The Ottoman-Persian Wars or Ottoman-Iranian Wars were a series a wars between Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties of Iran (Persia) through the 16th–19th centuries. The Ottomans consolidated their control of what is today Turkey in the 15th century, and gradually came into conflict with the emerging neighboring Persian state, led by Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty. The two states were arch rivals, and were also divided by religious grounds, the Ottomans being staunchly Sunni and the Safavids being Shia. A series of military conflicts ensued for centuries during which the two empires competed for control over eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Iraq.
Among the numerous treaties, the Treaty of Zuhab of 1639 is usually considered as the most important one,[by whom?] as it fixed present Turkey–Iran and Iraq–Iran borders. In later treaties, there were frequent references to the Treaty of Zuhab.
References and notesEdit
- ↑ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 339-340
- ↑ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 277-281
- ↑ Gábor Ágoston-Bruce Masters:Encyclopaedia of the Ottoman Empire , ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1, p.280
- ↑ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 21-25
- ↑ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 43-45
- ↑ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 78-82
- ↑ Erewantsʻi, Abraham; Bournoutian, George (1999). History of the wars: (1721-1736). Mazda Publishers. p. 2. ISBN 978-1568590851. https://books.google.nl/books?id=FpugAAAAMAAJ&q=tahmasp+1731+lost+war&dq=tahmasp+1731+lost+war&hl=nl&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjHx8SPtYvLAhULiywKHbGXDio4ChDoAQgqMAE. "(...) against Nader's advice, Shah Tahmasp marched against the Turks to force their withdrawal from Transcaucasia. The Ottomans routed the Persian forces in 1731, and in January 1732, the Shah concluded an agreement that left eastern Armenia, eastern Georgia, Shirvan, and Hamadan in Turkish hands."
- ↑ Tucker, Spencer C.. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East [6 volumes: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East]. ABC-CLIO. p. 729. ISBN 978-1851096725. https://books.google.nl/books?id=h5_tSnygvbIC&dq=treaty+of+ahmet+pasha+1732&hl=nl&source=gbs_navlinks_s. "Pursued by the Turks, Tahmasp is decisively defeated in the second Battle of Hamadan. In order to prevent a general Turkish invasion, he agrees to cede the territory conquered by Nadir in 1730 and recognizes all Turkish acquisitions"
- ↑ A ́goston, Ga ́bor; Masters, Bruce Alan (2010). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. pp. 415–416. ISBN 978-1438110257. "But while Nadir pursued conquests in the east, Shah Tahmasp reopened hostilities with the Ottomans in an effort to regain his lost territories. He was defeated and agreed to a treaty that restored Tabriz but left Kermanshah and Hamadan in Ottoman hands. Nadir was incensed at the treaty (...)"
- ↑ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 1-8
- ↑ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 22-25
- ↑ Selcuk Aksin Somel (2010), The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire, quote: "This indecisive military conflict resulted in the preservation of the existing borders.", The Scarecrow Press Inc., p. 170
- ↑ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/karim-khan-zand
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Fattah, Hala Mundhir (1997). The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf: 1745-1900. SUNY Press. p. 34. ISBN 9781438402376.
- ↑ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 193-195
- Yves Bomati and Houchang Nahavandi,Shah Abbas, Emperor of Persia,1587-1629, 2017, ed. Ketab Corporation, Los Angeles, ISBN 978-1595845672, English translation by Azizeh Azodi.
- Sicker, Martin (2001). The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 027596891X.
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