|Manufacturer||University of Michigan|
|Country of origin||United States|
|Height||12.941 metres (42 ft 5.5 in)|
|Diameter||580 millimetres (22.9 in)|
|Mass||2,660 kilograms (5,870 lb)|
|Launch sites||Eglin AFB|
|First flight||June 26, 1958|
|Last flight||November 2, 1965|
History[edit | edit source]
Developed by the University of Michigan for use by the Air Force Cambridge Research Center, Exos used a three-stage configuration, consiting of a first stage rocket from an Honest John rocket, a second stage from a Nike-Ajax surface-to-air missile, and a Thiokol XM19 upper stage. It was designated XRM-86 in April 1959, and redesignated PWN-4A in June 1963.
Utilising a rail launcher, the first launch of a full Exos vehicle took place in June 1958, launched from the Wallops Flight Facility. Eight operational launches took place between 1960 and 1965, launched from Eglin Air Force Base.
Launch history[edit | edit source]
|Date/Time (GMT)||Rocket||Launch site||Outcome||Apogee||Mission|
|1958-06-26||Exos||Wallops Island||Sucess||370 kilometres (230 mi)||Test launch|
|1958-09-25||Exos||Wallops Island||Sucess||460 kilometres (290 mi)||Test launch|
|1960-02-19||Exos||Eglin AFB||Failure||Apogee 37 kilometres (23 mi)||Chemical release research|
|1961-08-11||Exos||Eglin AFB||Success||Apogee 114 kilometres (71 mi)||Ionospheric research|
|1962-08-03||Exos||Eglin AFB||Success||Apogee 365 kilometres (227 mi)||Bipolar Probe ionospheric research|
|1962-10-25||Exos||Eglin AFB||Success||Apogee 669 kilometres (416 mi)||Ionospheric research|
|1963-07-25||Exos||Eglin AFB||Success||Apogee 623 kilometres (387 mi)||Ionospheric research|
|1965-05-25||Exos||Eglin AFB||Success||Apogee 488 kilometres (303 mi)||Ionospheric research|
|1965-11-02||Exos||Eglin AFB||Success||Apogee 686 kilometres (426 mi)||International Quiet Sun Year aeronomy mission|
References[edit | edit source]
- Skoog and Hall 1990, p.214.
- Parsch 2002
- Shortal 1978, p.581.
- Wade, Mark. "Exos". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Accessed 2014-05-11.
- Parsch, Andreas (2002). "University of Michigan RM-86/PWN-4 Exos". Directory of U.S. Military Rockets and Missiles. designation-systems.net. http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/n-4.html. Retrieved 2014-05-11.
- Shortal, Joseph Adams (1978). A New Dimension, Wallops Island Flight Test Range: The First Fifteen Years. Hampton, VA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ASIN B004VJHCKC.
- Skoog, Å. Ingemar and R. Cargill Hall, ed (1990). History of Rocketry and Astronautics: Proceedings of the Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth History Symposia of the International Academy of Astronautics. AAS History Series. 10. Springfield, Virginia: American Astronautical Society. ISBN 978-0877033295.
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