287,300 Pages

Operation Ellamy
Part of 2011 military intervention in Libya
Typhoon f2 zj910 arp.jpg
A Eurofighter Typhoon from the RAF
Date19 March – 31 October 2011
Result Decisive British and NATO Victory/Effective no-fly zone established,[1]
Operations handed over to NATO Operation Unified Protector
 United Kingdom  Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Commanders and leaders

United Kingdom David Cameron
United Kingdom Liam Fox
United Kingdom Philip Hammond

United Kingdom Air Marshal Sir Stuart Peach (CJO)[2]
United Kingdom Air Vice-Marshal Greg Bagwell (Air)[2]

United Kingdom Rear Admiral Ian Corder (Maritime)[2]

Libya Muammar Gaddafi
(De facto Commander-in-Chief)

Libya Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr
(Minister of Defense)

Libya Khamis al-Gaddafi
(Khamis Brigade Commander)

Libya Ali Sharif al-Rifi
(Air Force Commander)
See Deployed Forces Unknown
Casualties and losses
1 airman killed in traffic accident in Italy[3][4]

Multiple air force defences severely disabled.[5]

>200 armoured vehicles, tanks, artillery pieces and SAMs up until 12 April.[6]
Unknown, unverified claim by Gaddafi-controlled Libyan state media of 48 civilians killed, 150 wounded as a result of all UN operations[7]
40 civilians killed (in Tripoli; Vatican claim)[8]
Coalition forces have not reported any casualties on either side.

Operation Ellamy[9] was the codename for the United Kingdom participation in the 2011 military intervention in Libya.[10] The operation was part of an international coalition aimed at enforcing a Libyan no-fly zone in accordance with the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 which stipulated that "all necessary measures" shall be taken to protect civilians.[11] UK sorties were under the operational command of the United States initially, though they still title their contributions as under Operation Ellamy.[12] The coalition operation was designated by the U.S. as Operation Odyssey Dawn.[13][14] The Canadian participation is Operation Mobile[15] and the French participation is Opération Harmattan.[16] It was confirmed in December 2011 that the cost of the operations was £212m - less than was estimated, including £67m for replacing spent munitions, is all expected to be met from the Treasury reserve.[17]

The no-fly zone was proposed during the Libyan civil war to prevent government forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi from carrying out air attacks on anti-Gaddafi forces. Several countries prepared to take immediate military action at a conference in Paris on 19 March 2011.[18]

The randomly generated codename, "Ellamy," is an alternate spelling of the Early Modern English word, Elami (E-la-mi), a musical solmisation designating the note E in the context of a tetrachord.[19] The spelling "Ellamy" is found in a poem frequently attributed to John Skelton, "The Harmony of Birds".

Background to operation[edit | edit source]

The UN Security Council Resolution 1973 passed on the evening of 17 March 2011 gave a mandate to countries wishing to enforce a no-fly zone over Libya militarily. A conference involving international leaders took place in Paris on the afternoon of Saturday 19 March 2011.[20] International military action commenced after the conference finished, with French military fighter jets being the first to participate in the operation only a few hours after the conference finished in Paris with the first shot fired at 1645 GMT against a Libyan tank.[21]

Deployed forces[edit | edit source]

HMS York

Summary of operation[edit | edit source]

Day 1 – 19 March 2011

On the afternoon of 19 March, the Royal Navy Trafalgar-class submarine HMS Triumph[35] fired Tomahawk cruise missiles.[36] A combined total along with US over the day was reported by the US to be over 110 missiles.[37] The Royal Navy also has a Type 22 frigate (HMS Cumberland) and a Type 23 frigate (HMS Westminster) engaged in a naval blockade.

David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, confirmed that British aircraft were in action over Libya on the 19th,[38] although it was the French Air Force who made the first coalition aerial presence over Libya earlier the same day.

Sentry, Sentinel and VC-10 aircraft were said to be carrying out operations from RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus.[2] The home base for the VC-10 aircraft was RAF Brize Norton in Oxfordshire and for the Sentinel and Sentry aircraft was RAF Waddington in Lincolnshire.

On the night of 19–20 March 2011, Storm Shadow missiles were launched by Tornado GR4 aircraft.[39] Tornados of No. 9 Squadron from RAF Marham had sortied on a 3,000 mi (4,800 km) mission to fire Storm Shadow missiles against targets in Libya. They required refuelling by British tanker aircraft three times on the outward journey and once on the return. 101 Sqn VC10 and 216 Sqn Tristar aircraft were involved.[40]

Day 2 – 20 March 2011

The MoD announced that Tornado and Typhoon aircraft would be deployed to the Italian Gioia del Colle Air Base.[2]

The Trafalgar-class submarine HMS Triumph launched further Tomahawk cruise missiles at targets in Libya.[2]

Tornados GR4s, flying from Marham, were en route to Libya but did not fire their missiles due to information being received that suggested civilians were in the target areas. The Tornado aircraft returned to RAF Marham fully armed.[41]

Day 3 – 21 March 2011

The Prime Minister announced to the House of Commons on 21 March at the start of the debate on the UNSC resolution that RAF Typhoons had been deployed to an Italian airbase (Gioia del Colle) and would fly in support of the NFZ.[42] Three Typhoons successfully conducted a mission and returned to Gioia del Colle.[43]

Headquarters 906 Expeditionary Air Wing formed at Gioia del Colle Air Base responsible for assets forward deployed there. Headquarters 907 Expeditionary Air Wing formed at RAF Akrotiri responsible for assets forward deployed there. C-17A Globemaster and Hercules transport aircraft were also used to assist in the build up of deployed forces.[10]

Day 4 – 22 March 2011

RAF Typhoons flew their first ever combat mission,[44] patrolling the no-fly zone while Tornado GR4s from RAF Marham flew an armed reconnaissance sortie. The MoD reported that Royal Navy ships Triumph, Westminister and Cumberland remained in theatre for additional strikes and patrol.[45]

Day 5 – 23 March 2011

Tornado GR4s were forwarded deployed to Gioia del Colle Air Base.[5] In a media interview, the UK Air Component Commander, Air Vice-Marshal Greg Bagwell, stated that the Libyan Air Force "no longer exists as a fighting force" and that "we have the Libyan ground forces under constant observation and we attack them whenever they threaten civilians or attack population centres."[46]

Day 6 – 24 March 2011

Tomahawk Cruise Missiles were again fired at targets from HMS Triumph[47] RAF Tornado aircraft on an armed reconnaissance mission launched Brimstone missiles against Libyan armoured vehicles that were reported to be threatening the civilian population of Adjdabiya. Four T-72 tanks were destroyed in the attack by Tornados, and three by another coalition aircraft. Likely target locations had previously been identified by other Tornado aircraft equipped with RAPTOR pods.[28]

Day 7 – 25 March 2011

RAF Tornado aircraft launched more Brimstone missile strikes, destroying three armoured vehicles in Misrata and two further armoured vehicles in Ajdabiya.[48]

Day 9 – 27 March 2011

Over the weekend, Tornados from Gioia del Colle launched numerous armed reconnaissance missions, during the course of which ordnance released hit a total of 22 tanks, armoured vehicles and artillery pieces in the vicinity of Ajdabiya and Misrata.[49]

Day 10 – 28 March 2011

Tornados from RAF Marham, supported by Tristar tankers from RAF Brize Norton, launched Storm Shadow strikes against ammunition bunkers in the Sabha area in the southern Libyan desert. The bunkers were reportedly used to resupply Libyan Government troops attacking civilians in the north of the country.[49]

The Type 42 Destroyer Liverpool was ordered to the Mediterranean to relieve Type 22 frigate Cumberland.[50]

Day 11 – 29 March 2011

The London Conference on Libya was chaired by the Foreign Secretary, William Hague.

Two Tornados flying from Gioia del Colle engaged near Misrata a Libyan armoured fighting vehicle and two artillery pieces with Brimstone missiles.[51]

Day 12 – 30 March 2011

Tornados flying from Gioia del Colle engaged near Misrata three Libyan tanks, two armoured fighting vehicles and a surface-to-air missile site with Brimstone missiles and Paveway IV bombs.[52] HMS Liverpool was deployed to relieve HMS Cumberland.[26]

Day 13 – 31 March 2011

From 06:00 GMT, NATO took sole command of air operations over Libya under Operation Unified Protector, taking over from U.S. Africa Command.[53][54][55]

Day 15 – 2 April 2011

HMS Triumph returned to base HMNB Devonport flying the Jolly Roger marked for six successful Tomahawk launches.[56]

RAF Tornado aircraft launched Paveway IV bombs against pro-Gaddafi forces. Two main battle tanks in Sirte and several small ground-attack aircraft on an airfield near Misrata were reportedly hit.[57]

Day 16 – 3 April 2011

RAF Tornados reportedly launched successful attacks with Paveway IV and Brimstone missiles on ten armoured fighting vehicles south of Sirte.[57]

Day 17 – 4 April 2011

The number of Tornado aircraft taking part in Operation Ellamy was increased from eight to twelve on 4 April, with the aircraft deployed from RAF Marham.[58] RAF Tornados, engaged in two separate strikes in the Libyan city of Sirte, launched three Brimstone missiles which destroyed one main battle tank and two surface-to-air missile launchers.[57]

Day 22 – 9 April 2011

Seven tanks were destroyed by Tornado aircraft, two in Ajdabiya and five in Misrata, using Paveway IV bombs and Brimstone missiles.[59]

Day 23 – 10 April 2011

The MoD reported that over the weekend of 22–23 April, of 61 armoured vehicles and air defence assets destroyed by NATO, 21 were destroyed by RAF aircraft.[6]

Day 25 – 12 April 2011

HMS Turbulent was declared available in theatre by the MoD for Tomahawk strikes should they be required.[6]

RAF Typhoon aircraft were used operationally in a ground attack role for the first time. A Typhoon destroyed 2 main battle tanks near Misrata with Paveway II whilst a Tornado destroyed the third with Paveway IV. In total, RAF aircraft destroyed eight main battle tanks on 12 April. Since the start of Operation ELLAMY up until 12 April, RAF aircraft had engaged over 100 main battle tanks, artillery pieces, armoured vehicles and SAMs.[6]

Day 31–18 April 2011

RAF Tornados and Typhoons attacked a pair of multiple rocket launcher vehicles and a light artillery piece reportedly firing on Misrata, as well as a self-propelled gun and tank.[60]

HMS Triumph was reported by the MoD to have launched two salvoes of Tomahawk missiles against command and control facilities alongside precision strikes by RAF Tornados, Typhoons and coalition aircraft.[60] The MoD's previous report that HMS Triumph had returned to Devonport suggests the submarine involved was probably HMS Turbulent.[6]

HMS Liverpool intercepted the vessel MV Setubal Express heading for Tripoli, conducting a boarding party search with Royal Marines and finding trucks of potential use to the Gaddafi regime. The merchant vessel was ordered to divert to Salerno in Italy.[61]

Day 32 – 19 April 2011

The Foreign Secretary announced that a British Military Liaison Advisory Team was to be sent to Benghazi to advise the NTC on how to improve their military organisational structures, communications and logistics.[62]

Day 43 – 30 April 2011

HMS Brocklesby destroyed a buoyant mine containing over 100 kg of high explosive. Using her sonar and underwater mine disposal system, Seafox, the mine was destroyed one mile from the entrance to Misrata harbour, making the waters safe for aid ships to enter[63][64]

Day 49 – 6 May 2011

Tornados attacked a site south of Sirte based on analysis of intelligence by RAF Tactical Imagery Wing. 20 FROG-7 launchers and a significant number of Scud canisters were reported as either completely or partially destroyed. RAF aircraft also destroyed one tank and two armoured vehicles in the area of Misrata and one mobile rocket launcher south of Tripoli.[65]

Day 55 – 12 May 2011

An RAF Typhoon was reported to have destroyed two Palmaria 155mm howitzers near Sirte.[66]

While engaged in surveillance operations off the coast of the rebel-held Libyan city of Misrata, HMS Liverpool came under fire from a shore battery, making her the first Royal Navy warship to be deliberately targeted since the Falklands War.[67] Liverpool had been tasked with other NATO warships, to intercept small, high-speed inflatable craft spotted approaching the port of Misrata, the type which had been used previously to lay mines in the Port of Misrata. Libyan rocket artillery on the coast fired an inaccurate salvo of rockets at Liverpool. Liverpool returned fire with her 4.5 inch main gun, silencing the shore battery, in the Royal Navy's first use of the weapon since the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[68][68][69]

Day 59 – 16 May 2011

Royal Navy Tomahawk missiles reportedly fired from HMS Triumph, and Paveway IV bombs released by RAF Tornado aircraft were reported to have struck intelligence agency buildings and a training base used by Colonel Gaddafi's Executive Protection Force. RN and RAF attacks were reported to have damaged or destroyed over 300 targets since the start of Operation Ellamy.[66]

Day 62 – 19 May 2011

Tornado GR4s attacked two corvettes in Al Khums naval base and destroyed a facility in the dockyard constructing fast inflatable boats which Libyan forces had reportedly used to mine Misrata and attack vessels in the area.[70]

Day 63 – 20 May 2011

RAF aircraft destroyed five multiple rockets launchers around Tripoli.[71]

Day 67 – 24 May 2011

RAF aircraft attacked four armoured vehicles deployed near the Libyan city of Zlitan. A Tornado attacked a Libyan coastal radar station near Brega, which was destroyed with a dual-mode seeker Brimstone missile.[71]

Day 68 – 25 May 2011

A vehicle depot at Tiji was attacked by a Typhoon FGR4 and a Tornado GR4 dropping four Enhanced Paveway II and five Paveway IV weapons between them.[71]

Day 70 – 27 May 2011

HMS Ocean (detached from the Response Force Task Group COUGAR 11 deployment) deployed with a complement of 4 Apache helicopters to aid operations.[72][73]

Day 77 – 3 June 2011

The Response Force Task Group withdrew from COUGAR 11 and was deployed (an RFTG ship, HMS Ocean, and her embarked Apache attack helicopters had been deployed days earlier) to supplement UK forces in Operation Ellamy.[74]

Day 102 - 28 June 2011

HMS Liverpool used her main gun to fire warning shots at pro-Gaddafi maritime forces moving along Libya's Mediterranean coast just west of the city of Misrata, amid concerns a threat was posed to civilians due to recent repeated attempts to mine the harbour. After initially ignoring the first shell, a further three were fired and the vessels were forced to return to their port of departure.[75][76]

Day 107 - 3 August 2011

Several rockets were fired at HMS Liverpool. She returned fire with her 4.5 inch main gun. The attack came after the ship had fired a barrage of illumination rounds in support of an air attack on the stronghold of Zliten.[77]

Day 145 – 10 August 2011

RAF Tornados launched direct from RAF Marham in Norfolk to target command and control and air defence targets with Stormshadow cruise missiles.[78]

Day 151 – 16 August 2011

Since the start of military operations on 19 March, Royal Air Force, Royal Navy, and Army Air Corps precision strikes were reported to have damaged or destroyed some 870 former regime targets.[79]

HMS Liverpool was involved in the most intense shore-bombardment of the war. Liverpool had been tasked by a patrol aircraft to fire illumination rounds over the city of Zlitan. While conducting this mission, Liverpool came under fire from a Loyalist shore-battery. Liverpool responded by firing three rounds from her 4.5 inch gun, silencing the battery. Later on the same day, a patrol aircraft spotted a large pro-Gaddafi vehicle convoy carrying weapons and ammunition. Liverpool fired 54 shells from her 4.5 inch gun at the convoy, destroying or severely damaging many of the vehicles. During the ensuing chaos on the ground, NATO aircraft destroyed the remainder of the convoy.[80]

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. From Jane's Defence Weekly, 16 March 2011, operational requirements forced the Royal Air Force to deploy one of its two remaining Nimrod R1s two weeks before they were due to be withdrawn.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Cohen, Tom (20 March 2011). "Mullen: No-fly zone effectively in place in Libya". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/03/20/us.mullen.libya/index.html?hpt=T1. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 "Libya update". Ministry of Defence. 20 March 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/LibyaUpdate.htm. 
  3. Airman killed in road accident in Italy
  4. UK Airman Dies in Italy Road Accident
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Libyan air force neutered". Ministry of Defence. 24 March 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/LibyanAirForceNeutered.htm. Retrieved 24 March2011. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 "Typhoon joins Tornado in Libya Ground Attack Operations". Ministry of Defence. 13 April 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/TyphoonJoinsTornadoInLibyaGroundAttackOperations.htm. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  7. "Gaddafi denounces foreign intervention". Al Jazeera English. 20 March 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/201132094116102192.html. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  8. "Vatican: Airstrikes killed 40 civilians in Tripoli". 31 March 2011. http://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=214560. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  9. "LIBYA: Operation ELLAMY: Questions and Answers". Ministry of Defence. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/FactSheets/MilitaryOperations/LibyaOperationEllamyQuestionsAndAnswers.htm. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 "Coalition operations in Libya to continue". Ministry of Defence. 21 March 2010. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/CoalitionOperationsInLibyaToContinue.htm. 
  11. "Security Council authorizes ‘all necessary measures’ to protect civilians in Libya". United Nations. un.org. 17 March 2011. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=37808&Cr=libya&Cr1. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  12. William Hague: 'Gaddafi regime in for a surprise' (25 March 2011) BBC. At 00:40 – Interviewer, "...who has operational command of the various sorties we are currently seeing involving UK forces?" British Foreign Secretary Hague's response, "They are under a US command..."
  13. "DOD News Briefing by Vice Adm. Gortney on Operation Odyssey Dawn". U.S. Department of Defense. 2011-03-19. http://www.defense.gov/transcripts/transcript.aspx?transcriptid=4786. 
  14. Rawnsley, Adam (21 March 2011) What’s in a Name? ‘Odyssey Dawn’ Is Pentagon-Crafted Nonsense Wired
  15. Operation MOBILE: National Defence and the Canadian Forces Response to the Situation in Libya National Defence and the Canadian Forces, Canadian Department of National Defense
  16. Libye : point de situation de l'opération Harmattan n°1 (23 March 2011) Opérations, Ministère de la Défense et des anciens combattants. (French) English translation
  17. "Hammond says UK not seeking 'perfect Afghanistan'". BBC News. 8 December 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-16080730. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Judd, Terri (19 March 2011). "Operation Ellamy: Designed to strike from air and sea". London. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/operation-ellamy-designed-to-strike-from-air-and-sea-2246411.html. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  19. Bradley, Henry, William A. Craigie, and James Augustus Henry. Murray. "Elami." A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. Vol. 3 Pt. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1891. 68. Print.
  20. "David Cameron meets allies for Libya crisis talks". BBC News. 19 March 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-12794031. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  21. "Libya: French plane fires on military vehicle". BBC News. 19 March 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12795971. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  22. "HMS Cumberland deploys to Libya coast". Ministry of Defence. 23 February 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/HmsCumberlandDeploysToLibyanCoast.htm. 
  23. "Libya: French jets resume sorties as coalition builds". BBC News. 20 March 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12800635. 
  24. "Libya: RAF 'comfortable' with outcome of airstrikes". BBC News. 20 March 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-12799493. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Typhoon joins Tornado in Libya ground attack operations". Ministry of Defence. 13 April 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/TyphoonJoinsTornadoInLibyaGroundAttackOperations.htm. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 Captain’s pride as HMS Liverpool sails for Libya - Defence - Portsmouth News. Portsmouth.co.uk (2011-03-30). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  27. "Libya: RAF Tornados destroy seven Libyan tanks". BBC News. 9 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xp8jSTzK. Retrieved 9 April 2011. 
  28. 28.0 28.1 "Operational Update on Libya – 25 March". Ministry of Defence. 25 March 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/OperationalUpdateOnLibya25March.htm. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  29. "Coalition Against Gadhafi Growing". Defense News. 20 March 2011. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xMRSaUtK. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  30. "UK military to be stretched by long Libya campaign". Reuters. 19 March 2011. http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/03/19/uk-libya-britain-military-idUKTRE72H7KY20110319. 
  31. "VC10 and TriStar Support Operations". Royal Air Force. 20 March 2011. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xMR4ozTh. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  32. Drury, Ian (22 March 2011). "Mission aborted on orders of SAS: RAF attack is halted after troops spot human shields". London. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1368626/Libya-RAF-abort-attack-SAS-spot-Gaddafi-using-human-shields.html. 
  33. "SAS 'Smash' squads on the ground in Libya to mark targets for coalition jets". London. 21 March 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1368247/Libya-SAS-smash-squads-ground-mark-targets-coalition-jets.html?ITO=1490. 
  34. Harding, Thomas (24 August 2011). "Libya: SAS leads hunt for Gaddafi". The Daily Telegraph. London. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8721291/Libya-SAS-leads-hunt-for-Gaddafi.html. 
  35. Daily Mail Reporters (21 March 2011). "RAF strikes against Gaddafi's forces branded 'a success' as bombed out tanks and cars litter the roads near Benghazi". Daily Mail. London. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1368028/Cruise-strike-hits-Gaddafi-We-stand-let-dictator-murder-people.html?ito=feeds-newsxml. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  36. "British Armed Forces launch strike against Libyan Air Defence systems". Ministry of Defence. 19 March 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/BritishArmedForcesLaunchStrikeAgainstLibyanAirDefenceSystems.htm. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  37. Al-Shalchi, Hadeel (20 March 2011). "US fires 110 missiles as no-fly zone is enforced". Irish Independent. http://www.independent.ie/world-news/africa/us-fires-110-missiles-as-nofly-zone-is-enforced-2586278.html. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  38. "Libya: Coalition launches attacks from air and sea". BBC News. 19 March 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12796972. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  39. "British jets fired on Libyan targets". monstersandcritics.com. 20 March 2011. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. https://archive.is/ccyW. 
  40. "TARGET LIBYA: RAF reveals Marham jets’ 3,000-mile mission, as aircraft prepare to deploy to Italy". edp24.co.uk. 20 March 2011. http://www.edp24.co.uk/news/target_libya_raf_reveals_marham_jets_3_000_mile_mission_as_aircraft_prepare_to_deploy_to_italy_1_835355. 
  41. "Updated: Second UK strike against Libyan defence assets". Ministry of Defence. 21 March 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/UpdatedSecondUkStrikeAgainstLibyanDefenceAssets.htm. 
  42. "21 March 2011" United Kingdom: House of Commons col. 700–701 http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201011/cmhansrd/cm110321/debtext/110321-0001.htm#1103219000645 
  43. "Live: Libya crisis". BBC News. 22 March 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12776418. Retrieved 22 March 2011. 
  44. "RAF Typhoons patrol Libyan no-fly zone". Ministry of Defence. 22 March 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/RafTyphoonsPatrolLibyanNoflyZone.htm. 
  45. "Operations in Libya having a very real effect". Ministry of Defence. 22 March 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/OperationsInLibyaHavingAVeryRealEffect.htm. 
  46. "Libya air force 'unable to fight'". BBC News. 23 March 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12837330. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 
  47. "British submarine launches further strikes on Libyan air defence systems". Ministry of Defence. 24 March 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/BritishSubmarineLaunchesFurtherStrikesOnLibyanAirDefenceSystems.htm. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 
  48. "Brimstone Missiles Destroy Armoured Vehicles in Libya". Ministry of Defence. 26 March 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/BrimstoneMissilesDestroyArmouredVehiclesInLibya.htm. Retrieved 27 March 2011. 
  49. 49.0 49.1 "RAF Strikes Further Targets in Libya". Ministry of Defence. 28 March 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/RafStrikesFurtherTargetsInLibya.htm. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  50. Powell, Michael (2011), Libya mission for Portsmouth based HMS Liverpool, 29 March 2011, portsmouth.co.uk. Retrieved 30 March 2011.
  51. "Libya Conference Participants Committed to Military Action". Ministry of Defence. 30 March 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/DefencePolicyAndBusiness/LibyaConferenceParticipantsCommittedToMilitaryAction.htm. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  52. "RAF and Navy Patrol LIbyan Skies and Seas". Ministry of Defence. 31 March 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/RafAndNavyPatrolLibyanSkiesAndSeas.htm. Retrieved 31 March 2011. 
  53. "NATO Press Briefing". NATO. 31 March 2011. http://www.nato.int/cps/en/SID-4618E83B-9204E6B0/natolive/opinions_71897.htm. 
  54. US Navy P-3C, USAF A-10 and USS Barry Engage Libyan Vessels. Navy.mil. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  55. "NATO Assumes Command of Libya Operations". Department of Defense. 31 March 2011. http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=63384. 
  56. "HMS Triumph Returns from Libya Operations". Ministry of Defence. 4 April 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/HmsTriumphReturnsFromLibyaOperations.htm. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 "PM Visits RAF Crews Deployed on Operations". Ministry of Defence. 5 April 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/PmVisitsRafCrewsDeployedOnLibyaOperations.htm. Retrieved 5 April 2011. 
  58. Wintour, Patrick (4 April 2011). "Libya: UK to increase number of Tornado jets". London: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xhfkEfKz. Retrieved 4 April 2011. 
  59. "Libya: RAF Tornados destroy seven Libyan tanks". BBC News Online. 9 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 April 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5xp8jSTzK. Retrieved 9 April 2011. 
  60. 60.0 60.1 "UK military liaison advisory team to be sent to Libya". Ministry of Defence. 19 April 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/DefencePolicyAndBusiness/UkMilitaryLiaisonAdvisoryTeamToBeSentToLibya.htm. Retrieved 19 April 2011. 
  61. [1][dead link]
  62. "UK military liaison advisory team to be sent to Libya". Ministry of Defence. 19 April 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/DefencePolicyAndBusiness/UkMilitaryLiaisonAdvisoryTeamToBeSentToLibya.htm. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  63. "Royal Navy Destroys Libya Harbour Mine". Ministry of Defence. 5 May 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/RoyalNavyClearsLibyanHarbourMine.htm. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  64. HMS Brocklesby conducting MCM operations. YouTube (2011-05-17). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  65. "RAF Destroys Gaddafi Rocket Launchers". Ministry of Defence. 9 May 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/RafDestroysGaddafiRocketLaunchers.htm. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  66. 66.0 66.1 "RAF and Navy Strike Targets in Tripoli". Ministry of Defence. 17 May 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/RafAndNavyStrikeTargetsInTripoli.htm. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  67. Reporting from the Fleet. Navy News (2011-11-07). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  68. 68.0 68.1 Reporting from the Fleet. Navy News. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  69. "Cameron invites Libya rebels to open office in UK". BBC News. 12 May 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-13371152. 
  70. "RAF Strikes Gaddafi's Navy". Ministry of Defence. 20 May 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/RafStrikesGaddafisNavy.htm. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  71. 71.0 71.1 71.2 "RAF Destroys Military Vehicle Depot in Libya". Ministry of Defence. 26 May 2011. http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/DefenceNews/MilitaryOperations/RafDestroysMilitaryVehicleDepotInLibya.htm. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  72. Apaches get ready to help protect Libyan civilians - Announcements - GOV.UK. Mod.uk (2011-05-27). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  73. Reporting from the Fleet. Navy News. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  74. Reporting from the Fleet. Navy News. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  75. Warship fires on Gaddafi forces - Defence - Portsmouth News. Portsmouth.co.uk (2011-06-28). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  76. Reporting from the Fleet. Navy News. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  77. "Libya: Royal Navy warship HMS Liverpool comes under heavy fire" The Telegraph 4 August 2011
  78. http://www.raf.mod.uk/news/archive/long-range-libya-mission-15082011
  79. http://www.raf.mod.uk/news/archive/aircraft-strikes-18082011
  80. http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/operations-and-support/surface-fleet/type-42-destroyers/hms-liverpool/news/hms_liverpools_gun_h.htm

External links[edit | edit source]

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.