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Peruvian Navy
Marina de Guerra del Perú
[[File:Simbolo representativo de la Marina de Guerra del Peru|240x240px|frameless}}|Coat of arms of the Peruvian Navy|alt=]]
Coat of arms of the Peruvian Navy
Active October 8, 1821 - today
Country Peru
Allegiance Ministry of Defense
Branch Navy
Size

25,988 active personnel

51 ships, 33 aircraft
Headquarters Callao naval base
Patron Miguel Grau Seminario
Anniversaries October 8 - Navy's Foundation Day and Anniversary of the Battle of Angamos
Engagements

Gran Colombia-Peru War
War of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation
Chincha Islands War

War of the Pacific
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief Admiral Jorge De La Puente Ribeyro
Insignia
Naval Ensign Flag of Peru (state)
Naval Jack Naval Jack of Peru

The Peruvian Navy (Spanish language:Marina de Guerra del Perú , abbreviated MGP) is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with surveillance, patrol and defense on lakes, rivers and the Pacific Ocean up to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the Peruvian littoral. Additional missions include assistance in safeguarding internal security, conducting disaster relief operations and participating in international peacekeeping operations. The Marina de Guerra del Perú celebrates on October 8 the anniversary of its creation (1821) and of the Battle of Angamos (1879).

HistoryEdit

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Naval Battle of Angamos 1879

Battle of Angamos, October 8, 1879.

The Marina de Guerra del Perú was established on October 8, 1821 by the government of general José de San Martín. Its first actions were undertaken during the War of Independence (1821–1824) using captured Spanish warships. Shortly afterwards it was engaged in the war against the Gran Colombia (1828–1829) during which it conducted a blockade against the seaport of Guayaquil and then helped with the occupation of this city by Peruvian forces. It saw further action during the wars of the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy (1836–1839) and during the Chincha Islands War with Spain (1866). The breakout of the War of the Pacific (1879–1883) caught the Peruvian Navy unprepared and with inferior forces in comparison with the Chilean Navy. Even so, hit-and-run tactics carried out by Peruvian Admiral Miguel Grau, commander of the ironclad Huáscar, delayed the Chilean advance by six months until his death and defeat at the Battle of Angamos.

After the war, the Peruvian Navy had to be rebuilt from the ground up. In 1900 the force amounted to only one cruiser of 1,700 tons displacement, a screw-driven steamer, and ten smaller ships - the latter described by a contemporary British publication as "of no real value".[1] The lengthy process of expansion and rebuilding started in 1907 with the acquisition in the United Kingdom of the protected cruisers Almirante Grau and Coronel Bolognesi, followed by the arrival of two submarines, Ferré and Palacios, from France in 1911. During the Presidency of Augusto B. Leguía (1919–1930) a Navy Ministry was established as well as a Navy Aviation Corps, both in 1920. Border conflicts with Colombia in 1911 and 1932 and a war with Ecuador in 1941 saw Peruvian warships involved in some skirmishes in support of the Army. The attack on Pearl Harbor brought World War II to the Pacific and even though Peru did not declare war on the Axis until 1945, its Navy was involved in patrol missions against possible threats by the Imperial Japanese Navy from early 1942 up to mid-1945. During the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s the Peruvian Navy carried out a major buildup programme[2] which allowed it to take advantage over its traditional rival, the Chilean Navy. This proved to be temporary because the economic crisis of the second half of the 1980s forced the decommissioning of several warships and resulted in a general lack of funds for maintenance. The economic upturn of the 1990s and 2000s has permitted some improvement although at a reduced force level compared to the early 1980s.

OrganizationEdit

Peruvian Navy
Marina de Guerra del Perú
Naval Jack of Peru
History
History of the Peruvian Navy
Battles of the Peruvian Navy
Ships
Current ships
Historic ships
Personnel
Senior officers
Officer rank insignia
Enlisted rate insignia
Other
Naval School

The current Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Navy is Admiral Jorge De La Puente Ribeyro.[3] Naval Forces are subordinated to the Ministry of Defense and ultimately to the President as Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Armed Forces. They are organized as follows:

Operational units are divided between three commands:

Comandancia General de Operaciones del Pacífico

Pacific Operations General Command, it comprises the following units:

  • Fuerza de Superficie (Surface Force)
  • Fuerza de Submarinos (Submarine Force)
  • Fuerza de Aviación Naval (Naval aviation Force)
  • Fuerza de Infantería de Marina (Naval Infantry Force)
  • Fuerza de Operaciones Especiales (Special Operations Force)
Comandancia General de Operaciones de la Amazonía

Amazon Operations General Command, tasked with river patrolling in the Peruvian portion of the Amazon Basin.

Dirección General de Capitanías y Guardacostas

Coast Guard, tasked with law enforcement on Peruvian territorial waters, rivers and lakes.

BasesEdit

Callao naval base

Callao naval base.

Although most of the fleet is based at Callao, this is not considered an ideal location because it is also the main outlet for Peruvian trade, causing space and security problems. During the 1980s the building of a new naval base at Chimbote was considered but high costs and a bad economic situation made the project unfeasible.[4]

PersonnelEdit

BAP Mariátegui CIC

Standing watch on BAP Mariátegui (FM-54).

Personnel (as of 2001)[5]
Commissioned Officers 2,107
Non-commissioned officers 16,863
Cadets 620
NCO in training 1,533
Enlisted 4,855
Civilians 5,079
Total 25,988 (excl. civilians)

RanksEdit

  • Ranks of the officers of the Navy [1]
  • Ranks of the sub-officers of the Navy [2]
  • Ranks of the enlisted of the navy [3]

ShipsEdit

Current shipsEdit

Vessel Origin Type Class In service Notes
Guided missile cruiser (1 in service)
BAP Almirante Grau (CLM-81) Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands guided missile cruiser De Zeven Provinciën-class cruiser Yes ex-HNLMS De Ruyter (C-801)
Flagship of the Peruvian Navy
Submarines (6 in service)
BAP Angamos (SS-31) Flag of Germany.png Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1200 Yes ex-BAP Casma
BAP Antofagasta (SS-32) Flag of Germany.png Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1200 Yes
BAP Pisagua (SS-33) Flag of Germany.png Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1200 Yes
BAP Chipana (SS-34) Flag of Germany.png Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1200 Yes ex-BAP Blume
BAP Islay (SS-35) Flag of Germany.png Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1100 Yes locally upgraded in 2008
BAP Arica (SS-36) Flag of Germany.png Germany diesel-electric submarine Type 209/1100 Yes locally upgraded in 2008
Guided missile frigates (7 in service, 1 being upgraded)
BAP Carvajal (FM-51) Flag of Italy.svg Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes
BAP Villavisencio (FM-52) Flag of Italy.svg Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes
BAP Montero (FM-53) Flag of Peru.svg Peru guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes
BAP Mariátegui (FM-54) Flag of Peru.svg Peru guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes
BAP Aguirre (FM-55) Flag of Italy.svg Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes ex-Orsa (F-567)
BAP Palacios (FM-56) Flag of Italy.svg Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes ex-Lupo (F-564)
BAP Bolognesi (FM-57) Flag of Italy.svg Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate No ex-Perseo (F-566) currently being overhauled and upgraded in SIMA Callao shipyard, including locally-made CMS and ESM systems, a Kronos NV 3D radar, MASS countermeasures system and 4 MM40 Block III Exocet missiles replacing Otomat.[6]
BAP Quiñones (FM-58) Flag of Italy.svg Italy guided missile frigate Lupo-class frigate Yes ex-Sagittario (F-565)
Guided missile corvettes (6 in service)
BAP Velarde (CM-21) Flag of France.svg France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP Santillana (CM-22) Flag of France.svg France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP De los Heros (CM-23) Flag of France.svg France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP Herrera (CM-24) Flag of France.svg France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP Larrea (CM-25) Flag of France.svg France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
BAP Sánchez Carrión (CM-26) Flag of France.svg France fast attack craft PR-72P-class corvette Yes
Amphibious (3 in service, 1 in construction, 1 ordered)
Unnamed Flag of Peru.svg Peru Landing Plataform, Dock Makassar class No first ship of its class laid down on July 12, 2013 in the SIMA Callao shipyard[7]
Unnamed Flag of Peru.svg Peru Landing Plataform, Dock Makassar class No second ship is also on order and both are scheduled to be delivered in 2015.[8]
BAP Pisco (DT-142) United States Landing Ship, Tank Terrebonne Parish class Yes ex-USS Waldo County (LST-1163)
BAP Callao (DT-143) United States Landing Ship, Tank Terrebonne Parish class Yes ex-USS Washoe County (LST-1165)
BAP Eten (DT-144) United States Tank landing ship Terrebonne Parish class Yes ex-USS Traverse County (LST-1160)
River gunboats vessels (5 in service, 1 in construction)
BAP Loreto (CF-11) United States River gunboat Loreto class Yes
BAP Amazonas (CF-12) United States River gunboat Loreto class Yes
BAP Marañón (CF-13) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom River gunboat Marañón class Yes
BAP Ucayali (CF-14) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom River gunboat Marañón class Yes
BAP Clavero (CF-15) Flag of Peru.svg Peru River gunboat Clavero class Yes severely damaged by an uncontrolled fire in her first operational deployment on May 25, 2010; leaving two crewmen badly injured.[9] Returned to service in July 27, during the BRACOLPER 2012 exercise.[10]
BAP Castilla (CF-16) Flag of Peru.svg Peru River gunboat Clavero class No laid down on April 9, 2010 in the SIMA Iquitos shipyard.
launched in June 8, 2013.
Auxiliaries (12 in service, 2 in construction)
Unnamed Flag of Peru.svg Peru Sail training ship - No laid down on December 8, 2012 in the SIMA Callao shipyard, delivery expected in 2015, with an estimated cost of US$50 millions.[11][12]
BAP Unión (ABE-161) Flag of Peru.svg Peru Transport ship Ilo class Yes ex-BAP Mollendo (ATC-131). Used as training ship
BAP Marte (ALY-313) Flag of Canada.svg Canada Sailing yacht Marte class Yes used as training ship
BAP Unanue (AMB-160) United States Diving support ship Sotoyomo class Yes ex-USS Wateree (ATA-174)
BAP San Lorenzo (ART-323) Flag of Germany.png Germany Torpedo recovery vessel San Lorenzo class Yes
BAP Caloyeras (ACA-111) Flag of the United States.svg United States Water harbour tanker YW type Yes ex-US YW-128
BAP Noguera (ACP-118) Flag of the United States.svg United States Oil harbour tanker YO type Yes ex-US YO-221
BAP Gauden (ACP-119) Flag of the United States.svg United States Oil harbour tanker YO type Yes ex-US YO-171
BAP Guardian Rios (ARB-123) Flag of the United States.svg United States Offshore tugboat Cherokee class Yes ex-USS Pinto (ATF-90)
BAP Dueñas (ARB-126) Flag of the United States.svg United States Harbour tugboat YTB Yes
BAP Selendón Flag of Peru.svg Peru Harbour tugboat 20 TBP class tug Yes Built in SIMA Callao shipyard, ordered in 2011.[13] Delivered in the first quarter of 2012.
BAP Medina Flag of Peru.svg Peru Harbour tugboat 20 TBP class tug No Currently under construction in SIMA Callao shipyard.[13]
BAP Bayovar (ATP-154) Flag of Russia.svg Russia Oil tanker Grigoriy Nesterenko type Yes ex-Petr Schmidt
BAP Zorritos (ATP-155) Flag of Russia.svg Russia Oil tanker Grigoriy Nesterenko type Yes ex-Grigoriy Nesterenko
Hospital vessels (5 in service)
BAP Morona (ABH-302) Flag of Peru.svg Peru River hospital ship Morona class Yes
BAP Corrientes (ABH-303) Flag of Peru.svg Peru Small river hospital craft - Yes
BAP Curaray (ABH-304) Flag of Peru.svg Peru Small river hospital craft - Yes
BAP Pastaza (ABH-305) Flag of Peru.svg Peru Small river hospital craft - Yes
BAP Puno (ABH-306) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Lake hospital ship Yavarí class Yes ex-Yapura
operated by the Peruvian Coast Guard
Scientific research vessels (6 in service)
BIC Humboldt Flag of Peru.svg Peru Oceanographic research ship Humboltd class Yes
BAP Carrasco (AH-171) Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Hydrographic survey ship Dokkum class Yes ex-HNLMS Abcoude minesweeper
BAP Stiglich (AH-172) Flag of Peru.svg Peru Hydrographic survey ship Morona class Yes
BAP La Macha (AEH-174) Flag of Peru.svg Peru Hydrographic survey ship - Yes
BAP Carrillo (AH-175) Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Hydrographic survey ship van Straelen class Yes ex-HNLMS van Hamel minesweeper
BAP Melo (AH-176) Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Hydrographic survey ship van Straelen class Yes ex-HNLMS van der Wel minesweeper

Museum ShipsEdit

Vessel Origin Type Class Decommissioned Notes
BAP América (RH-90) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom River gunboat América class currently being restored at SIMA Iquitos shipyard
BAP Abtao (SS-42) United States Sierra-type submarine[14] Abtao class 1998 become a museum ship in 2004

Recently Decommissioned ShipsEdit

Vessel Origin Type Class Decommissioned Notes
BAP Paita (DT-141) United States Tank landing ship Terrebonne Parish class September, 2012 ex-USS Walworth County (LST-1164)
BAP Ferré (DM-74) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom Guided-missile destroyer Daring class July 13, 2007[15] ex-HMS Decoy (D106)
BAP Talara (ATP-152) Flag of Peru.svg Peru Replenishment tanker Talara class August 12, 2008[16] capable of underway replenishment at sea from the stern
BAP Lobitos (ATP-153) United States Oil tanker Sealift Pacific class July 20, 2008[17] ex-USNS Sealift Caribbean (T-AOT-174)

Naval AviationEdit

The Naval Aviation Force ((Spanish): Fuerza de Aviación Naval, AVINAV) is the air branch of the Peruvian Navy, its roles include anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, maritime surveillance, reconnaissance and transport of marine personnel. It is also responsible for airborne operations of the Peruvian Marines.

Naval infantryEdit

US Navy 040626-N-1464F-019 Peruvian Marines conduct a beach assault during UNITAS 45-04 field training along the Amazon River

Peruvian Naval Infantry conducting exercises on the Amazon river.

Naval Infantry BrigadeEdit

Other unitsEdit

  • 3rd Naval Infantry Battalion - Tumbes
  • 4th Naval Infantry Battalion - Puno
  • 1st Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion - Iquitos
  • 2nd Jungle Naval Infantry Battalion - Pucallpa
  • Naval Infantry Detachment Litoral Sur - Mollendo

EquipmentEdit

Name Origin Type Version Used by Notes
Naval artillery
Bofors 152 mm gun Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden dual-purpose naval gun 152/53 model 1942 De Zeven Provinciën class cruiser
Oto Melara 127/54 Compact Gun Flag of Italy.svg Italy dual-purpose naval gun 127/54 Compact Lupo class frigate
Oto Melara 76/62 Compact Gun Flag of Italy.svg Italy dual-purpose naval gun 76/62 Compact PR-72P class corvette
Oto Melara Twin 40 Compact Gun Flag of Italy.svg Italy Close-in weapon system (CIWS) Twin 40L70 De Zeven Provinciën class cruiser
Lupo class frigate
PR-72P class corvette
Anti-ship missiles
MBDA Otomat Flag of Italy.svg Italy anti-ship missile (AShM) Otomat II Block 3 De Zeven Provinciën class cruiser
Lupo class frigate
on December 8, 2008 an updated Otomat II Block 3 missile successfully launched from the BAP Aguirre, hit a target at a range in excess of 150 kilometers.[18]
MBDA Exocet Flag of France.svg France anti-ship missile (AShM) MM40 Block 3 Lupo class frigate four fire control systems and sixteen missiles ordered on December 15, 2010.[19] Scheduled to be installed in the 4 Aguirre class frigates.
MBDA Exocet Flag of France.svg France anti-ship missile (AShM) MM38 PR-72P class corvette
MBDA Exocet Flag of France.svg France anti-ship missile (AShM) AM39 Block 1 ASH-3D Sea King Land-based. Currently not embarked in any surface unit of the Peruvian Navy
Surface-to-air missile
MBDA Aspide Flag of Italy.svg Italy surface-to-air missile (SAM) Aspide 1A Lupo class frigate
9K38 Igla Flag of Russia.svg Russia MANPADS 9K310 Igla-1 PR-72P class corvette
Peruvian Naval Infantry
used in MGP-86 mount for close air defence
to be replaced with the FN-6 missile system
FN-6 Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China MANPADS FN-6 Peruvian Naval Infantry a small batch acquired in July, 2009 for US$1.1 million[20]
Torpedoes
Atlas Elektronik SUT Flag of Germany.png Germany 533 mm heavyweight torpedo SUT 264 Type 209 submarine
Atlas Elektronik SST Flag of Germany.png Germany 533 mm heavyweight torpedo SST-4 mod 0 Type 209 submarine
Mark 44 torpedo United States 324 mm lightweight torpedo Mk 44 mod 1 Lupo class frigate
AB-212ASW
ASH-3D
Alenia-Whitehead A244/S Flag of Italy.svg Italy 324 mm lightweight torpedo A244/S Lupo class frigate
AB-212ASW
ASH-3D

Peacekeeping operationsEdit

The Peruvian Navy has been actively involved in several United Nations Peacekeeping Operations. As of June 2006 Naval Infantry and Special Operations troops have been deployed to United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) (embedded in the Argentine forces [4] ) and United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Peruvian naval officers have also been deployed to United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI), United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) as United Nations Militar Observers (UNMOs).By 2012 The Peruvian Navy sent his first officer to serve in UNISFA (United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei).

GalleryEdit

NotesEdit

  1. Keltie, J.S., ed. The Statesman's Year Book: Statistical and Historical Annual of the States of the World for the Year 1900. New York: MacMillan, 1900. p 887. (Retrieved via Google Books 3/4/11.)
  2. "Armed Forces Strength in selected years, 1829 - 1992". http://www.country-data.com/frd/cs/peru/pe_appen.html#table25. Retrieved 2011-11-08. 
  3. MGP - Commandante General
  4. "La base de Chimbote", Caretas, 1985.
  5. http://www.resdal.org/art-rial.htm, based on Supreme Decree DS No. 69 DE/SG of 2001.
  6. Fish, Tim (June 29, 2011). "Briefing: South America Naval Capabilities". p. 289. 
  7. Oficina de Prensa del Ministerio de Defensa (12 July 2013). "Ministro de Defensa participó en colocación de quilla de buque de ayuda humanitaria". http://www.mindef.gob.pe/vernoticias.php?id_note=874&sw4_dc=dt012573. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  8. Inigo, Guevara. "Peru begins construction of Makassar-class amphibious ship". Jane's Defence Weekly. IHS. http://www.janes.com/article/24614/peru-begins-construction-of-makassar-class-amphibious-ship. Retrieved 21 July 2013. 
  9. "Dos heridos deja incendio de BAP "Clavero" en el río Putumayo, informan". Andina. 21 May 2010. http://www.andina.com.pe/Espanol/Noticia.aspx?Id=VL3roBxxIys=. Retrieved 21 May 2010. 
  10. Marina de Guerra del Perú. "Perú: Unidades fluviales de Brasil y Colombia participaron en el ejercicio BRACOLPER 2012". Base Naval. http://basenaval.com/2012/08/peru-unidades-fluviales-de-brasil-y-colombia-participaron-en-el-ejercicio-bracolper-2012/. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  11. "Servicios Industriales de la Marina construirán Buque Escuela a Vela". Peruvian Navy. 7 December 2012. http://www.marina.mil.pe/noticias_prensa.asp?hdnId=3716. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  12. Carlos Ramírez Benvenuto (6 December 2012). "Un nuevo buque escuela para la Marina y el Perú". http://elcomercio.e3.pe/66/doc/0/0/5/4/5/545722.pdf. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 NotiSIMA Año 5, Edición 31 PDF, July 17, 2011.
  14. Historic Naval Ships Association BAP ABTAO (SS-42)
  15. Supreme Decree No. 014-2007-DE/MGP PDF (1.33 MB). July 13, 2007.
  16. Supreme Decree No. 018-2008-DE/MGP PDF (361 KB). August 23, 2009.
  17. Supreme Decree No. 014-2008-DE/MGP PDF (84.9 KB). August 23, 2009.
  18. "Peruvian Navy Carries Out Record Breaking Launch". Jean Dupont. MBDA. 17 December 2008. http://www.mbda-systems.com/mbda/site/ref/scripts/newsFO_complet.php?lang=EN&news_id=266. Retrieved 7 September 2009. 
  19. Andina: (Spanish) PCM transfiere más de S/. 114 millones para adquisición de material militar
  20. "Perú: Adquisición de misiles MANPADS". Alejo Marchessini. Defensa.com. 27 July 2009. http://www.defensa.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=820:peru-adquisicion-de-misiles-manpads&catid=55:latinoamerica&Itemid=163. Retrieved 11 September 2009. [dead link]

SourcesEdit

  • Baker III, Arthur D., The Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World 2002-2003.
    Naval Institute Press, 2002.
  • Basadre, Jorge, Historia de la República del Perú. Editorial Universitaria, 1983.
  • "La base de Chimbote", Caretas, 855: 31 (June 17, 1985).
  • Marchessini, Alejo, "La Comandancia de Operaciones del Pacifico".
    Defensa 315/316: 68-69 (July / August 2004).
  • Marchessini, Alejo, "El proceso de Reforma Militar".
    Defensa 318: 24-29 (October 2004).
  • Marchessini, Alejo, "Las patrulleras de los Guardacostas".
    Defensa 342: 48-50 (October 2006).
  • Marchessini, Alejo & Javier Taibo, "La Marina de Guerra del Perú".
    Defensa 267/268: 36-59 (July / August 2000).
  • Ortiz Sotelo, Jorge, Apuntes para la historia de los submarinos peruanos. Biblioteca Nacional, 2001.
  • Rial, Juan, Los militares tras el fin del régimen de Fujimori-Montesinos.
    http://www.resdal.org/art-rial.htm

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

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