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The Pershing Rifles is a military fraternal organization for college-level students, founded by then 2nd Lieutenant (later General of the Armies of the United States) John J. Pershing in 1894 as a drill unit at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Over time, the Pershing Rifles organization was expanded to include several other universities, with companies consisting of drill teams as well as tactical units. Together, these units form what is known today as the National Society of Pershing Rifles.[1]



In 1891, General Pershing, then a 2LT in Troop L, 6th Cavalry Regiment at Fort Bayard, New Mexico, became a professor of Military Science and Tactics at the University of Nebraska. Pershing wished to increase the morale and discipline of the battalion there, as well as to increase support for the Cadet Corps throughout the university's staff and community. To this end, he formed a hand-picked company of men, known as Company A, and made them his premier drill unit.[2][3]

The following year, Company A won the Maiden Competition at the National Competitive Drills held at Omaha, Nebraska, earning the "Omaha Cup" and $1,500 for the group. The spectators were so excited by the event that they left their seats and carried the cadets off the field.[4] In 1893, the special drill company became a fraternal organization bearing the name "Varsity Rifles." In 1894, the organization, in appreciation of the initiative and cooperation of LT. Pershing, changed its name to the "Pershing Rifles." Under Pershing's leadership, the organization won the Army Silver Cup for drill team competition, coming in second place after West Point.[5] When Pershing left Nebraska in 1895, at the request of a committee he gave to the company a pair of his cavalry breeches. These breeches were cut into small pieces and were worn on the uniform as a sign of membership.[6]

From 1900 to 1911, the Pershing Rifles reached the height of their existence prior to World War I. Membership was a great military honor that continued until 1911. After that date, the organization lost prestige and declined. Its activity suddenly seemed to cease, and the organization became a mere shadow of itself.[citation needed] Its military influence decreased, and its social activities lessened.



A Pershing Rifleman (Joe Amschler, EKU Company R-1) performing a solo exhibition drill routine.

In 1917, conditions became so bad[Clarification needed] that the organization was disbanded and its records burned.[citation needed] In 1920, the Pershing Rifles were formed again. By 1924, it had regained some of its lost prestige and special drill companies all over the country began to seek admittance into the Pershing Rifles.

NATCON 2004 (91)

A Pershing Rifleman practicing an exhibition drill routine in Fort Monroe, VA.

The present National Honorary Society of Pershing Rifles owes its existence to Ohio State University (OSU). In the fall of 1922, a group of advanced course men got together and formed "The President's Guard". This new organization was too loosely-organized and too closely allied to the regular drill for the company to stand alone. On May 13, 1925, it applied for affiliation with the Pershing Rifles; the Nebraska organization refused. The OSU group, seeing the need of a national organization for basic men, threatened to nationalize "The President's Guard" and leave Nebraska out of it if the two organizations could not merge. The Nebraska organization approved the formal application of the OSU group after a year of negotiations. The Dickman Rifles, organized at the University of Dayton to honor Major General Joseph T. Dickman, attended a Pershing Rifles drill competition in 1931. This competition led the Dickman Rifles to merge into the Pershing Rifles.[7]

In 1928, the National Headquarters was established at the University of Nebraska. This laid the foundation for a strong national unit. Over the summer, applications for charters were sent to many universities across the nation. As a result, today there are over 200 units in nine combined regiments. (At one time there were 17 regiments; they have been combined, and only nine remain.) The Regimental Headquarters serve primarily as administrative units acting as the liaison between National Headquarters and all units of their respective regiments. The regiment aids in solving various problems that individual units may encounter during the course of the year. The regimental commanders, the national commander make up the legislative body of the National Society of Pershing Rifles. This body dictates what happens in the society for the upcoming semester.

Membership and competitionsEdit


A Pershing Rifles color guard competing at the 2004 NATCON drill competition held at Fort Monroe, VA.

Active membership is restricted to college students enrolled at an institution that hosts a Pershing Rifles company. Members may be either male or female and while a majority have affiliation with the military (especially ROTC), it is not a prerequisite for membership.

Each company has latitude in selecting their uniform and weapons. They vary from company t-shirt and BDU pants to more formal uniforms, like the Army's service uniforms, or "Class A's". Many companies wear berets, in a wide variety of colors. The only real consistencies within companies are the wear of a Pershing Rifles rank shield and, on dress uniforms, a shoulder cord and the Pershing Rifles Service Ribbon, which is blue with six vertical white lines, symbolic of the six core values held by a Pershing Rifleman. The W-4 Company at The College of William & Mary may wear uniforms based on those of the Scots Guards as recognition of their role as the Queens' Guard, the College's ceremonial guard unit, twice mustered upon visits by Queen Elizabeth II to the College.

Most Pershing Rifles companies use older battle rifles (especially the M1903 Springfield or M1 Garand) in performing routines. At the annual National Society of Pershing Rifles National Convention and Drill Competition (NATCON), active companies compete in various categories of regulation drill (like proficiency at performing a color guard) and exhibition drill (also known as trick drill, involving spinning or throwing the rifles).

Other Pershing Rifles companies, such as Company B-9[8] (University of Colorado at Boulder), Company C-9[9] (Colorado School of Mines), Company B-12 (Boston University) and Company C-12(ABN)[10] (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), focus on tactical training. These companies teach their members skills such as escape and evasion, survival skills, rappelling, hand-to-hand combat, and marksmanship. Company C-4(Clemson University) practices and focuses on regulation D&C, and a mastery of exhibition drill.


Pershing Rifles GroupEdit

The Pershing Rifles Group (formerly known as the Pershing Rifles National Alumni Association (PRNAA) and the Federation of Pershing Rifles Alumni Associations (FPRAA)) was recognized by the National Society in 2007 as the official national-level alumni association for alumni and honorary members of Pershing Rifles. The Pershing Rifles Group is incorporated as a not for profit in Delaware, and is an IRS recognized 501(c)10 organization. The PR Group is a holding company whose organization under 501(c)10 allows the member organizations to thrive almost independently while sharing a common support infrastructure. The PR Group also supports the Pershing Rifles Foundation, also a Delaware incorporated not for profit that is a 501(c)3 charity as recognized by the IRS. The PR Group is led by a Board of Directors elected from its member organizations, and a volunteer staff. The National Society of Pershing Rifles National Commander is a permanently appointed board member, and the National ROTC Adviser (The ROTC Professor of Military Science at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln) is a board observer.

The Pershing Rifles Group is currently made up of 5 member organizations. They are:

  • The National Society of Pershing Rifles (NSPR)
  • The Pershing Rifles Alumni Association (PRAA)
  • The National Society of CAPERS Alumni Association (NSCAA)
  • The National Society of Blackjacks
  • The Blackjacks Alumni Association

All Pershing Riflemen and member organizations are automatically members. Members in good standing have paid their dues to the corporation, either as an alumni group, or as members at large. The Pershing Rifles Group is diligently working with National Headquarters to reactivate defunct units, charter new units, and organize alumni to assist newly chartered units that have no strong alumni base. They also have taken on the responsibility of finding alumni who have lost touch with their units and the Society at large, reconstituting Blackjacks at the high school level, establishing a scholarship foundation, publishing a national alumni newsletter, and helping alumni organize associations and events of their own. Since its inception in 2007, Pershing Rifles Group has helped organize several new unit-level alumni organizations and reactivate or charter several collegiate P/R companies.

The Pershing Rifles Group has also taken on a large role in the organization of the Pershing Rifles National Convention (NATCON), through a Joint Planning Committee with Pershing Rifles National Headquarters. They have played a large part in reestablishing the Black Jacks Drill Competition for JROTC, CAP, and other youth drill units, as part of their efforts at reconstituting Blackjacks at the high school level.

Pershing Rifles Group GoalsEdit

The goals of the Pershing Rifles Group are to:

  • Continue to foster the bonds of brotherhood among alumni members of the National Society of Pershing Rifles by coordinating, supporting, and sponsoring alumni events at the local, regional, and national levels.
  • Assist in the establishment of local, collegiate level alumni associations.
  • Provide a medium through which alumni at large can interact with fell Pershing Riflemen, connect with former classmates, and participate in Pershing Rifles active and alumni events.
  • Assist the active leadership of the National Society of Pershing Rifles in the accomplishment of their mission without interference into the daily operations of the undergraduates.

Notable alumniEdit


E 16 Color Guard

Company E-16 performs a Color Guard for Colin Powell

  • "The purpose of the National Society of Pershing Rifles is to develop, to the highest degree possible, outstanding traits of leadership, military science, military bearing, and discipline within the framework of a military oriented, honorary fraternity." —General of the Armies John J. Pershing

The above quote is a widely-accepted mission statement of the National Society of Pershing Rifles units today. The bulk of this "quote" is taken from the Purpose of the Pershing Rifles, by General Pershing himself.

  • "The purpose of the Pershing Rifles is to foster a spirit of friendship and cooperation among men in the military department and to maintain a highly efficient drill company." - as stated by General John Joseph Pershing.
  • "For the first time in my life I was a member of a brotherhood," [Colin] Powell would later say about the Pershing Rifles. "The discipline, the structure, the camaraderie, the sense of belonging were what I craved. . . . I found a selflessness within our ranks that reminded me of the caring atmosphere within my family. Race, color, background, income meant nothing."[13]
  • "I waited until my junior year to pledge for a military fraternity, The Pershing Rifles. This was later than most other students, but all my life I was a late bloomer. The pledging was tough and physical, but also military. I received a lot more exposure to weapons and military discipline than I would otherwise have obtained. My brother was in Vietnam and I believed I would wind up there, too."[14]


Known Pershing Rifles units past and present (Note that some company numbers were used by more than one university or college over time):

  • National Headquarters (Originally at the University of Nebraska Lincoln)
  • 1st Regiment Headquarters - University of Toledo, Toledo, OH / The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
  • Company A-1 - The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH[15]
  • Company B-1 - The University of Dayton, Dayton, OH
  • Company C-1 - The University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY
  • Company D-1 - The University of Akron, Akron, OH
  • Company E-1 - The University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH[16]
  • Company F-1 - Ohio University, Athens, OH
  • Battery G-1 - Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH
  • Company H-1 - West Virginia State College/University, Institute, WV
  • Company I-1 - Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH[17]
  • Company J-1 - Wright State University, Dayton, OH
  • Company K-1 - Kent State University, Kent, OH
  • Troop L-1 - University of Toledo, Toledo, OH
  • Company M-1 - John Carroll University, Cleveland, OH
  • Company N-1 - Marshall University, Huntington, WV
  • Company P-1 - Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH
  • Company R-1 - Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY
  • Company S-1 - West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV
  • Company T-1 - Central State University/College, Wilberforce, OH
  • Company W-1 - Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA
  • Company Y-1 - Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, PA
  • Company X-1 - Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH
  • Company Z-1 - Capital University, Columbus, OH
  • 2nd Regiment Headquarters - Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI
  • Company A-2 - University of Nebraska at Lincoln (Pershing's Own), Lincoln, NE[18]
  • Company B-2 - State University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA
  • Company B-2 - Washington University, St. Louis, MO (Has also been N-3, B-7)
  • Company C-2 - University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI
  • Company D-2 - University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI
  • Company E-2 - University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN
  • Company F-2 - University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (Company D-2 in the 1930s & 40s)
  • Company G-2 - Iowa State University, Ames, IA
  • Company H-2 - St. John's University, Collegeville, MN
  • Company I-2 - Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI
  • Company K-2 - South Dakota State College/University, Brookings, SD
  • Company L-2 - Ripon College, Ripon, WI
  • Company L-2 - Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, MO (Was L-7)
  • Company M-2 - Wisconsin State University – Oshkosh, Oshkosh, WI
  • Company M-2 - Kemper Military School and College, Booneville, MO
  • Company N-2 - Wisconsin State University – Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI
  • Company O-2 - Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL
  • Company P-2 - Creighton University, Omaha, NE
  • 3rd Regiment/Brigade Headquarters - Indiana University, Bloomington, IN
  • Company A-3 - Indiana University, Bloomington, IN[19]
  • Company B-3 - Western Kentucky State, Bowling Green, KY
  • Company C-3 - University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL[20]
  • Company D-3 - University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI
  • Company E-3 - Purdue University, Lafayette, IN
  • Company F-3 - University of Illinois, Chicago, IL
  • Company G-3 - Murray State Teachers College, Murray, KY
  • Company H-3 - Western Michigan College of Education, Kalamazoo, MI
  • Company I-3 - DePaul University, Chicago, IL
  • Company K-3 - Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL
  • Company L-3 - Michigan State University, Lansing, MI
  • Squadron M-3 - Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Ill
  • Company N-3 - Washington University, St. Louis, MO (Currently B-2, was B-7)
  • 4th Regiment Headquarters - Clemson University, Clemson, SC
  • Company A-4 - Presbyterian College, Clinton, SC
  • Company A-4 - University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (1930s & 40s)
  • Company A-4 - Saint Augustine's University, NC
  • Company B-4 - Tennessee Polytechnic Institute, Crossville, TN
  • Company B-4 - University of Alabama, University, AL (1930s & 40s)
  • Company C-4 - Clemson University/Agricultural College, Clemson, SC[21]
  • Company D-4 - Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC
  • Company D-4 - Louisiana State University, University, LA (1930s & 40s)
  • Company E-4 - Mercer College/University, Macon, GA
  • Company F-4 - Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA
  • Company G-4 - Auburn University, Auburn, GA
  • Company H-4 - Alabama A&M University, Huntsville, AL
  • Company I-4 - Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL
  • Company J-4 - University of North Alabama, Florence, AL (Formerly Florence State University)
  • Company K-4 - South Carolina State University, Orangeburg, SC[22]
  • Company K-4 - University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC
  • Company L-4 - North Carolina State University/College, Raleigh, NC
  • Company M-4 - University of Chattanooga, Chattanooga, TN
  • Company M-4 - Appalachian State University, Boone, NC
  • Company N-4 - North Carolina A&T University, Greensboro, NC
  • Company O-4 - Virginia State University, Petersburg, VA
  • Company P-4 - Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, AL (Now P-6)
  • Company Q-4 - University of Georgia, Athens, GA
  • Company R-4 - Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA (Was C-15)[23]
  • Company S-4 - Furman University, Greenville, SC
  • Company T-4 - Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA
  • Company U-4 - Hampton University, Hampton, VA (Was D-15)
  • Company V-4 - Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN
  • Company W-4 - College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA[24]
  • Company X-4 - Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN
  • Company Y-4 - Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA
  • Company Z-4 - University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC
  • 5th Regiment Headquarters - Pennsylvania State University, Altoona, PA
  • Company A-5 - Pennsylvania State University, Altoona, PA
  • Company A-5 - Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburg, PA
  • Company A-5 - University of Syracuse, Syracuse, NY (1930s & 40s)
  • Company B-5 - Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
  • Company C-5 - University of Maryland, College Park, MD (1930s & 40s)
  • Company D-5 - College of the City of New York, NY (1930s & 40s)
  • Company E-5 - Cornell University, Ithica, NY (1930s & 40s)
  • Company F-5 - Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA
  • Company G-5 -
  • Company H-5 - Washington and Jefferson College, Washington, PA
  • Company I-5 - Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA
  • Company K-5 - University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA
  • Company L-5 - Duquesne University, Pittsburg, PA
  • Company M-5 - Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA
  • Company O-5 - Gannon College, Erie, PA
  • Company P-5 - Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (1952-late 1950s)
  • Company Q-5 - Pennsylvania Military College, Chester, PA
  • Company R-5 - Scranton University, Scranton, PA
  • Company X-5 - Lafayette College, Easton, PA
  • Company Y-5 - Dickinson College, Carlisle, PA
  • 6th Regiment/Brigade Headquarters - Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA
  • Company A-6 - Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, LA
  • Company B-6 - University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PR
  • Company C-6 - Florida A&M College, Tallahassee, FL
  • Company C-6 - University of Idaho, Moscow, ID (1930s & 40s)
  • Company D-6 - Louisiana State University (Now D-17)
  • Company F-6 - University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS
  • Company I-6 - Loyola University, New Orleans, LA
  • Company K-6 - Tulane University, New Orleans, LA
  • Company M-6 - Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL
  • Company P-6 - Tuskegee University, Tuskeege, AL (Was P-4)[25]
  • Company P-6 - College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, Mayaguez, PR
  • Company S-6 - Stetson University, Deland, FL
  • Company V-6 - McNeese State College, Lake Charles, LA
  • Company W-6 - Spring Hill College, Mobile, AL
  • Company Y-6 - Northeast State College, Lake Charles, LA
  • Company U-6 - University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL
  • 7th Regiment/Brigade Headquarters - Oklahoma State University
  • Company A-7 - Pittsburg State University, Pittsburg, KS (Formerly Kansas State College)
  • Company B-7 - Washington University, St. Louis, MO (Has also been B-2, N-3)
  • Company C-7 - Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (Formerly Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College (Oklahoma A&M))
  • Company D-7 - University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR
  • Company E-7 - University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS
  • Company F-7 - Wichita State University, Wichita, KS
  • Company G-7 - Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS[26]
  • Company H-7 - University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK
  • Company I-7 - Arkansas State College, Little Rock, AR
  • Company K-7 - Missouri University of Science & Technology, Rolla, MO (Formerly University of Missouri at Rolla/Missouri School of Mines)
  • Company L-7 - Missouri State University, Springfield, MO (Currently L-2)
  • Company L-7 - Hardin-Simmons University, Abilene, TX
  • Company M-7 - Missouri Southern State College/Missouri Southern State University, Joplin, MO (Unit Disbanded)
  • Company N-7 - Quachita Baptist College, Arkadelphia, AR
  • Company P-7 - University of Texas Station, TX
  • Company Q-7 - Prairie View A&M College, Prairie View, TX
  • Company R-7 - University of Central Missouri, Warrensburg, MO (Formerly Central Missouri State)
  • Company S-7 - Henderson State Teacher’s College, Arkadelphia, AR
  • Company T-7 - Midwestern University, Wichita Falls, TX
  • Company X-7 - University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK
  • 8th Regiment Headquarters - City College of New York then Seton Hall University
  • Company A-8 - City College of New York, New York, NY
  • Company B-8 - Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
  • Company C-8 - St. Bonaventure University, Bonaventure, NY
  • Company D-8 - Fordham University, New York, NY
  • Company E-8 - New York University, Bronx, NY
  • Company E-8 - Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (1974-1981, 1984-2006, 2012, Was E-15)
  • Company F-8 - Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY
  • Company G-8 - Siena College, Londonville, NY
  • Company G-8 - Howard University, Washington, DC
  • Company H-8 - Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Brooklyn, NY
  • Company I-8 - Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, NY
  • Company J-8 - Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD (Was H-15)
  • Company K-8 - Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ
  • Company L-8 - New York University, NY, NY
  • Company M-8 - Columbia University, New York, NY
  • Company N-8 - Saint Peters College, Jersey City, NJ
  • Company O-8 - Canisius College, Buffalo, New York
  • Company P-8 - State University of New York (SUNY) Maritime, Bronx, NY
  • Company Q-8 - Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY[27]
  • Company R-8 - Clarkson College, Potsdam, NY
  • Company S-8 - Niagara University, Niagara, NY
  • Company X-8 - University of Delaware, Newark, DE[28]
  • Company Z-8 - Rochester Institute of Technology. Rochester, NY
  • 9th Regiment Headquarters - University of Colorado at Boulder
  • Company A-9 - University of Alaska, College, Alaska
  • Company B-9 - University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO[29]
  • Company C-9 - Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO[30]
  • Company D-9 - Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO
  • Company E-9 - South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, SD
  • Company H-9 - Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO
  • Company G-9 - Utah State University, Logan, UT
  • 10th Regiment - Headquarters - Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ
  • Company A-10 - University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ
  • Company B-10 - California State University, Fresno, Fresno, CA
  • Company C-10 - New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM
  • Company D-10 - Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ
  • Company E-10 - University of Santa Clara, Santa Clara, CA
  • Company F-10 - San Jose State College, San Jose, CA
  • Company G-10 - University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
  • Company H-10 - Texas Western College, El Paso (became UTEP, later H-17, now A-14)
  • Company I-10 - University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA
  • 11th Regiment Headquarters - Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (Ended after 1964)
  • Company A-11 - University of Alaska, College, Alaska
  • Company B-11 - University of Washington, Seattle, WA
  • Company C-11 - University of Idaho, Moscow, ID
  • Company E-11 - Oregon State University, Eugene, OR
  • Company G-11 - University of Oregon, Eugene, OR
  • Company H-11 - Seattle University, Seattle, WA
  • 12th Regiment
  • Company A-12 - Northeastern University,[citation needed] Boston, MA
  • Company B-12 - Boston University, Boston, MA[31]
  • Company C-12 (Airborne)- Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA[32]
  • Company D-12 - University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI
  • Company E-12 - Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA
  • Company F-12 - University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT
  • Company F-12 - Stonehill College, Easton, MA
  • Company G-12 - University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA
  • Company H-12 - University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH
  • Company K-12 - Providence College, Providence, RI
  • Company L-12 - University of Vermont, Burlington, VT
  • Company M-12 - University of Maine, Orono, MA
  • Squadron N-12 - Lowell Technological Institute, Lowell, MA
  • 14th Brigade Headquarters
  • Company A-14 - University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX (has been E-7, H-10 & H-17)[33]
  • Company Z-14 - Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ
  • 15th Regiment - University of Maryland, College Park, MD
  • Company A-15 - University of Maryland, College Park, MD
  • Company B-15 - Virginia State College, Petersburg, VA (now PR Co O-4)
  • Company C-15 - Norfolk State University,Norfolk, VA (now R-4)
  • Company D-15 - Hampton University, Hampton, VA (now U-4)
  • Company E-15 - Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (late 1960s-1974, later E-8)
  • Company F-15 - George Washington University, Washington, DC
  • Company G-15 - Loyola College, Baltimore, Maryland
  • Company H-15 - Morgan State University,Baltimore, MD (now J-8)
  • Company Q-15 - Pennsylvania Military College (was Q-5)
  • Company P-15 - Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (1960s, later E-15)
  • Company R-15 - University of Richmond (Richmond, VA)
  • 16th Regiment/Brigade Headquarters - University of Tampa, Tampa, FL
  • Company A-16 - Fort Valley State University, Fort Valley, GA
  • Company B-16 - University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico (was B-6)
  • Company B-16 - Alcorn State University, Lorman, Mississippi
  • Company C-16 - Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL (was C-6)[34]
  • Company E-16 - Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL (temporarily defunct)
  • Company M-16 - Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL
  • Company P-16 - College of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico (was P-6)
  • Company S-16 - Stetson University, Deland, FL
  • Company T-16 - University of Tampa
  • Company U-16 - University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (was U-6)
  • 17th Regiment Headquarters - Prairie View A&M University[35]
  • Company A-17 - Texas State University, San Marcos, TX
  • Company D-17 - Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (was D-6)
  • Company G-17 - Grambling State University, Grambling, LA
  • Company H-17 - University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX (Now A-14)
  • Company L-17 - Hardin-Simmons University, Abilene, TX
  • Company M-17 - Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX
  • Company M-17 - Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, NM
  • Company Q-17 - Prairie View A & M University, Prairie View, TX
  • Company R-17 - Trinity University, San Antonio, TX
  • Company T-17 - Midwestern University, Wichita Falls, TX
  • Company T-17 - Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX


  1. Colin Powell, by Geoffrey M. Horn, p. 18, Gareth Stevens, 2004. ISBN 0-8368-5267-2.
  2. Five Stars, by James F. Muench, p. 83, University of Missouri Press, 2006. ISBN 0-8262-1656-0.
  3. Encyclopedia of the Great Plains, by David J. Wishart, p. 833, University of Nebraska Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8032-4787-7.
  4. Pipe Clay and Drill, by Richard Goldhurst, p. 42, Reader's Digest Press, 1977. ISBN 0-88349-097-8. This work goes on to note "These cadets constituted themselves as the Varsity Rifles, later changing their name to the Pershing Rifles, an organization which spawned hundreds of chapters on other campuses in the coming decades."
  5. Five Stars, p. 83
  6. Black Jack, by Frank Everson Vandiver, p. 135, Texas A&M University Press, 1977. ISBN 0-89096-024-0.
  7. Dickman biography on 3rd Army ARCENT webpage
  8. B-9 homepage
  9. C-9 homepage
  10. C-12 homepage
  11. Patricia Morrisroe, Mapplethorpe: A Biography, illustration. (Da Capo Press, 1997. ISBN 0-306-80766-1)
  12. metroherald page
  13. Colin Powell, by Reggie Finlayson, p. 28, Twenty-First Century Books, 2004. ISBN 0-8225-4966-2.
  14. Veteran of a Foreign War, by Stephen J. Candela, p. 16, St. John's Press, 2004. ISBN 0-9710551-4-9.
  15. A-1 webpage
  16. E-1 webpage
  17. I-1 webpage
  18. A-2 webpage
  19. A-3 webpage
  20. C-3 website
  21. C-4 webpage
  22. K-4 webpage
  23. R-4 webpage
  24. W-4 webpage
  25. 6th Brigade Roster
  26. G-7 article
  27. Q-8 webpage
  28. X-8 webpage
  29. B-9 webpage
  30. C-9 webpage
  31. B-12
  32. C-12 webpage
  33. 14th Brigade Roster
  34. C-16 webpage
  35. 17th Regiment

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