Operation An-Far (short for Anti-Farouk) was a military operation launched by Israel's Givati Brigade on the night of July 8–9 during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Its objectives were to gain control of approaches in southern Judea and block the advance of the Egyptian army. The fighting continued until July 15, and was followed by Operation Death to the Invader.
Background[edit | edit source]
On the ending of the first United Nations Truce on July 8, most of the Israeli army's attention and resources were focused on Operations Danny and Dekel. In the south, the Negev and Givati Brigades failed to link up. But in ten days, the Givati Brigade did succeed in "conquering areas in the northern Negev and in the western Hebron district foothills."
Operation[edit | edit source]
Operational Commander Shimon Avidan held meetings at brigade headquarters on July 5 at which plans were outlined. In the first phase, the 1st Battalion was to attack the Tell es-Safi area. The second phase was towards Beit 'Affa, Hatta and Jusayr.
On July 7, the 1st Battalion were given their orders: "to expel the refugees encamped in the area, in order to prevent enemy infiltration from the east to this important position." According to Israeli army reports, the first phase of the operation, in which 16 villages were captured, resulted in "more than 20,000" people fleeing the area.."
Aftermath[edit | edit source]
The Israelis managed to achieve limited success in the operation, especially in clearing their flanks, but failed to achieve the main objective—linking up with the forces in the Negev desert. The result was the commencement of Operation Death to the Invader, starting July 16.
References[edit | edit source]
- James Cameron, "The making of Israel"; Pub: Martin Secker & Warburg, 1976. SBN 436 08230 6. p.60
- Morris, Benny (2009-03-23). 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. Yale University Press. pp. 275–277. ISBN 0-300-15112-8.
- Both Moshe Dayan and Shabtai Teveth refer to Operation "Death to the Invaders". (Shabtai Teveth, Moshe Dayan - The soldier, the man, the legend. ISBN 0-7043-1080-5. p.187. Moshe Dayan, Story of My Life. ISBN 0-688-03076-9. p.115. "I though[t] [the name] pompous, like the headline of an ideological tract."
- Collins/Lapierre, "O Jerusalem". 1972. p.461, gives the Negev brigade as having 800 men, and the Givati brigade 2,700 men. They also state that the Egyptian forces consisted of "two columns pushing steadly Northward" totaling 10,000 men.
- Morris, p.212
- Benny Morris, 'The Birth of the Palestinian refugee problem, 1947-1949.' ISBN 0-521-33028-9. (1987). pp.212,213
- Morris (1987) p.212: "The Brigade headquarters on 5 July discussed and outlined its plans for the "Ten Days" and on July 7 Avidan issued operational instructions to his battalions. The 1st Battalion was ordered to take the Tall as Safi area and "to expel the refugees encamped in the area, in order to prevent enemy infiltration from the east to this important position." The nature of the written order and, presumably, the accompanying oral explanations, probably left little doubt in the battalion OC's mind that Avidan wanted the area completely cleared of inhabitants."
- Morris, p.212 - citing: Major Avraham Eilon (ed), 'Hativat Givati Mul Hapolesh Hamitzri' (The Givati Brigade Opposite the Egyptian invader), (1963), pp.226-228,254.
See also[edit | edit source]
- 1948 Arab-Israeli War
- List of battles and operations in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
- List of Arab towns and villages depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Walid Khalidi, All That Remains, ISBN 0-88728-224-5. Uses 1945 'Village Statistics' for population figures.
- Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian refugee problem, 1947-1949,ISBN 0-521-33028-9.
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