Croatian Patria AMV
|Type||Armoured personnel carrier|
|Place of origin||Finland|
|Weight||16,000 to 27,000 kg (35,000 to 60,000 lb)|
|Length||7.7 m (25 ft)|
|Width||2.8 m (9 ft 2 in)|
|Height||2.3 m (7 ft 7 in)|
|Crew||2-3 (commander, driver, optional gunner)|
|Up to 105 mm gun or twin 120 mm mortars in turret|
|Engine||DI 12 Scania Diesel or DC 12 Scania Diesel|
405 kW (543 hp) or 360 kW (480 hp)
|Power/weight||15.6 kW/t (21.2 PS/t) (max weight)|
independent hydropneumatic suspension
|600-850 km (370-530 mi)|
|Speed||over 100 km/h (60 mph) on land|
up to 10 km/h (6.2 mph) in water
The Patria AMV (Armored Modular Vehicle) is an 8×8 multi-role military vehicle produced by the Finnish defence industry company Patria. The main feature of the AMV is its modular design, which allows the incorporation of different turrets, weapons, sensors, or communications systems on the same carriage. Designs exist for different APC vehicles (armoured personnel carrier) and IFV versions (infantry fighting vehicle), communications versions, ambulances and different fire support versions, armed with large caliber mortar and gun systems. The vehicle has a very good level of mine protection and can withstand explosions of up to 10 kilograms (22 lb) TNT. The AMV has protection levels up to 30 mm APFSDS frontal arc. Another important feature is the very good mobility (combining speed, agility, and crew comfort) in rough terrain, enabled by the sophisticated but rugged hydraulic suspension adjusting each wheel individually.
History[edit | edit source]
The AMV stems from an investigation, made by the Finnish Army HQ in 1995, on different armored vehicle concepts. In 1996, Patria Vehicles began to develop different concept vehicles, and found the 8×8 one to be most suitable as a replacement for the 6×6 Sisu Pasi. The Finnish Defence Forces (FDF) ordered an official concept study in 1999, which was ready by 2000. Patria continued to develop the vehicle and the first AMV prototype was ready for testing in November 2001. Two evaluation samples were ordered by the FDF in December 2001, and were delivered in 2003. Later the same year, the FDF ordered 24 AMOS-equipped Patria AMVs for delivery 2006-2009. The FDF also said that they were looking to order some 100 units, equipped with remote-controlled weapon stations, later placing an order for 62. In December 2002 the Polish Defence Ministry placed an order for 690 vehicles, making Patria the leading manufacturer of IFV in the 15-27 tonne range in Europe. Subsequent deals were made all over Europe, as well as in South Africa and the United Arab Emirates - in many places being locally produced. In 2004, the AMV became the first 4th generation combat vehicle of its kind to enter serial production.
The design was based on experience gained from building the Pasi and on customer feedback on that vehicle. It was entirely designed in 3D virtual environments before construction and subsequent successful testing of the prototype showed that it fulfilled all the expectations.
The vehicle was initially designed in 6×6, 8×8 and 10×10 variants, but the 10×10 variant was later dropped.
Versions[edit | edit source]
The AMV is offered in three main variants: a basic platform, a high roof platform and a heavy weapon platform.
- The AMV basic platform includes APC, IFV, C2, ambulance, reconnaissance, mortar carrier, FCV, ATGM and MGS vehicles. Basic platform can also be provided as an extended Basic L platform with increased internal volume.
- The AMV high roof platform features a larger and higher rear compartment which allows more space-requiring work to be done inside the vehicle. The AMV SP is suitable for e.g. C3, large ambulance and workshop vehicles.
- The AMV heavy weapon platform features stronger structure enabling heavy weapon systems e.g. Patria AMOS 120 mm mortar turret or Mobile Gun System
National variants[edit | edit source]
- The Polish variant KTO Rosomak is slightly scaled down armour and weightwise to allow amphibious capabilities and air-transportation by a C-130 Hercules transport plane. This idea was dropped after analyses of the 2003 Iraq war, and vehicles sent to Afghanistan were equipped with applique armour.
- The Slovenian variant "SKOV Svarun" uses a specially designed hydraulic door. The new door also features additional carrying space for ammunition, two RPG-type anti-tank weapons and a general purpose machinegun.
- The South African 'Badger' variant, equipped with an underfloor armour package from Land Mobility Technologies (LMT) and Denel Land Systems's Modular Combat Turret (MCT). Offered in Section, Fire Support, Mortar, Command and Missile sub-variants.
- The UAE variant, is slightly lengthened (0.4 m longer) to allow fitting of the spacier BMP-3 turret and the same number of soldiers as the original AMV model.
Service[edit | edit source]
The Polish Army has ordered 313 AMVs with the Italian Oto Melara 30 mm Hitfist-30P turret and 377 AMVs in various other configurations to be delivered between 2004 and 2013. Some of the Polish vehicles are currently employed in Afghanistan. The Polish vehicles are known as KTO Rosomak ("wolverine") in Polish Army service.
The Finnish Army has ordered 24 AMVs fitted with the AMOS mortar system and 62 AMVs fitted with Protector (RWS) remote weapon system for the .50 M2HB QCB heavy machine gun or the GMG grenade machine gun. The standard version is known as XA-360 in Finnish Army service, while the AMOS version is known as XA-361.
In June 2006, the Slovenian Ministry of Defence declared that the Patria AMV will be the new armoured fighting vehicle of the Slovenian Armed Forces. Patria will supply 135 vehicles, some equipped with the NEMO mortar, some with Elbit 30 mm remote controlled weapon station and the rest with Kongsberg Protector turrets. Allegations in Finnish media that bribery was used by Patria to secure the Slovenian contract led to a scandal and a criminal investigation in Finland and may have contributed to the defeat of Prime Minister Janez Janša in the 2008 Slovenian parliamentary elections. Due to the financial crisis, the defence budget was cut several times. At first, the contract to supply 135 vehicles should have been amended to have less vehicles with better armament. Later on, the defence ministry suffered from even bigger financial cuts. In 2012 the Defence Minister announced contract termination, the result of which was to keep the 30 already received vehicles and ordering no new ones. More armored vehicles and higher calibre weapons are to be bought in mid-term future.
In May 2007, the South African Denel Land Systems was awarded a contract to build an improved version of the AMV, with a high level of ballistic and mine protection for the South African National Defence Force. The AMV will replace South-African Ratels as part of the "Project Hoefyster" (Horseshoe). Five different versions are included: Command, Mortar, Missile, Section and Fire Support vehicles.
In July 2007, the Croatian Ministry of Defence selected the Patria AMV as the new armoured fighting vehicle of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia in their first international tender in its history. 84 AMVs will be supplied. Initially, the plan called for 84 8×8 vehicles and 42 6×6 vehicles. The Croatian Ministry of Defence has approved the purchase of 84 Patria AMV 8×8 vehicles. The 6×6 configuration idea was scrapped, and the remaining 42 vehicles were decided to be 8×8s. The purchase of the remaining 42 AMVs was made in December, 2008. Due to the financial crisis, the contract was slightly amended in April 2010. There was an initial plan of shelving the order by a half (64 vehicles were mentioned) but it was decided that the total of 126 units would remain on order. However, in order to somewhat decrease the cost of the deal, the most expensive variants like the NEMO or engineering units will probably be replaced by less costly APC variants. On the other hand, the production will be speeded up and all vehicles are to be delivered by the end of 2012.
The Republic of Macedonia government announced in 2006 that it will procure the same type which Croatian military chooses after test trials in 2007 because it is less expensive than conduct trials again at home. The configuration of Patria vehicles, which eventually won the competition, will be similar to those in Slovenian service but probably in smaller numbers. However, any contract has not been published. In January 2008 Patria announced that the United Arab Emirates armed forces had ordered the AMV, equipped with the BMP-3 turret. The number of vehicles is yet to be announced.
On 30 January 2008 it was announced that Patria has offered to deliver 30 first AMVs within four months of ordering, if the Czech Army chooses AMV as its next APC. The Czech army had earlier chosen the Austrian Steyr Pandur as their next APC, but the Czech government withdrew from the deal at the end of last year, citing Steyr's failure to fulfill the commitments ensuing from the contract.
In August 2010, Patria sold 113 AMVs to Sweden in a deal worth 250 million Euros. The deal included an option for another 113 vehicles in the future.
Patria and Lockheed Martin joint venture[edit | edit source]
Patria and Lockheed Martin have agreed to cooperate in the competition for the US Marines MPC (Marine Personnel Carrier) program that is set to replace the LAV-25. The USMC is planning to obtain 600 MPC vehicles.
The tender was expected to be held in the second quarter of 2008, but has since been indefinitely delayed.
Patria will deliver the AMV 8×8 vehicle. Lockheed Martin Systems Integration is responsible for the MPC offer, as well as system integration, survivability systems, the US production line, as well as networking and logistics.
In August 2012, the Marines gave Lockheed a developmental contract for their vehicle, called the Havoc.
On April 3, 2013, the Havoc successfully completed amphibious testing as part of its evaluation for the MPC program. Trials were conducted at Camp Pendleton with the vehicle loaded to its full combat weight. The Havoc demonstrated its resistance to water penetration and ability to negotiate all surf and wave conditions while accommodating a full complement of Marine Corps battle gear for the crew. It maintained 100 percent operational readiness throughout the test.
The Marine Personnel Carrier was put on hold in June 2013.
During the summer of 2013, the Havoc successfully completed protection systems testing during a series of blast tests. The vehicle completed all threshold and objective protection system testing, with instrumentation indicating that no disabling injuries would have resulted to any of the three crew members and nine dismounted Marines. Lockheed also delivered a report demonstrating the high degree of commonality between the Havoc and other Marine Corps vehicles, aimed at reducing cost, training requirements, and logistics needs.
Combat history[edit | edit source]
- War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
- The Polish Land Forces contingent, which is a part of the International Security Assistance Force have been operating 35 (later raised to 50) KTO Rosomak vehicles (including 5 medivac) in Afghanistan since 2007. The APCs were equipped with additional steel-composite armor. In early 2008 a Polish Rosomak serving in Afghanistan (the version with upgraded armor) was attacked by Taliban rebels. The vehicle was hit three times with RPG-7 rockets but it managed to fire back and returned to base without any help required. In June 2008 a Rosomak was attacked by Taliban and was hit in its frontal armor with an RPG. The armour was not penetrated. Rosomaks have also been attacked by mines and improvised explosive devices. The Polish Rosomak is feared by the Taliban who call it "The Green Demon" (due to its non-standard green painting) and according to some intelligence reports, they tend to cancel their attacks when AMV Rosomak is present. In 2009 first soldier was reported killed inside Rosomak after IED exploded under the vehicle, similar attacks occurred before, but without casualties.
- Since October 2010 a platoon, consisting of Svarun vehicles, has been sent to Afghanistan to support the Slovenian OMLT.
- European Union mission in Chad (2008–2009)
- European Union Force Chad/CAR used 16 KTO Rosomak (including 2 medivac).
Operators[edit | edit source]
- 126 units currently entering service, 84 ordered in 2007 and additional 42 in December 2008, first 4 vehicles delivered in December 2008. Due to a military budget cut, the order was slightly amended in April 2010, but the total number of 126 units was not changed. All vehicles are to be delivered by late 2012.
- 62 standard APCs equipped with Kongsberg turrets and 18 armoured wheeled mortar carriers equipped with the AMOS mortar system.
- 997 APCs and AFVs with the ability to swim. Designated KTO Rosomak (Kołowy Transporter Opancerzony Rosomak) /transl. wheeled armored personnel carrier "Wolverine"/ or XC-360P. Deliveries of the vehicle are to be completed by 2019. In 2013 order for 359 IFVs and 331 base vehicles was increased by 307 units - inc. 122 IFV with new turret. In 2013 there were 570 vehicles in service
- Initial order of 135 AFVs, of which 12 will be equipped with NEMO mortars. Due to a military budget cut, a new contract for less vehicles, is in evaluation process. Its Slovenian designation is SKOV 8×8 Svarun (Srednje kolesno oklepno vozilo (SKOV) 8×8 'Svarun' / transl.: Medium wheeled armored vehicle 8×8 "Svarun"). In September 2012, the deal was shrunk to encompass only the 30 vehicles that had already been delivered, due to economic and legal questions.
- South Africa
- 264 units. Designated Badger. There will be five versions: a standard infantry carrier, a command car, fire support variant, mortar carrier and tank hunter.
- Sweden made an order for 113 vehicles, and had an option for the same amount of vehicles, but a Swedish court ordered the competition to be re-done. On August 13, 2010 the new competition ended in the same result as the original competition with Sweden ordering 113 vehicles from Patria. The first vehicles were delivered on March 5, 2013.
- United Arab Emirates
- The United Arab Emirates Army ordered an initial evaluation batch of 15 vehicles. Some of these vehicles will be equipped with the Patria Nemo turret while others will be equipped with BMP-3 turrets and have therefore been slightly modified, including a somewhat longer hull.
- United States
- Lockheed Martin and Patria has produced one or several prototypes for the Marine Personal Carrier competition. The version is called Havoc.
Total: 1,625 vehicles ordered.
Museum exhibits[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Gerard O'Dwyer. "Patria Wins Swedish AMV Contract". Defense News. http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i=4158897&c=EUR&s=LAN. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
- Sotataloustietoutta VIII
- Panssariseminaari 2006
- Photo of the Svarun vehicle with new door. "Slovenian Armed Forces"
- Denel Land Systems promotional brochure (PDF). Jane's Information Group
- "IHS Events, Webinars, Training and User Groups". Janes.com. http://www.janes.com/events/exhibitions/idex2009/sections/daily/day5/more-firepower-on-land-an.shtml. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
- "SOFEX 2010 - Galleries". Janes.com. http://www.janes.com/events/exhibitions/sofex2010/galleries.html. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
- Defense Aerospace: Denel Lands Biggest Contract In Its History
- Finci dobivaju posao za nabavu oklopnih vozila - 24 July 2007
- Patria offers Czechs to supply first 30 APCs within four months - ČeskéNoviny.cz
- Patria vahvoilla Yhdysvaltain merijalkaväen ajoneuvokaupoissa. YLE Uutiset 18.10.2007
- Patrian AMV tarjolla Yhdysvaltain merijalkaväelle. Seppälä, Jarmo: Tekniikka ja Talous 18.10.2007
- Personnel carrier development contracts awarded - Militarytimes.com, September 10, 2012
- Wasserbly, Daniel. "Details emerge on competitors for the USMC's Marine Personnel Carrier." Janes, 28 September 2012.
- Lockheed Martin's Havoc 8×8 Completes Swim Tests - Defense-Aerospace.com, April 3, 2013
- Commitment to Swimming Vehicle Throws Off Marines’ Tight Modernization Schedule - Nationaldefensemagazine.org, October 2013
- Havoc 8x8 Demonstrates High Levels of Crew Protection in Marine Corps' Blast Testing - Deagel.com, 24 September 2013
- Afghanistan: 14 lipca dotrą dodatkowe pancerze dla Rosomaków.
- www.eu.org: European armoured vehicles: current programmes: According to an article in the Polish "Gazeta Wyborcza" on 2 September 2008, Polish Rosomaks are called "Green Demons" by the Taliban insurgents and other armed groups and prove an effective deterrent on the ground. http://wyborcza.pl.
- "Dajcie nam rosomaki". Wyborcza.pl. 1999-10-15. http://wyborcza.pl/1,84763,5650395,Dajcie_nam_rosomaki.html?as=2&ias=3&startsz=x. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
- To pierwszy żołnierz, który zginął w Rosomaku. (PL)
- "Solemn line-up marking the departure of the 14th contingent to Afghanistan". Slovenskavojska.si. http://www.slovenskavojska.si/en/public-relations/news/news-single/nov/solemn-line-up-marking-the-departure-of-the-14th-contingent-to-afghanistan. Retrieved 2013-01-12.
- Informacje nt. misji w Czadzie.
- Order for additional 126 vehicles possible after 2014. Id=2A3C8C5384384D33A7C4BA1F53061AC0&groupid=DE8140FCDD1C41ADA5CE28E1A5674A41&layout=2005_eng&tabletarget=data_1&pid=CF52E1D41C9B4E47BEBF84BA37461E71 Patria's press release August, 2007[dead link]
- Patria's press release January, 2009[dead link]
- Kolejne Rosomaki dla WP (Polish)
- Będą kolejne Rosomaki dla Sił Zbrojnych RP (Polish)
-  Turun Sanomat
- Engineering News 1.6.2007
- DefenceWeb: Denel orders Saab computers for Hoefyster, 26.6.2009
- Patria press release 25.6.2009
- www.fmv.se Press release
- Swedish FMV press release
- Sweden Receives First Batch of AMV 8×8 Wheeled Armored Vehicles - Deagel.com, March 5, 2013
- Patria.fi: Patria’s AMV vehicle selected for United Arab Emirates (29.1.2008)
- Artem Defence
- Image of Patria AMV with BMP-3 turred at IDEX 2007
- Lockheed Martin website
[edit | edit source]
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