISBN 0-85880-007-1.
- Southall, Ivan (1958). Bluey Truscott: Squadron Leader Keith William Truscott, R.A.A.F., D.F.C. and Bar. Sydney, New South Wales, Australia: Angus and Robertson.
- Stokes, Doug (1992) . Paddy Finucane, Fighter Ace: A Biography of Wing Commander Brendan E. Finucane, D.S.O., D.F.C. and Two Bars. Somerton, Somerset, UK: Crécy Publishing. ISBN 0-947554-22-X.
- Warner, Graham (2005). The Bristol Blenheim: A Complete History. Manchester: Crécy. ISBN 9780859791014.
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