|Native name||Pemuda Pancasila|
|Dates of operation||1965-2000|
|Major actions||Beheadings, Tortures, Rapes|
Indonesian killings of 1965–66|
Maluku sectarian conflict
The Pancasila Youth (Indonesian language:Pemuda Pancasila, PP) is an Indonesian paramilitary organization established by General Abdul Haris Nasution on 28 October 1959, headed since 1981 by Yapto Soerjosoemarno. It was formed from the semi-official political gangsters (preman) that supported the New Order military dictatorship of Suharto. The name refers to Pancasila, the official "five principles" of the Indonesian state. Pancasila Youth played an important role in supporting Suharto's military coup in 1965: they ran death squads for the Indonesian army, killing a million or more alleged communists and Chinese Indonesians across the province of North Sumatra, as described in the 2012 documentary The Act of Killing.
In the documentary, it is stated that the organisation currently has three million members. National membership estimates from the late 1990s ranged from four to ten million people.
- ↑ "Jakarta prominent mass organization and ethnic groups". Jakarta Post. 28 August 2009. http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/08/28/jakarta-prominent-mass-organization-and-ethnic-groups.html. Retrieved 8 May 2014.
- ↑ Hefner, Robert W.. "Social Legacies and Possible Futures". Indonesia: The Great Transition. p. 120. http://books.google.ca/books?id=uLr2Q_cIESIC&pg=PA120#v=onepage&q&f=false.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 Youth Gangs and Otherwise in Indonesia; RYTER, Loren, University of Michigan; presented at the Global Gangs Workshop, 14–15 May 2009
- Ryter, Loren (October 1998). "Pemuda Pancasila: The Last Loyalist Free Men of Suharto's Order". pp. 45–73. Digital object identifier:10.2307/3351447. http://cip.cornell.edu/DPubS?service=UI&version=1.0&verb=Display&handle=seap.indo/1106954799. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
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