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History of Poland 1939–1945
Operation Most III (Polish for Bridge III) or Operation Wildhorn III (in British documents) was a World War II operation in which Poland's Armia Krajowa provided the Allies with crucial intelligence on the German V-2 rocket.
Background[edit | edit source]
From November 1943 onwards, the Intelligence Division of the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa) obtained parts of the V-2 rocket, which was being tested near Blizna, central Poland. The availability of parts increased from April 1944, when numerous test rockets fell near Sarnaki village, in the vicinity of the Bug River, south of Siemiatycze. Parts of the rocket were secured by the Armia Krajowa, and analyzed at its secret laboratories in Warsaw. The analysis was performed by Professor Janusz Groszkowski (radio and guidance), Marceli Struszyński (fuel), Antoni Kocjan, and others.
Operation[edit | edit source]
The Most III operation was carried out on the night 25/26 July 1944. A Dakota of No. 267 Squadron RAF flew from Brindisi, and landed at an Armia Krajowa outpost codenamed Motyl (butterfly), which was in a village near Jadowniki Mokre.
The operation was undertaken cautiously as the German presence in nearby villages was substantial. The aircraft had problems taking off as its landing gear sank in the marshy meadows. The crew could have abandoned and destroyed the airplane, but with the help of the partisans, the aircraft managed to take off at the third attempt and returned to Brindisi with the parts. In late July 1944, the parts were delivered to London.
Participants[edit | edit source]
On the outgoing flight from Brindisi the aircraft had 4 passengers: Kazimierz Bilski, Jan Nowak-Jeziorański, Leszek Starzyński and Bogusław Wolniak.
On the return flight, Jerzy Chmielewski, Józef Retinger Tomasz Arciszewski, Tadeusz Chciuk, and Czeslaw Micinski were ferried from occupied Poland to Brindisi, Italy. It was intended that Antoni Kocjan (who had personally studied parts of V-2 missiles) would take part, but he was arrested by the Gestapo and therefore was replaced by Jerzy Chmielewski.
The aircraft's crew included: F/Lt S.C. Culliford (Captain), F/O K. Szrajer (Co-pilot and translator)(Polish), F/O J.P. Williams (Navigator), F/Sgt J. Appleby (Radio-operator).
Security for the operation was provided by Armia Krajowa group “Urban”, which included Adam Gondek 'Kruk'. The security commander of the Motyl landing site was Captain Wladyslaw Kabat ps.'Brzechwa'.
Other participants were : Kpr. Franciszek Nowak 'Pomidor', Dr Jan Deszcz 'Wacek', Kpr. pchor. Władysław Bysiek 'Morena', Plut. Józef Lupa 'Czarny Sęp', Ppor. Franciszek Kuczek 'Deska', Por. Mieczysław Czech 'Jurand', Por. Paweł Chwała 'Skory', Ppor. Jan Gomoła 'Jawor'.
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- K. Szrajer. ""Trzeci Most" - wspomnienia Kaziemierza Szrajera.". http://301.dyon.pl/txt/wspomnienia.most3.1.html. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Ordway, Frederick I., III. The Rocket Team. Apogee Books Space Series 36 (pp. 158, 173)
- (Polish) Michał Wojewódzki, Akcja V-1, V-2, Warsaw 1984, ISBN 83-211-0521-1
- McGovern, James. Crossbow and Overcast. W. Morrow: New York, 1964. (p. 71)
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