|No. 462 Squadron RAAF|
A No. 462 Squadron Halifax in 1944, the yellow tail stripes identifying it as part of No. 4 Group RAF.
|Branch||Royal Australian Air Force|
Heavy bomber (1942–1944)|
Electronic warfare (1944–1945)
Information operations (2005–current)
|Part of||Information Warfare Wing RAAF|
|Current location||RAAF Base Edinburgh|
|Squadron Codes||Z5 (Aug 44 – Sep 45)|
|Tail markings||Three vertical yellow stripes|
|Bomber||Handley Page Halifax|
No. 462 Squadron is a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) squadron which forms part of the Information Warfare Wing in the RAAF's Aerospace Operational Support Group. The squadron was first formed in 1942 as a heavy bomber unit and saw combat in this role in the Mediterranean area until it was disbanded in March 1944. It was reformed in the United Kingdom in August 1944 to participate in the bombing campaign against Germany, and in December that year converted to a specialist electronic warfare unit. No. 462 Squadron continued in this role until the end of the European war in May 1945 and was disbanded in September that year. The squadron was reformed in its current role during April 2005.
Squadron history[edit | edit source]
1942–44[edit | edit source]
No. 462 Squadron was formed on 7 September 1942 at RAF Fayid, Egypt as an RAAF Article XV squadron. However, the original air and ground staff, were transferred from three British Royal Air Force (RAF) units: 10, 76 and 227 Squadrons. Because of this, almost all of it personnel were non-Australian and it initially had only a single Australian airman and no Australian ground crew.
The squadron was equipped with Handley Page Halifax B. Mk. II heavy bombers and flew its first operation on the night of 8–9 September 1942 against ground targets at Tobruk. No. 462 Squadron was the only Halifax-equipped squadron in North Africa during 1942 and suffered from shortages of aircrew as a result. This problem became so severe in December that the squadron became non-operational until January 1943.
RAAF Overseas Headquarters attempted to have more Australians posted to the squadron during late 1942, without much success. Furthermore, most of the Australian ground staff assigned to the squadron in 1942 had no experience with Halifaxes, which caused aircraft availability to decrease for a period. British personnel were also reportedly unhappy about serving in an "Australian" unit and this contributed to tensions amongst squadron personnel. In January 1943, the Australian Air Board agreed to a proposal by Air Marshal Richard Williams, the Commanding Officer of the RAAF Overseas Headquarters, to concentrate eight RAAF bomber squadrons into a single group in RAF Bomber Command in the UK; this would have included re-numbering the squadron, in order to formally designate it a RAF unit, and forming a new No. 462 Squadron RAAF (with different personnel) at a base in the UK. However, British authorities were slow to accept this request, and the unit retained its original designation throughout 1943.
During 1943, No. 462 Squadron remained in North Africa and conducted raids against Axis targets throughout the Mediterranean area. In the early months of 1943 it primarily attacked harbours and shipping in Sicily. These raids were initially made from Cyrenaica until the squadron moved to Gardabia Main in Tunisia on 14 February. From this base it participated in the Tunisia Campaign until it concluded in May. More Australian personnel were posted into the squadron in early 1943, but by March only 120 of its 660 personnel were Australian. By August almost all aircraft maintenance was being conducted by Australian ground crew and the relationship between the Australian and British members of the squadron had improved. Following the end of the Tunisian Campaign the squadron moved to Hosc Raui in Libya from where it attacked targets in Sicily and southern Italy. On 1 October the squadron moved again to Terria in Libya and conducted raids against German targets in Greece, Crete, Rhodes and other islands in the Dodecanese. In December 1943 its operations included conducting attacks on Greek ports to divert attention away from aircraft laying naval mines nearby.
By late 1943 – despite the efforts of the RAAF to "Australianise" the squadron – it still contained mostly British personnel. RAAF Overseas Headquarters again requested that No. 462 Squadron be officially re-numbered and officially cease to be an RAAF unit; the RAF agreed to this request in December 1943, although it was not put into effect for more than two months. The squadron moved to RAF El Adem, Libya, on 1 January 1944 and continued operations over Greece, mainly attacks on ports and dropping propaganda leaflets.
On 1 March 1944, after No. 462 Squadron relocated to Celone Airfield in Italy, it was re-designated No. 614 Squadron RAF. The squadron's Australian personnel were gradually posted to other units, although it was not until mid-1944 that Australian ground crew left and the Australian aircrew in the unit had dropped to a proportion similar to that of other squadrons in No. 205 Group RAF.
1944–45[edit | edit source]
No. 462 Squadron was reformed at RAF Driffield, Yorkshire in Britain on 12 August 1944 as an Australian heavy bomber squadron within RAF Bomber Command, now equipped with Halifax B.Mk.III bombers. In its new incarnation the squadron had an Australian commanding officer and a higher proportion of its personnel were Australians. Many of its initial personnel were transferred from No. 466 Squadron RAAF, then also at Driffield. No. 462 Squadron flew its first operational mission on 25 August and subsequently took part in attacks against 39 different targets over the next four months in support of Allied ground forces in Western Europe and as part of Bomber Command's campaign against Germany.
On 27 December 1944 No. 462 Squadron was relocated to RAF Foulsham and became part of No. 100 Group RAF. This group specialised in electronic warfare and No. 462 Squadron's aircraft were modified to radar jamming equipment and other countermeasures. Until the end of the war the squadron used its special equipment and mounted small diversionary attacks to deceive the Germans as to the location of the raids conducted by Bomber Command. While the squadron maintained a high rate of operations at times, its losses were relatively light as the countermeasures carried by the aircraft also protected them from attack. No. 462 Squadron continued to operate until almost the end of the war in Europe, and was the only Australian squadron in Bomber Command to either fly a higher number of sorties in April 1945 than March or operate in May. The squadron flew its final operation of the war on the night of 2/3 May.
Following the end of the European war, the RAF sought to retain No. 462 Squadron for a period so that it could be used to test radio countermeasure equipment and techniques. As a result, the squadron continued to fly training and ferry flights and also conducted armed patrols over Germany. These duties continued until the squadron was disbanded at Foulsham on 24 September 1945.
Since 2005[edit | edit source]
No. 462 Squadron was reformed in April 2005 as a non-flying squadron within the Information Warfare Wing of the RAAF's Aerospace Operational Support Group. The squadron's role is to "protect the Air Force's capability through the conduct of information operations". The squadron is based in Canberra but is scheduled to move to RAAF Base Edinburgh in South Australia in 2012.
Aircraft operated[edit | edit source]
|September 1942||March 1944||Handley Page Halifax||Mk.II|
|August 1944||September 1945||Handley Page Halifax||Mk.III|
Squadron bases[edit | edit source]
|7 September 1942||13 November 1942||RAF Fayid, Egypt|
|13 November 1942||29 November 1942||LG.237 Kilo 40/Jebel Hamzi, Egypt|
|29 November 1942||14 December 1942||LG.167/Bir el Baheira, Libya|
|14 December 1942||18 January 1943||LG.237 Kilo 40/Jebel Hamzi, Egypt|
|18 January 1943||24 January 1943||LG.167/Bir el Baheira, Libya|
|24 January 1943||14 February 1943||Soluch I, Libya|
|14 February 1943||22 May 1943||Gardabia Main, Libya|
|22 May 1943||1 October 1943||Hosc Raui, Libya|
|1 October 1943||1 January 1944||Terria, Libya|
|1 January 1944||1 March 1944||LG.144/El Adem, Libya|
|1 March 1944||3 March 1944||Celone airfield, Italy|
|12 August 1944||29 December 1944||RAF Driffield, Yorkshire|
|29 December 1944||24 September 1945||RAF Foulsham, Norfolk|
|11 April 2005||Present||Canberra, Australia|
Commanding officers[edit | edit source]
|7 September 1942||8 October 1942||Wing Commander David Oswald Young, DSO, DFC, AFC, RAF|
|9 October 1942||13 January 1943||Wing Commander George Philip Seymour-Price, DFC, RAF|
|14 January 1943||14 July 1943 (killed in action)||Wing Commander Peter George Batty Warner, DSO, RAFVR|
|17 July 1943||19 August 1943||Squadron Leader Reginald Owen Buskell, DFC, RAF (temporarily commanding)|
|29 August 1943||15 February 1944||Wing Commander William Taylor Russell, RAF|
|12 August 1944||17 January 1945||Wing Commander David Eliot Strachan Shannon, DFC, MID, RAAF|
|17 January 1945||24 September 1945||Wing Commander Peter McCallum Paull, DFC(US), RAAF|
Squadron disbanded 24 September 1945 at RAF Foulsham, UK.
Squadron reformed 11 April 2005 in Canberra, Australia
|11 April 2005||21 January 2007||Wing Commander Brett 'Frosty' Newell, RAAF|
|21 January 2007||January 2009||Wing Commander Nicholas Allan Cram, RAAF|
|21 January 2009||Present||Wing Commander Darren Reyce May, RAAF|
Notes[edit | edit source]
- "462 Squadron RAAF". Second World War, 1939–1945 units. Australian War Memorial. http://www.awm.gov.au/units/unit_11167.asp. Retrieved 9 November 2013.
- Bowyer & Rawlings 1979, p. 122.
- Flintham & Thomas 2003, p. 123.
- RAAF Historical Section 1995, p. 124.
- Herington 1954, pp. 305, 360.
- Stephens 2006, p. 99.
- Eather 1995, p. 121.
- Herington 1954, pp. 454–455.
- RAAF Historical Section 1995, p. 125.
- RAAF Historical Section 1995, p. 126.
- Herington 1963, p. 82.
- RAAF Historical Section 1995, p. 127.
- RAAF Historical Section 1995, p. 128.
- Herington 1963, p. 405.
- Eather 1995, p. 122.
- Herington 1963, p. 446.
- Herington 1963, p. 447.
- "462SQN is born again". 8 February 2007. http://www.defence.gov.au/news/raafnews/editions/4901/topstories/story9.htm. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
- Defence Support Group (2009). "RAAF Base Edinburgh Redevelopment Stage 2. Statement of Evidence to the Standing Committee on Public Works". Parliament of Australia. pp. 1. Archived from the original on 29 October 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20091029065134/http://www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/pwc/raafedinburghstage2/subs/sub001.pdf. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
- Moyes 1976, p. 256.
- Halley 1988, p. 482.
- Jefford 2001, p. 95.
References[edit | edit source]
- Bowyer, Michael J.F.; Rawlings, John D.R. (1979). Squadron Codes, 1937–56. Cambridge, UK: Patrick Stephens. ISBN 0-85059-364-6.
- Delve, Ken (1994). The Source Book of the RAF. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 1-85310-451-5.
- Eather, Steve (1995). Flying Squadrons of the Australian Defence Force. Weston Creek: Aerospace Publications. ISBN 1-875671-15-3.
- Flintham, Vic; Thomas, Andrew (2003). Combat Codes: A Full Explanation and Listing of British, Commonwealth and Allied Air Force Unit Codes Since 1938. Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 1-84037-281-8.
- Halley, James J. (1988). The Squadrons of the Royal Air Force & Commonwealth 1918–1988. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air Britain (Historians). ISBN 0-85130-164-9.
- Herington, John (1954). Australia in the War of 1939–1945: Series Three (Air) Volume III – Air War Against Germany and Italy 1939–1943. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 3633363. http://www.awm.gov.au/histories/second_world_war/volume.asp?levelID=67914.
- Herington, John (1963). Australia in the War of 1939–1945: Series Three (Air) Volume IV – Air Power Over Europe, 1944–1945. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. http://www.awm.gov.au/histories/second_world_war/volume.asp?levelID=67915.
- Jefford, C.G. (2001) . RAF Squadrons: A Comprehensive Record of the Movement and Equipment of all RAF Squadrons and Their Antecedents Since 1912 (2nd ed.). Shrewsbury, Shropshire, UK: Airlife Publishing. ISBN 1-85310-053-6.
- Lake, Jon (1999). Halifax Squadrons of World War II. Botley, Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-892-1.
- Lax, Mark; Kane-Maguire, Leon (2008). To See the Dawn Again: A History of 462 Squadron, RAAF 1942–2008. Wanniassa, Australian Capital Territory: Banner Books. ISBN 978-0-9775340-3-6.
- McGindle, Ted (2004) . Pimpernel Squadron: An Anecdotal History of 462 Squadron RAAF August 1944 – May 1945 (2nd ed.). Self Published. ISBN 0-646-37551-2.
- Moyes, Philip J.R. (1976). Bomber Squadrons of the RAF and Their Aircraft (2nd edition ed.). London: Macdonald and Jane's (Publishers). ISBN 0-354-01027-1.
- RAAF Historical Section (1995). Units of the Royal Australian Air Force. Volume 3: Bomber Units. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN 0-644-42795-7.
- Stephens, Alan (2006) . The Royal Australian Air Force: A History. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-555541-4.
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