Dave Brubeck and Paul Desmond, October 8, 1954
Paul Emil Breitenfeld|
November 25, 1924
San Francisco, California, U.S.
May 30, 1977 (aged 52)|
Manhattan, New York City
|Occupation||Musician, composer, arranger|
Paul Desmond (born Paul Emil Breitenfeld, November 25, 1924 – May 30, 1977) was an American jazz alto saxophonist and composer, best known for his work with the Dave Brubeck Quartet and for composing that group's biggest hit, "Take Five". He was one of the most popular musicians to come out of the cool jazz scene.
In addition to his work with Brubeck, he led several groups and collaborated with Gerry Mulligan, Chet Baker, Jim Hall, and Ed Bickert. After years of chain smoking and poor health, Desmond succumbed to lung cancer in 1977 following one last tour with Brubeck.
Early life[edit | edit source]
Desmond was born Paul Emil Breitenfeld in San Francisco, California, in 1924, the son of Shirley (née King) and Emil Aron Breitenfeld. His father was from a Jewish family from Bohemia and Austria, and his mother was Catholic; throughout his life, Desmond was unsure of his father's background.
His father was a pianist, organist, and composer, who accompanied silent films in movie theaters and arranged for music companies. His mother was emotionally unstable throughout his upbringing. During childhood he spent years living with relatives in New York City due to problems at home. Desmond began playing violin at an early age, though his father forbade him to play it.
Desmond began to study clarinet at the age of twelve, which he continued while at San Francisco Polytechnic High School. Paul was not only a gifted musician, but a talented writer who took an early interest in show business. As co-editor of his high school newspaper, he helped secure an interview with Bob Hope during his visit to San Francisco. It was not until he became a freshman at San Francisco State College that he picked up the alto saxophone. In his first year Desmond was drafted into the United States Army and joined the Army band while stationed in San Francisco. He spent three years in the military, but his unit was never called to combat.
Career[edit | edit source]
Following the conclusion of World War II, Desmond started working outside Palo Alto, California, at the Band Box in Redwood City. He also worked with Brubeck at the Geary Cellar in San Francisco. Desmond soon hired Brubeck, but cut his pay in half and then replaced him altogether after taking him along to Graeagle at The Feather River Inn for gigs; this was done so Desmond could gamble in nearby Reno. In 1950 Desmond left for New York City playing alto and clarinet for Jack Fina, but returned to California after hearing Brubeck's trio on the radio.
The story of their encounter is somewhat humorous. Brubeck—married with three children and holding a grudge from his earlier experience with Desmond—instructed his wife, Iola, not to let him set foot in his house. However, Desmond came to his home in San Francisco one day while Dave was out back hanging diapers on a laundry line, and Iola let him in and took him to Brubeck. Apparently all the begging in the world would not convince Brubeck to hire him, at least not until Desmond offered to babysit Brubeck's children.
Dave Brubeck Quartet[edit | edit source]
Desmond had first met Dave Brubeck in 1944 while still in the military. Brubeck was trying out for the 253rd Army band which Desmond belonged to. After making the cut he—unlike Desmond—was sent to war in 1944. Desmond once told Marian McPartland of National Public Radio's Piano Jazz that he was taken aback by the chord changes Brubeck introduced during that 1944 audition. After convincing Brubeck to hire him following his stint with Jack Fina, the two had a contract drafted (of which Brubeck was the sole signatory); the language forbade Brubeck from ever firing him, ensured Brubeck's status as group leader, and gave Desmond twenty percent of all profits generated from the quartet. That is how the Dave Brubeck Quartet had its start, a group that began in 1951 and ended in December 1967. The quartet became especially popular with college-age audiences, often performing in college settings like on their ground-breaking 1953 album Jazz at Oberlin at Oberlin College, or on their recordings on the campuses of Ohio University and the University of Michigan, among others. The success of the quartet led to a Time magazine magazine piece on them in 1954, with the famous cover featuring Brubeck's face. The group played until 1967, when Brubeck switched his musical focus from performance to composition and broke the unit up. During the 1970s Desmond joined Brubeck for several reunion tours, including "Two Generations of Brubeck". Accompanying them were Brubeck's sons Chris Brubeck, Dan Brubeck and Darius Brubeck. In 1976 Desmond played 25 shows in 25 nights with Brubeck, touring the United States in several cities by bus.
Other collaborations[edit | edit source]
In June 1969 Desmond appeared at the New Orleans Jazz Festival with Gerry Mulligan, procuring favorable reactions from critics and audience members. During Brubeck's Two Generations tours, Desmond and Mulligan shared the stage together in 1974. Unlike Brubeck, Mulligan personally shared much in common with Desmond. The two shared similar interests and humor, and both men had no shortage of addictions in their lives.
After some time spent inactive, Desmond was asked to play the Half Note in New York City in 1971 by guitarist Jim Hall. With his special brand of humor, Desmond said that he took the job only because he was nearby and could tumble out of bed to work. The two continued to play at the club to jam-packed audiences. Desmond also joined The Modern Jazz Quartet for a Christmas concert in 1971 at the New York Town Hall.
Desmond recorded the tune "Summertime", along with many others, during his time with Chet Baker.
Desmond met Canadian guitarist Ed Bickert through Hall in Toronto, Canada and began performing with him at several clubs in the Toronto area. Bickert played in the Paul Desmond Quartet at the Edmonton Jazz Festival, and they recorded several albums together.
Personal life[edit | edit source]
In their private lives Dave Brubeck and his family were very close to Paul Desmond, though the two men possessed very different personalities. Darius Brubeck recalls thinking that Desmond was his uncle almost into adolescence. Desmond grew especially close to Dave's son Michael, to whom he left his saxophone upon death. Desmond also was described as a womanizer who was unable to form, or uninterested in maintaining, steady relationships with women, though he had no shortage of them throughout his life. Desmond is reported to have quipped, upon seeing a former girlfriend on the street, "There she goes, not with a whim but a banker" (a Spoonerism reference to T.S. Eliot's "This is the way the world ends / Not with a bang but a whimper"). In contrast, Brubeck was a stalwart family man.
Desmond was quite well-read and retained a unique wit. He enjoyed reading works by the thinkers of his generation like Timothy Leary and Jack Kerouac, also dabbling in some LSD usage. He was known to have several addictions, including Dewar's Scotch whisky and Pall Mall cigarettes. His chemical-dependency problems would sometimes drain him of his energy on the road. Clarinetist Perry Robinson recalls in his autobiography that Desmond would sometimes need a vitamin B12 shot just to go on playing during his later career.
Desmond died on May 30, 1977, not of his heavy alcohol habit but of lung cancer, the result of his longtime heavy smoking. Never without his humor, after he was diagnosed with cancer he expressed pleasure at the health of his liver. His last concert was with Brubeck in February 1977, in New York City. His fans did not know that he was already dying. Desmond specified in his will that all proceeds from "Take Five" would go to the Red Cross following his death. Desmond reportedly owned a Baldwin grand piano, which he lent to Bradley Cunningham, owner of Bradley's piano bar in Greenwich Village, with the condition that Cunningham had to move the large piano back to Desmond's Upper West Side apartment to become part of Desmond's estate. After this long and expensive process, Desmond willed the piano to Cunningham, a characteristic and final prank. The Paul Desmond Papers are held at the Holt-Atherton Special Collections in the University of the Pacific Library.
Desmond was cremated and his ashes were scattered.
Style[edit | edit source]
Desmond produced a light, melodic tone on the alto saxophone, trying to sound, he said, "like a dry martini." With a style that was similar to that of Lee Konitz, one of his influences, he quickly became one of the best-known saxophonists from the West Coast's cool school of jazz. Much of the success of the classic Brubeck quartet was due to the juxtaposition of his airy style over Brubeck's sometimes relatively heavy, polytonal piano work.
His rare gift for improvised counterpoint is perhaps most evident on the two albums he recorded with baritone saxophonist Gerry Mulligan (Mulligan-Desmond Quartet and Two of a Mind). Desmond's playing was also notable for his ability to produce extremely high notes, the altissimo register, on his saxophone.
Discography[edit | edit source]
|1950||Dave Brubeck Octet||Dave Brubeck||Fantasy 3239|
|1951||Brubeck/Desmond||Dave Brubeck Quartet||Fantasy 3229|
|1951||"How Long, Baby How Long, Pt. 1" // "How Long, Baby How Long, Pt. 2" [78rpm 10" disc]||Jack Sheedy Sextet||Coronet #109|
|1951||"The Man I Love" // "Down In Honkytonk Town" [78rpm 10" disc]||Jack Sheedy Sextet||Coronet #110|
|1952||Modern Complex Dialogues [live]||Dave Brubeck||Alto AL-711|
|1952||Jazz at Storyville||Dave Brubeck||Fantasy 3240|
|1952||The Dave Brubeck Quartet||Dave Brubeck||Fantasy 3230|
|1952||Jazz at the Blackhawk||Dave Brubeck||Fantasy 3210|
|1953||Jazz at Oberlin||Dave Brubeck||Fantasy 3245|
|1953||The Jackson-Harris Herd/The Dave Brubeck Quartet: Live at the Blue Note, Chicago, March 1953||Dave Brubeck Quartet, Chubby Jackson–Bill Harris Herd||Jazz Band (UK) EB-2140|
|1953||Brubeck & Desmond at Wilshire-Ebell||Dave Brubeck||Fantasy 3249|
|1953||Jazz at the College of the Pacific||Dave Brubeck||Fantasy 3223|
|1953||Jazz at the College of the Pacific, Vol. 2||Dave Brubeck||OJC 1076|
|1954||Dave Brubeck at Storyville 1954||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-590|
|1954||Jazz Goes to College||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-566|
|1954||Brubeck Time||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-622|
|1954||Jazz: Red Hot and Cool [live]||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-699|
|1954||Desmond (AKA Paul Desmond Quintet With The Bill Bates Singers)||Paul Desmond w/ Dick Collins, Dave Van Kriedt||Fantasy 3-21|
|1954||Gerry Mulligan/Paul Desmond [reissues]||Paul Desmond Quintet/Quartet, Gerry Mulligan Quartet||Fantasy 3220|
|1955||Chet Baker Quartet Plus: The Newport Years, Vol. 1 [live]||Chet Baker/Clifford Brown/Gerry Mulligan/Dave Brubeck||Philology (Italy) W-51|
|1956||Desmond: Here I AM (AKA The Paul Desmond Quartet Featuring Don Elliott)||Paul Desmond w/ Don Elliott||Fantasy 3225|
|1956, 1957||Dave Brubeck Quartet Live in 1956–57 Featuring Paul Desmond||Dave Brubeck||Jazz Band (UK) EB-2102|
|1956||Live From Basin Street||Dave Brubeck||Jazz Band (UK) EB-402|
|1956||Dave Brubeck and Jay & Kai at Newport||Dave Brubeck Quartet, J. J. Johnson–Kai Winding Quintet||Columbia CL-932|
|1956||Dave Brubeck Featuring Paul Desmond: Live Together||Dave Brubeck||Joker (Italy) SM-3804; Blue Vox (Switzerland) B/90174|
|1956||Jazz Impressions of the U.S.A.||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-984|
|1957||Re-Union||Dave Brubeck/Paul Desmond/Dave Van Kriedt||Fantasy 3268|
|1957||Jazz Goes to Junior College||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-1034|
|1957||Dave Digs Disney||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-1059|
|1957||Blues in Time (AKA Gerry Mulligan–Paul Desmond Quartet)||Paul Desmond w/ Gerry Mulligan||Verve MGV-8246|
|1958||The Dave Brubeck Quartet In Europe||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-1168|
|1958||Newport 1958: Brubeck Plays Ellington||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-1249|
|1958||Jazz Impressions of Eurasia||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-1251|
|1958||The Quartet [live]||Dave Brubeck||Europa Jazz (Italy) EJ-1032; Denon (Japan) 33C38-7681|
|1959||Gone with the Wind||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-1347/CS-8156|
|1959||Time Out [includes "Take Five"]||Dave Brubeck Quartet||Columbia CL-1397/CS-8192|
|1959, 1962||St. Louis Blues [live]||Dave Brubeck||Moon (Italy) MLP-028|
|1959||First Place Again||Paul Desmond w/ Jim Hall||Warner Bros. WS-1356|
|1959||Southern Scene||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-1439/CS-8235|
|1960||Brubeck and Rushing||Dave Brubeck w/ Jimmy Rushing||Columbia CL-1553/CS-8353|
|1960||Bernstein Plays Brubeck Plays Bernstein||Dave Brubeck w/ Leonard Bernstein, New York Philharmonic||Columbia CL-1466/CS-8257|
|1960||Tonight Only!||Dave Brubeck w/ Carmen McRae||Columbia CL-1609/CS-8409|
|1961||Time Further Out: Miro Reflections||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-1690/CS-8490|
|1961, 1962||Countdown—Time in Outer Space||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-1775/CS-8575|
|1961, 1963, 1964||The Complete Recordings of the Paul Desmond Quartet With Jim Hall||Paul Desmond w/ Jim Hall||Mosaic MR6-120|
|1961||Brandenburg Gate: Revisited||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-1963/CS-8763|
|1961||Desmond Blue||Paul Desmond w/ strings||RCA Victor LPM-2438|
|1961||Take Five Live||Dave Brubeck w/ Carmen McRae||Columbia CL-2316/CS-9116|
|1962||Bossa Nova U.S.A.||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-1998/CS-8798|
|1962||Late Lament [reissue of Desmond Blue with different cover art, different track running order, plus three previously unreleased tracks from the same sessions]||Paul Desmond||RCA/Bluebird 5778-2-RB|
|1962||Two of a Mind||Paul Desmond w/ Gerry Mulligan||RCA Victor LPM-2624|
|1962||Brubeck in Amsterdam||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CS-9897|
|1963||At Carnegie Hall||Dave Brubeck Quartet||Columbia C2L-26/C2S-826 [as double LP]; CL-2036/CS-8836 and CL-2037/CS-8837 [as single LPs]|
|1963||Take Ten||Paul Desmond w/ Jim Hall||RCA Victor LPM-2569|
|1963, 1964||Glad to Be Unhappy||Paul Desmond w/ Jim Hall||RCA Victor LPM-3407|
|1963, 1964, 1965||Easy Living||Paul Desmond w/ Jim Hall||RCA Victor LPM-3480|
|1963||Time Changes||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-2127/CS-8927|
|1964||Jazz Impressions of Japan||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-2212/CS-9012|
|1964||Jazz Impressions of New York||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-2275/CS-9075|
|1964||In Concert 1964||Dave Brubeck||Jazz Connoisseur (Israel) JC-003|
|1964||Bossa Antigua||Paul Desmond w/ Jim Hall||RCA Victor LPM-3320|
|1964||Dave Brubeck in Berlin||Dave Brubeck||CBS (Germany) 62578|
|1965||The Canadian Concert of Dave Brubeck||Dave Brubeck||Can-Am (Canada) 1500|
|1965||Angel Eyes||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-2348/CS-9148|
|1965||My Favorite Things||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-2437/CS-9237|
|1965||Time In||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-2512/CS-9312|
|1966||Dave Brubeck's Greatest Hits [compilation]||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-2484/CS-9284|
|1966||Anything Goes! The Dave Brubeck Quartet Plays Cole Porter||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-2602/CS-9402|
|1966||Jackpot! Recorded Live in Las Vegas||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-2712/CS-9512|
|1967||Bravo! Brubeck! [live]||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-2695/CS-9495|
|1967||Buried Treasures: Recorded Live in Mexico City||Dave Brubeck||Columbia/Legacy CK-65777|
|1967||Take Five Live||Dave Brubeck||JMY (Italy) 1001|
|1967||The Last Time We Saw Paris [live]||Dave Brubeck||Columbia CL-2872/CS-9672|
|1967||Their Last Time Out: The Unreleased Live Concert, December 26, 1967||Dave Brubeck Quartet||Columbia/Legacy 886978156228|
|1968||Summertime||Paul Desmond||A&M/CTI SP-3015|
|1969||From the Hot Afternoon||Paul Desmond||A&M/CTI SP-3024|
|1969||Bridge Over Troubled Water||Paul Desmond||A&M/CTI SP-3032|
|1971||Summit Sessions||Dave Brubeck||Columbia C-30522|
|1971||The Only Recorded Performance of Paul Desmond With The Modern Jazz Quartet [live]||Paul Desmond w/ Modern Jazz Quartet||Finesse/Columbia FW-37487|
|1972||We're All Together Again for the First Time||Dave Brubeck/Gerry Mulligan/Paul Desmond||Atlantic SD-1641|
|1973||Giant Box||Don Sebesky||CTI 6031/32|
|1973||Skylark||Paul Desmond||CTI 6039|
|1974||She Was Too Good to Me||Chet Baker||CTI 6050|
|1974||Pure Desmond||Paul Desmond||CTI 6059|
|1975||Like Someone In Love [live]||Paul Desmond w/ Ed Bickert||Telarc 83319|
|1975||Concierto||Jim Hall||CTI 6060|
|1975||1975: The Duets||Dave Brubeck/Paul Desmond||Horizon/A&M SP-703|
|1975||The Paul Desmond Quartet Live||Paul Desmond w/ Ed Bickert||Horizon/A&M SP-850|
|1976||Live At Bourbon Street, Toronto 10/75||Paul Desmond w/ Ed Bickert||Artists House AH-2|
|1976||25th Anniversary Reunion||Dave Brubeck Quartet||Horizon/A&M SP-714|
|1977||You Can't Go Home Again||Chet Baker||Horizon/A&M SP-726|
|1977||The Best Thing for You||Chet Baker||A&M 0832|
|1977||Watermark||Art Garfunkel||Columbia JC-34975|
References[edit | edit source]
- "The Milwaukee Sentinel – May 31, 1977 – Jazz Musician Paul Desmond Dies at Age 52 – Google News Archive". News.google.com. May 31, 1977. https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=iYVQAAAAIBAJ&sjid=6xEEAAAAIBAJ&pg=1473,5793648&dq=paul-desmond+and+died&hl=en. Retrieved 2012-06-25.
- "Take five". google.ca. https://books.google.com/books?id=eCwIAQAAMAAJ&q=father+Emil+Breitenfeld&dq=father+Emil+Breitenfeld&hl=en.
- "Take five". google.ca. https://books.google.com/books?id=eCwIAQAAMAAJ&q=Shirley+King+Emil+Breitenfeld&dq=Shirley+King+Emil+Breitenfeld&hl=en.
- "Take five". google.ca. https://books.google.com/books?id=eCwIAQAAMAAJ&q=%22Take+five:+the+public+and+private+lives+of+Paul+Desmond%22&dq=%22Take+five:+the+public+and+private+lives+of+Paul+Desmond%22&hl=en.
- "Paul Desmond". geni_family_tree. http://www.geni.com/people/Paul-Desmond/6000000007890667448?through=6000000016605369866.
- Doyle, Brian (2004). Spirited Men: Story, Soul, and Substance. Cowley Publications. pp. 73–74. ISBN 1-56101-258-0.
- "Paul Desmond: A Life Told in Pictures, Music and Memories". Jerry Jazz Musician. http://www.jerryjazzmusician.com/2013/04/paul-desmond-a-life-told-in-pictures-music-and-memories/.
- Smith, Hedrick (June 4, 2007). "Dave on Paul Desmond and the Quartet". https://www.pbs.org/brubeck/talking/daveOnPaul.htm.
- Lees, Gene (2001). Cats of Any Color: Jazz Black and White. Da Capo Press. pp. 55–57. ISBN 0-306-80950-8.
- Martin, Henry (2004). Essential Jazz: The First 100 Years. Thomson Wadsworth. p. 314. ISBN 0-534-63810-4.
- Robinson, Perry (2002). Perry Robinson: The Traveler. iUniverse. pp. 190–191. ISBN 0-595-21538-6.
- Gioia, Ted (1998). West Coast Jazz, Ch 4: "Dave Brubeck and Modern Jazz in San Francisco"; University of California Press, 1998 ISBN 0520217292
- "Paul Desmond-isms". http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=19154#.Uj7KMmTwLyd. Retrieved 2013-09-22.
- Owens, Thomas (1995). Bebop: The Music and Its Players. Oxford University Press. p. 68. ISBN 0-19-510651-2.
- Ramsey, Doug (2005). Take Five: The Public and Private Lives of Paul Desmond. Seattle: Parkside Publications. pp. 102, 118, 216, 292. ISBN 0-9617266-7-9.
[edit | edit source]
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