Military Wiki

Question book-new.svg

This article does not contain any citations or references. Please improve this article by adding a reference. For information about how to add references, see Template:Citation.

Operation Desert Thunder/Operation Desert Viper
Part of the Iraq Disarmament Crisis and Iraqi no-fly zones
Boeing B-52H Aspect ratio.jpg
B-52H Stratofortress during Operation Desert Thunder.
Date11 November 1998 – 22 December 1998
LocationPersian Gulf
Result Mission aborted
Argentina Argentina
Australia Australia
Canada Canada
Czech Republic Czech Republic
France France
Hungary Hungary
New Zealand New Zealand
Poland Poland
Romania Romania
United Kingdom United Kingdom
United States United States
Kuwait Kuwait
Commanders and leaders
United States Anthony Zinni Saddam Hussein

Operation Desert Thunder was a response to threats by Iraq's president Saddam Hussein to shoot down U-2 spy planes, and violate the no-fly zone set up over his country. The operation was designed to bring stability to the region by bringing in a military presence during the negotiations between Iraq and the UN over weapons of mass destruction. The name Operation Desert Thunder has been applied to the build-up of forces in the Persian Gulf region during 1998.

If an actual attack had been ordered and executed, the name would have changed to Operation Desert Viper.

In the autumn of 1997 CENTCOM established a force of 35,000 air, land, and sea forces in response to Iraq's non-compliance of UN resolutions. CENTCOM Commander-in-Chief General Anthony Zinni established a permanent Coalition/Joint Task Force (C/JTF) at Camp Doha Kuwait under command of Lieutenant General Tommy Franks to lead this force. The coalition would consist of forces from Argentina,[citation needed] Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Hungary, New Zealand, Poland, Romania, United Kingdom, United States, and Kuwait.

On 18 January 1998 additional forces were brought in to support the US-led coalition forces in the region. The U.S. 3d Infantry Division of Fort Stewart, Georgia deployed 4000 personnel and 2900 short tons of equipment on 120 aircraft. The 366th Air Expeditionary Wing from Mountain Home Air Force Base, ID replaced the 347th Air Expeditionary Wing of Moody AFB, Georgia on 1 April 1998 after 120 days of deployment. The USS George Washington (CVN-73) joined the USS Nimitz (CVN-68) (relieved on-station by the USS Independence (CV-62) a few months later) in the Gulf. Combined with the British HMS Invincible (R05) and HMS Illustrious (R06), there were now 50 ships and submarines with 200 naval aircraft, a floating brigade (Army) and the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit in the Persian Gulf. This combined muscle forced Saddam to back down, and the Independence returned to Yokosuka, Japan in early June 1998. But in November 1998, the U.S. 3d Infantry Division returned to Kuwait. Using the C/JTF already in place advanced elements of the U.S. 3d Infantry Division and 32nd Air & Missile Defense Command, Theatre Support Command, and Air Support Operations Center deployed. In addition the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Force joined the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force already in place. During this build-up, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan flew to Baghdad to meet with Saddam Hussein and negotiated to allow uninterrupted inspections.

On 11 November 1998, further non-compliance by Iraq resulted in the initiation of Operation Desert Thunder. CENTCOM moved its forces into position to initiate strikes into Iraq. 2300 additional personnel were deployed during this operation. Saddam Hussein again backed down.

In December 1998, Iraq again refused to allow inspections and Operation Desert Fox began. Several key Iraqi facilities and specialized equipment were destroyed during several days of air strikes. This set back the Iraqi ballistic missile program by several years.


This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).