Operation Margarethe was the restricted occupation of Hungary by Nazi German forces during World War II. The codename "Margarethe I" referred to the occupation by German forces alone as it was ordered by Hitler on 12 March 1944, while the term "Margarethe II" was reserved for a full-scale occupation by German forces in conjunction with those of Croatia, Romania and Slovakia. The latter was never carried out. At the time of the occupation, Hungary was threatened by Soviet invasion. The Hungarian Prime Minister Miklós Kállay, with the knowledge and approval of Regent Miklós Horthy, had been discussing an armistice with the Allies. German dictator Adolf Hitler found out about these discussions and, feeling betrayed by the Hungarians, ordered German troops to implement Operation Margarethe to capture critical Hungarian facilities. Hitler invited Horthy to the palace of Klessheim, outside of Salzburg, Austria on March 15. While they conducted their negotiations, German forces quietly moved into Hungary. The meeting was merely a ruse to keep Horthy out of the country and leave the army without orders. Negotiations between Horthy and Hitler lasted until the 18th, when Horthy boarded a train to return home. When he arrived in Budapest, it was German soldiers who greeted him. Horthy was told that Hungary could only remain sovereign if he removed Kállay in favour of a government that would cooperate fully with the Germans. Otherwise, Hungary would be subject to undisguised occupation. Knowing the latter meant a gauleiter who would treat Hungary no differently than an occupied enemy country, Horthy appointed Döme Sztójay as Prime Minister to appease German concerns. The occupation was a complete surprise and resulted in it being quick and bloodless. The initial plan was to immobilise the Hungarian army, but with Soviet forces advancing from the north and east, and with British and American forces invading the Balkans, they decided to retain the forces, sending a portion to the defend the pass through the Carpathians.
In Relation to Romania[edit | edit source]
Operation Margarethe II was also the name for a planned Nazi German invasion of Romania should the Romanian government decide to surrender to the Soviets. Romania did in fact surrender in August 1944 (after King Michael's Coup), but this operation was never implemented.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Carlile Aylmer Macartney, October Fifteenth: A History of Modern Hungary, 1929–1945, 2 vols. (Edinburgh University Press, 1956–57), II, 226.
- Earl F. Ziemke, Stalingrad to Berlin: The German Defeat in the East, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968
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