|Army of the Guardians of|
the Islamic Revolution
|Supreme Leader of Iran|
The Quds Force (alternatively spelled Ghods or Qods) (Persian: نیروی قدس, translit. Niru-ye Qods, "Jerusalem Force") is a special unit of Iran's Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution (Revolutionary Guard). It has been tasked with "exporting" Iran's Islamic revolution, and is responsible for "extraterritorial operations" of the Revolutionary Guard.
The Quds Force reports directly to the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Its commander is Major General Qassem Suleimani. While "little is reliably known" about the force, as of 2007, its size was estimated at 15,000 troops.
- 1 History
- 2 Etymology
- 3 Mission
- 4 Organization
- 5 Activities
- 5.1 Afghanistan
- 5.2 Lebanon
- 5.3 India
- 5.4 United States
- 5.5 South America
- 5.6 Iraq
- 5.6.1 2006 detainment in Iraq
- 5.6.2 U.S. raid on Iranian liaison office
- 5.6.3 Allegations of involvement in Karbala attack
- 5.6.4 Allegations of support for Iraqi militants
- 5.6.5 Allegations by U.S. President Bush
- 5.6.6 Detainment of alleged bomb smuggler
- 5.6.7 Allegations of 2007 market attack
- 5.6.8 Allegations of ties to Al-Qaeda
- 5.7 Syria
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 External links
History[edit | edit source]
The Quds Force was created during the Iran-Iraq war as a special unit from the broader IRGC forces. After the war, Quds Force continued to support the Kurds fighting Saddam Hussein, during the war it had helped the Kurds fight the Iraqi military. The Quds also expanded their operations into neighboring Afghanistan, most notably aiding Abdul Ali Mazari's Shi'a Hezbe Wahdat in the 1980s against the government of Mohammad Najibullah. It then began funding and supporting Ahmad Shah Massoud's Northern Alliance against the Taliban. However, in recent years, the Quds Force is believed to be helping and guiding the Taliban insurgents against the NATO-backed Karzai administration. There were also reports of the Quds forces lending support to Bosnian Muslims fighting the Bosnian Serbs during the Yugoslav wars.
According to the Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram, former Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad helped fund the Quds Force while he was stationed at the Ramazan garrison near Iraq during the late 1980s.
Etymology[edit | edit source]
Jerusalem (/dʒəˈruːsələm/; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim ; Arabic: القُدس al-Quds )
Mission[edit | edit source]
In a 1998 document, the Federation of American Scientists, says the primary mission of the Quds Force is to organize, train, equip, and finance foreign Islamic revolutionary movements. It further states that the Quds Force maintains and builds contacts with underground Islamic militant organizations throughout the Islamic world.
In January 2010, the mission of the Quds Force was expanded and the Force along with Hezbollah started a new campaign of attacks which targets include not only the US and Israel but also other Western bodies.
Organization[edit | edit source]
The force is described as "active in dozens of countries". According to former U.S. Army intelligence officer David Dionisi, the Quds force is organized into eight different directorates based on geographic location:
- Western countries
- Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India
- Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan
- North Africa
- Arabian peninsula
- Republics of the former USSR
According to journalist Dexter Filkins, the forces members are "divided between combatants and those who train and oversee foreign assets", and the force is divided into branches focusing on "intelligence, finance, politics, sabotage, and special operations. Members are chosen both for their skill and "allegiance to the doctrine of the Islamic Revolution".
In addition, Dionisi asserts in his book American Hiroshima that the Iranian Quds Force headquarters for operations in Iraq was moved in 2004 to the Iran-Iraq border in order to better supervise activities in Iraq. The Quds Force also has a headquarters based in the former compound of the U.S. Embassy, which was overrun in 1979.
According to Filkins and American General Stanley A. McChrystal, it was the Quds Force that "flooded" Iraq with "explosively formed projectiles" (EFP) which fire a molten copper slug able to penetrate armor, and which accounted for "nearly 20%" of American combat deaths in Iraq (i.e. hundreds of soldiers). In September 2007, a few years after the publication of American Hiroshima: The Reasons Why and a Call to Strengthen America's Democracy in July 2006, General David Petraeus reported to Congress that the Quds Force had left Iraq. Petraeus said, "The Quds Force itself, we believe, by and large those individuals have been pulled out of the country, as have the Lebanese Hezbollah trainers that were being used to augment that activity."
On July 7, 2008, Pulitzer Prize-winning author Seymour Hersh wrote an article in The New Yorker revealing that President Bush had signed a Presidential Finding authorizing the CIA's Special Activities Division to conduct cross-border paramilitary operations from Iraq and Afghanistan into Iran. These operations would be against al-Quds (AKA Qods Force) and "high-value targets". "The Finding was focused on undermining Iran’s nuclear ambitions and trying to undermine the government through regime change", a person familiar with its contents said, and involved "working with opposition groups".
Focus of the force[edit | edit source]
The Quds force has four main areas of interest:
- Hezbollah operations in Lebanon
- Iraqi Kurdistan
- Afghanistan, Balochistan and Kashmir
- And most recently Yemen
In the past the Quds force has also supported the establishment of Hezbollah branches in Jordan and Israel.
Size[edit | edit source]
The size of the Quds Force is unknown, with some experts believing that Quds Force numbers no more than 2,000 people, with 800 core operatives, and others saying that it could number anywhere from 3,000 to 50,000.
Independence and talent[edit | edit source]
While it reports directly to the Supreme Leader of Iran, there are debates over how independently Quds Force operates.
Mahan Abedin, director of research at the London-based Center for the Study of Terrorism (and editor of Islamism Digest), believes the unit is not independent: "Quds Force, although it's a highly specialized department, it is subject to strict, iron-clad military discipline. It's completely controlled by the military hierarchy of the IRGC, and the IRGC is very tightly controlled by the highest levels of the administration in Iran."
Quds Force is considered by some analysts as "one of the best special forces units in the world", according to a Los Angeles Times report. In Abedin's view, "[I]t's a very capable force—their people are extremely talented, [and] they tend to be the best people in the IRGC".
Activities[edit | edit source]
The Quds Force trains and equips foreign Islamic revolutionary groups around the Middle East. The paramilitary instruction provided by the Quds Force typically occurs in Iran or Sudan. Foreign recruits are transported from their home countries to Iran to receive training. The Quds Force sometimes plays a more direct role in the military operations of the forces it trains, including pre-attack planning and other operation-specific military advice.
Afghanistan[edit | edit source]
Since 1979, Iran had supported the Shi'a Hezbe Wahdat forces against the Afghan government of Mohammad Najibullah. When Najibullah stepped down as President in 1992, Iran continued supporting Hezbe Wahdat against other Afghan militia groups. When the Taliban took over Afghanistan in 1996, Hezbe Wahdat had lost its founder and main leader, Abdul Ali Mazari, so the group joined Ahmad Shah Massoud's Northern Alliance. Iran began supporting the Northern Alliance against the Taliban, who were backed by Pakistan and the Arab world. In 1999, after several Iranian diplomats were killed by the Taliban in Mazar-e Sharif, Iran nearly got into a war with the Taliban. The Quds Force reportedly fought alongside the United States and the Northern Alliance in the Battle for Herat. However, in recent years Iran is accused of helping and training the Taliban insurgents against the NATO-backed Karzai administration. Iranian-made weapons, including powerful explosive devises are often found inside Afghanistan.
"We did interdict a shipment, without question the Revolutionary Guard's core Quds Force, through a known Taliban facilitator. Three of the individuals were killed... Iranians certainly view as making life more difficult for us if Afghanistan is unstable. We don't have that kind of relationship with the Iranians. That's why I am particularly troubled by the interception of weapons coming from Iran. But we know that it's more than weapons; it's money; it's also according to some reports, training at Iranian camps as well."
The Taliban may have been enemies of Iran in the past but "the bigger enemy" of Iran today is the United States. "Iran is willing to put aside ideology and put aside deeply held religious values for their ultimate goal: accelerating the departure of US forces from Afghanistan." Iran is against the presence of NATO forces in Afghanistan, especially the permanent American military bases. It is reported that the Taliban have set up an office in the eastern Iranian city of Zahedan, in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, near the Afghan and Pakistani borders. There have also been hundreds of assassinations of key figures in Afghanistan. It is likely that Iran is behind at least some of these. In March 2012, Najibullah Kabuli, leader of the National Participation Front (NPF) of Afghanistan, accused three senior leaders of Iran's Revolutionary Guards of plotting to assassinate him. Some members of the Afghan Parliament accuses Iran of setting up Taliban bases in several Iranian cities, and that "Iran is directly involved in fanning ethnic, linguistic and sectarian tensions in Afghanistan." There are reports about Iran's Revolutionary Guards training Afghans inside Iran to carry out terrorist attacks in Afghanistan.
—Syed Kamal, a self-confessed agent for Iran's Revolutionary Guards and member of Sipah-i-Mohmmad
Lebanon[edit | edit source]
India[edit | edit source]
Following an attack on an Israeli diplomat in India in February 2012, Delhi Police at the time contended that the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps had some involvement. This was subsequently confirmed in July 2012, after a report by the Delhi Police found evidence that members of Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps had been involved in the February 13 bomb attack in the capital.
United States[edit | edit source]
On 11 October 2011, the Obama Administration revealed the United States Government's allegations that the Quds Force was involved with the plot to assassinate Saudi Arabia’s Ambassador to the United States Adel al-Jubeir, which also entailed plans to bomb the Israeli and Saudi embassies located in Washington, D.C.
South America[edit | edit source]
It's been reported that Iran has been increasing its presence in Latin America through Venezuela. Little is known publicly what their objectives are in the region, but in 2009, Defense Secretary Robert Gates denounced Iran for meddling in "subversive activities" using Quds Forces. However, Iran claims it is merely "ensuring the survival of the regime" by propagating regional influence. As far back as 1994, the Quds were suspected of financing and aiding Hezbollah in a 1994 attack at the AMIA Jewish center in Buenos Aires which resulted in the deaths of 85 victims.
Iraq[edit | edit source]
The Quds Force has been described as the Iranian "unit deployed to challenge the United State presence" in Iraq following the U.S. invasion of that country, which put "165,000 American troops along [Iran's] western border," adding to the American troops already in Iran's eastern neighbor Afghanistan.
The force "operated throughout Iraq, arming, aiding, and abetting Shiite militias"—i.e., the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq, Dawa, and the Mahdi Army—"all" of which "had close ties to Iran, some dating back decades" as part of their struggle against Saddam Hussein's oppressive Arab nationalist regime.
In November 2006, with sectarian violence in Iraq increasing, U.S. General John Abizaid accused the Quds Force of supporting "Shi'a death squads" even while the government of Iran pledges support in stabilization. Similarly, in July 2007, Major General Kevin Bergner of the U.S. Army alleged that members of the Quds Force aided in the planning of a raid on U.S. forces in the Iraqi city of Karbala in January 2007.
2006 detainment in Iraq[edit | edit source]
On 24 December 2006, the New York Times reported that at least four Iranians were captured by American troops in Iraq in the previous few days. According to the article, the U.S. government suspected that two of them were members of Quds Force, which would be some of the first physical proof of Quds Force activity in Iraq. According to The Pentagon, the alleged the Quds Force members were "involved in the transfer of IED technologies from Iran to Iraq". The two men had entered Iraq legally, although they were not accredited diplomats. Iraqi officials believed that the evidence against the men was only circumstantial, but on 29 December, and under U.S. pressure, the Iraqi government ordered the men to leave Iraq. They were driven back to Iran that day. In mid-January 2007 it was said that the two alleged Quds force officers seized by American forces were Brig. Gen. Mohsen Chirazi and Col. Abu Amad Davari. According to the Washington Post. Chirazi is the third highest officer of Quds Force, making him the highest-ranked Iranian to ever allegedly be held by the United States.
American newspaper The New York Sun reported that the documents described the Quds Force as not only cooperating with Shi'a death squads, but also with fighters related to al-Qaeda and Ansar al-Sunna. It said that the Quds Force had studied the Iraq situation in a similar manner to the U.S. Iraq Study Group, and had concluded that they must increase efforts with Sunni and Shiite groups in order to counter the influence of Sunni states.
U.S. raid on Iranian liaison office[edit | edit source]
On 11 January 2007, U.S. forces raided and detained five employees of the Iranian liaison office in Irbil, Iraq. The U.S. military says the five detainees are connected to the Quds Force. The operation has drawn protests from the regional Kurdish government while the Russian government called the detainments unacceptable.
Alireza Nourizadeh, a political analyst at Voice of America, states that their arrests are causing concern in Iranian intelligence because the five alleged officials are knowledgeable of a wide range of Quds Force and Iranian activities in Iraq. According to American ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad, one of the men in custody is Quds Force's director of operations.
Iranian and Iraqi officials have maintained the detained men were part of a diplomatic mission in the city of Arbil, Iraq. The five Iranian detainees were still being held at a U.S. prison in Iraq as of 8 July 2007. The U.S. says they are "still being interrogated" and that it has "no plans to free them while they are seen as a security risk in Iraq". Iran says the detainees "are kidnapped diplomats" and that "they are held as hostages".
On 9 July 2009, the five detained diplomats in question were released from U.S. custody to Iraqi officials.
Allegations of involvement in Karbala attack[edit | edit source]
On 20 January 2007, a group of gunmen attacked the Karbala Provincial Joint Coordination Center in Karbala, captured four American soldiers, and subsequently killed them. The attackers passed through an Iraqi checkpoint at around 5 pm, a total of five black GMC Suburbans, similar to those driven by U.S. security and diplomatic officials. They were also wearing American military uniforms and spoke fluent English. Because of the sophistication of the attack, some analysts have suggested that only a group like the Quds Force would be able to plan and carry out such an action. Former CIA officer Robert Baer also suggested that the five Americans were killed by the Quds Force in revenge for the Americans holding five Iranians since the January 11 raid in Irbil. It was reported that the U.S. military is investigating whether or not the attackers were trained by Iranian officials; however, no evidence besides the sophistication of the attack has yet been presented.
On 2 July 2007, the U.S. military said that information from captured Hezbollah fighter Ali Moussa Dakdouk established a link between the Quds Force and the Karbala raid. The U.S. military claims Dakdouk worked as a liaison between Quds force operatives and the Shia group that carried out the raid. According to the United States, Dakdouk said that the Shia group "could not have conducted this complex operation without the support and direction of the Quds force".
Allegations of support for Iraqi militants[edit | edit source]
In June 2007, U.S. General Ray Odierno asserted that Iranian support for these Shia militia increased as the United States itself implemented the 2007 "troop surge". Two different studies have maintained that approximately half of all foreign insurgents entering Iraq come from Saudi Arabia.
In December 2009 evidence uncovered during an investigation by The Guardian newspaper and Guardian Films linked the Quds Force to the kidnappings of five Britons from a government ministry building in Baghdad in 2007. Three of the hostages, Jason Creswell, Jason Swindlehurst, and Alec Maclachlan, were killed. Alan Mcmenemy's body was never found but Peter Moore was released on 30 December 2009. The investigation uncovered evidence that Moore, 37, a computer expert from Lincoln was targeted because he was installing a system for the Iraqi Government that would show how a vast amount of international aid was diverted to Iran's militia groups in Iraq. One of the alleged groups funded by the Quds force directly is the Righteous League, which emerged in 2006 and has stayed largely in the shadows as a proxy of the al-Quds Force. Shia cleric and leading figure of the Righteous League, Qais al-Khazali, was handed over by the U.S. military for release by the Iraqi government on 29 December 2009 as part of the deal that led to the release of Moore.
Allegations by U.S. President Bush[edit | edit source]
In a 14 February 2007 news conference U.S. President George W. Bush reiterated his claim that the Quds Force was causing unrest in Iraq, stating
"I can say with certainty that the Quds force, a part of the Iranian government, has provided these sophisticated IEDs that have harmed our troops. And I'd like to repeat, I do not know whether or not the Quds Force was ordered from the top echelons of government. But my point is what's worse – them ordering it and it happening, or them not ordering it and it happening? And so we will continue to protect our troops. ... to say it [this claim] is provoking Iran is just a wrong way to characterize the Commander-in-Chief's decision to do what is necessary to protect our soldiers in harm's way. And I will continue to do so. ... Whether Ahmadinejad ordered the Quds force to do this, I don't think we know. But we do know that they're there, and I intend to do something about it. And I've asked our commanders to do something about it. And we're going to protect our troops. ... I don't think we know who picked up the phone and said to the Quds Force, go do this, but we know it's a vital part of the Iranian government. …What matters is, is that we're responding. The idea that somehow we're manufacturing the idea that the Iranians are providing IEDs is preposterous. ... My job is to protect our troops. And when we find devices that are in that country that are hurting our troops, we're going to do something about it, pure and simple. ... does this mean you're trying to have a pretext for war? No. It means I'm trying to protect our troops."
Mohsen Sazegara, who was a high-ranking Tehran official before turning against the government, has argued that Ahmadinejad does not control the Guards outside of Iran. "Not only the foreign ministry of Iran; even the president does not know what the Revolutionary Guards does outside of Iran. They directly report to the leader", he said, referring to Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Although Ali Khamenei is the ultimate person in charge of the Quds Force, George Bush did not mention him. According to Richard Clarke, "Quds force reports directly to the Supreme Ayatollah, through the commander-in-chief of the revolutionary guards."
Detainment of alleged bomb smuggler[edit | edit source]
On 20 September 2007, the U.S. military arrested an Iranian during a raid on a hotel in Sulaimaniyah, a city in the Kurdish-controlled north. The military accused the Iranian of being a member of the elite Quds Force and smuggling powerful roadside bombs, including armor-piercing explosively formed penetrators (EFPS), into Iraq. The military said intelligence reports asserted the suspect was involved in the infiltration and training of foreign fighters into Iraq as well.
On 22 September 2007, Iraqi President Jalal Talabani criticized the United States for arresting the Iranian and called for his immediate release. Talabani argued he is a civil servant who was on an official trade mission in the Kurdish Region and stated Iraqi and Kurdish regional government representatives were aware of the man's presence in the country. "I express to you our outrage for these American forces arresting this Iranian civil official visitor without informing or cooperating with the government of the Kurdistan region, which means insult and disregard for its rights", Talabani wrote in a "letter of resentment" to Ryan Crocker, U.S. ambassador to Iraq, and Gen. David Petraeus.
Allegations of 2007 market attack[edit | edit source]
On 24 November 2007, military officials accused an Iranian special group of placing a bomb in a bird box that blew up at a popular animal market in central Baghdad. "The group's purpose was to make it appear Al Qaeda in Iraq was responsible for the attack", Admiral Smith said. He further emphasized there was "no evidence Iran ordered the attack". In May 2008, Iraq said it had no evidence that Iran was supporting militants on Iraqi soil. Al-Sadr spokesman Al-Ubaydi said the presence of Iranian weapons in Iraq is "quite normal," since "they are bought and sold and any party can buy them."
Allegations of ties to Al-Qaeda[edit | edit source]
According to reports produced by Agence France-Presse (AFP), The Jerusalem Post, and Al Arabiya, at the request of a member of the United States' House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, in 2011 Congressional counter-terrorism advisor Michael S. Smith II of Kronos Advisory, LLC produced a report on Iran’s ties to Al-Qaeda that was distributed to members of the Congressional Anti-Terrorism Caucus. Titled "The al-Qa'ida-Qods Force Nexus: Scratching the Surface of a Known Unknown", a redacted version of Smith’s report is available online via the blog site owned by American military geostrategist and The Pentagon's New Map author Thomas P. M. Barnett. The report’s Issue Summary section explains: "This report focuses on the history of Iran’s relationship with al-Qa'ida, and briefly addresses potential implications of these ties. Additionally, its author provides a list of recommended action items for Members of the United States Congress, as well as a list of questions that may help Members develop a better understanding of this issue through interactions with defense and intelligence officials". A member of the Quds Force was alleged arrested with 21 other suspects in the attack on the Israeli and United States embassies on 14 March 2012 in Azerbaijan.
Syria[edit | edit source]
According to the U.S., the Syrian militia Jaysh al-Shabi was created and is maintained by Qods Force and the Shi'a Islamic militant group Hezbollah, who provide it with money, weapons, and training support and advice. IRGC Commander Jafari admitted on 16 September 2012 that Qods Force "were present" in Syria. Video footage captured after a battle shows that IRGC personnel are present and very active in the Syrian civil war. Not only training Government backed militia, but taking an active role in the fighting.
Notes[edit | edit source]
- Wright, Robin, Dreams and Shadows: the Future of the Middle East, Penguin Press, 2008, pp. 332–333.
- Qods (Jerusalem) Force, Federation of American Scientists Intelligence Resource Program. Retrieved 1 October 2006.
- Dionisi, 7
- "Iran demands nationals' release". BBC. 14 January 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6260301.stm. Retrieved 14 February 2007.
- Richter, Paul (24 October 2007). "Top Iranians direct Iraq missions". http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/asection/la-fg-usiran24oct24,1,6425179.story?coll=la-news-a_section. Retrieved 21 December 2007.
- Anthony Cordesman and Martin Kleiber, Iran's Asymmetric Warfighting Capablities. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Affairs. 2007.
- "Iran's Revolutionary Guards". 4 October 2007. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1565107/Iran's-Revolutionary-Guards-Quds-force.html. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- Ben Farmer, ed (1 August 2012). "Taliban opens office in Iran". The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iran/9444402/Taliban-opens-office-in-Iran.html. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Abasin Zaheeron, ed (20 May 2012). "Iran, Pakistan out to weaken Afghanistan, MPs told". Pajhwok Afghan News. http://www.pajhwok.com/en/2012/05/20/iran-pakistan-out-weaken-afghanistan-mps-told. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Brian Todd and Pam Benson, ed (23 March 2010). "Taliban fighters training in Iran, U.S. officials say". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/meast/03/23/iran.taliban/index.html. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
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- Is Iran Supporting the Insurgency in Afghanistan?
- Hirsh, Michael; Dehghanpisheh, Babak; Hosenball, Mark. "The New Enemy?", Newsweek, 15 February 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
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- Matthew, Levitt (January 2013). "Hizballah and the Qods Force in Iran’s shadow war with the West" (Policy Focus (No. 123)). The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/uploads/Documents/pubs/PolicyFocus123.pdf. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- Dionisis, 8
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- Golnaz Esfandiari (16 February 2007). "Iran: Expert Discusses Iran's Quds Force And U.S. Charges Concerning Iraq". Radio Free Europe. http://www.rferl.org/features/features_Article.aspx?m=02&y=2007&id=36B123CE-693B-448E-BF7D-A541E2A7BD12. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
- "Operations Anaconda entering second week". CNN. 8 March 2002. http://archives.cnn.com/2002/US/03/08/ret.war.facts/index.html.
- Karon, Tony. "TIME.com Primer: The Taliban and Afghanistan", Time Magazine, 18 September 2001. Retrieved 16 October 2006.
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- "Iran warns of US stay in Afghanistan". Press TV. 25 November 2011. http://www.presstv.ir/detail/212002.html. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Khwaja Baser Ahmad, ed (4 March 2012). "Iran’s Revolutionary Guards plotting to kill me: Kabuli". Pajhwok Afghan News. http://www.pajhwok.com/en/2012/03/04/iran%E2%80%99s-revolutionary-guards-plotting-kill-me-kabuli. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
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- Khwaja Basir Ahmad, ed (7 May 2012). "Alleged spies say Iran’s Revolutionary Guards trained them". Pahjwok Afghan News. http://www.pajhwok.com/en/2012/05/07/alleged-spies-say-iran%E2%80%99s-revolutionary-guards-trained-them. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- "Cops name Iran military arm for attack on Israeli diplomat", Times of India, 30 July 2012
- USDOJ: Two Men Charged in Alleged Plot to Assassinate Saudi Arabian Ambassador to the United States
- Plot to kill Saudi ambassador casts light on shadowy group that reports to Iran’s leader. The Associated Press. 13 October 2011
- Obama Says Facts Support Accusation of Iranian Plot. The New York Times. 13 October 2011
- Iran's Quds force in Venezuela, Latin America: Pentagon", AFP, 22 April 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Tougher U.S. Sanctions if terror suspect gets Iranian post?", Jweekly, 27 August 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Wright, Robin, Dreams and Shadows: the Future of the Middle East, Penguin Press, 2008, pp. 333–4
- "Gen. Abizaid On Stabilizing Iraq", 60 Minutes, 26 November 2006. Retrieved 27 November 2006.
- Middle East - Iraq The New York Times, 3 July 2007
- Baer, Robert. "Where's the Smoking Gun on Iran?", Time Magazine, 13 February 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2007.
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- albawaba.com middle east news information::Iran complains about detention conditions of diplomats in U.S. custody[dead link]
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References[edit | edit source]
- Dionisi, David J. American Hiroshima: The Reasons Why and a Call to Strengthen America's Democracy. Trafford Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-4120-4421-9 Sanzini Publishing for the 2006/2007 Korean version. 
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