|Rafael Eitan, Commander Company A, 4th Battalion, Harel Brigade (1948)|
|Minister||Minister of Agriculture|
|Minister||Deputy Prime Minister|
|Minister||Minister of Agriculture|
|Minister||Minister of the Environment|
|Born||11 January 1929|
Afula, Mandatory Palestine
|Died||23 December 2004(aged 75)|
Rafael "Raful" Eitan (Hebrew: רפאל "רפול" איתן, born 11 January 1929 – 23 November 2004) was an Israeli general, former Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces and later a politician, a Knesset member government minister. Born in Afula during the Mandate era, Eitan was raised in Tel Adashim, where he spent most of his life.
In 2005, he was voted the 24th-greatest Israeli of all time, in a poll by the Israeli news website Ynet to determine whom the general public considered the 200 Greatest Israelis.
Early life[edit | edit source]
Rafael Eitan was born in Afula, a city in the North District of Israel, in 1929. His father, Eliyahu, was one of the founders of the Jewish defense organization Hashomer. Rafael was raised in the settlement of Tel Adashim. Zvi Nishri (Orloff), a pioneer in modern physical education in Israel, was his uncle. His father gave Rafael and his brothers and sisters a strict education. Rafael married Miriam and together they had five children. They later divorced and he married Ofra Meirson.
Military career[edit | edit source]
Early battles[edit | edit source]
Eitan was a junior officer in the Palmach, the Haganah's elite strike force and took part in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. He fought in Jerusalem and received a head wound in the battle for the San Simon Monastery in April 1948. Later he served with the 10th Infantry Battalion in the Lachish-Negev region.
In 1954, Captain Eitan became commander of a Paratroops company in Unit 101. During Operation Kinereth in 1955 he received a machine gun wound to his chest, while participating in a military raid into Syria. For this action he was decorated with the Medal of Courage.
In 1969 he was appointed head of infantry forces and later served as a division commander. As a division commander, Brigadier General Eitan stopped the Syrian attack into the Golan Heights during the October 1973 Yom Kippur War. After the war, he was appointed to commander of the northern command and promoted to the rank of Major General.
Chief of Staff[edit | edit source]
Eitan opened his term with symbolic steps to increase discipline and efficiency in the IDF. He required soldiers to wear the military beret and to collect spent cartridges after rifle range practice.
Eitan oversaw the redeployment of the IDF outside Sinai after the Sinai peninsula was handed back to Egypt. He and Sharon demolished the Israeli city of Yamit in Sinai in April 1982 after the Egyptians refused to pay for its infrastructure.
As Chief of Staff, Eitan initiated a project that was known as "Raful Youth" (Na'arei Raful), in which young persons from low socio-economic background were integrated into the IDF and were trained for professions that allowed them to come out of poverty and avoid getting involved in crime. The IDF also helped those youth to complete their high school studies.
In April 1982 he initiated a new policy in the Occupied Territories which in Israeli army slang became known by the Hebrew word tertur. One document from his office stated:
- "1. It is necessary to act with force against agitators and to imprison them at every opportunity."
- "2. . . . When it is necessary, use legal measures which enable imprisonment for interrogation for a period stated in the law, and release them for one or two days and then re-imprison them."
After the trial of seven members of the Israeli army in December 1982, an Israeli operations officer was quoted as described tertur: "In addition to this business where you work to discover the provocateurs, you tertur the population. Population tertur does not mean that you punish those who did something, but you simply round up everyone, just like that."
Lebanon War[edit | edit source]
On 3 June 1982, Abu Nidal's militant group gravely wounded Israel's ambassador in London, Shlomo Argov, in an assassination attempt. In response, the Israeli Air Force bombed Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon. The Palestinian militants to shelled Israel's northern settlements in retaliation and resulted in the Israeli government's 4 June order to begin the 1982 Lebanon War. The operation was launched on 6 June and soon became a full-scale invasion. The Israeli plan was to drive the PLO away from the Israeli border and help Bachir Gemayel's Phalangist militia take control of south Lebanon. During the war, the IDF faced the Syrian military, Palestinian militants and various militias, such as Hezbollah. The IDF engaged in urban warfare and shelled Beirut to hit PLO headquarters.
The IDF achieved some impressive military results – such as wiping out the entire Syrian air defense system in the first days of the war, under the command of IAF Major general David Ivri. But it also had some failures, such as the Battle of Sultan Yacoub.
The operation was designed to be limited – both in time and area – but the IDF advanced far beyond the planned "40 kilometers" under the command of Defense Minister Ariel Sharon. The mounting Israeli casualties in Lebanon, combined with the Sabra and Shatila massacre, resulted in mass protests by the Israeli public against the war – which resulted in a cease-fire agreements and the establishment of the Kahan Commission to investigate the massacre.
Kahan Commission[edit | edit source]
In concluding that Eitan was "in breach of duty that was incumbent on the Chief of Staff" the Commission focused on two points:
Firstly, that he did not take into consideration the "danger of acts of vengeance and bloodshed" when he, with the Minister of Defence, decided to send the Phalangist militia into the refugee camps. The commission argued that it was "common knowledge ... that there was a possibility of harm to the population in the camps at the hands of the Phalangists", particularly in the aftermath of the assassination of their leader, the newly elected President of Lebanon, Bashir Gemayel.
Secondly they found that he was in dereliction of duty for not following up reports of acts of killings which had become known within hours of the Phalangist entry into Shatila camp. They record that he had a meeting with the Phalangist leaders on the following day in Beirut and did not raise the issue. At this meeting he expressed satisfaction with the Phalangist operation and agreed to provide further support.
In its recommendations the commission noted that Eitan was due to retire in April 1983 and therefore resolved "that it is sufficient to determine responsibility without making any further recommendation."
In a book co-authored by Ze'ev Schiff, military correspondent of Ha'aretz, and Ehud Ya'ari, Middle East Affairs correspondent for Israeli television, published a year after the Kahan Report, new information came to light, that suggested that Eitan was aware of the feelings of the Phalangists before he and Sharon decided to send the militia into the refugee camps.
During a minuted meeting at the Defense Minister's office at 5 pm on Thursday 16 September 1982 between US diplomats including Morris Draper and Sharon, Eitan, Saguy, and two other senior Defense Ministry staff, Draper was informed of the Israeli plan to send the Phalangists into the camps. A heated exchange followed, centering on which Lebanese force was to enter the camps. Draper insisted that it should be the regular Lebanese army. At this point Eitan broke into the discussion:
"They're not up to it. Let me explain to you. Lebanon is at a point of exploding into a frenzy of revenge. No one can stop them. Yesterday we spoke with the Phalange about their plans. They don't have a strong command.... They're obsessed with the idea of revenge. You have to know the Arabs well to sense something like that. If Amin tells the Phalangists to wreak their vengeance, he'll legitimize what's going to happen. I'm telling you that some of their commanders visited me, and I could see in their eyes that it's going to be a relentless slaughter. A number of incidents already happened today, and it's a good thing we were there, rather than the Lebanese army, to prevent it from going further."
Schiff and Ya'ari continue: "To hear Eitan tell it, the IDF was the last obstacle to a bloodthirsty rampage by the Phalange. Of course, he neglected to state that the Phalange forces were waiting outside Shatila at that very moment, because he, among others, had encouraged them to fight in the camps".
Political career[edit | edit source]
After his retirement from the army in April 1983, Eitan entered politics. He had the image of the sabra Israeli who connected to his roots and to the land. His background in agriculture and hobbies such as wood work and flight contributed to this image, which attracted many in the Israeli public.
Eitan was considered to be a conservative advocating tough policies towards the Palestinians. On 12 April 1983 Eitan said in a Knesset committee meeting: "The Arabs will never defeat us by throwing stones. Our answer will be a nationalist Zionist solution. For every stone throwing – we'll establish ten settlements. If there will be – and there will be – a hundred settlements between Nablus and Jerusalem, no stones will be thrown."
Eitan initially joined the Tehiya party and was first elected to the Knesset in 1984. Later he established an ultra-nationalist party called Tzomet, which had conservative views on defense and foreign policy but a liberal and secular domestic platform. He was elected to the 11th Knesset and served as Minister of Agriculture between 1988 and 1991, when Tzomet left the government. In the 1992 elections, Tzomet achieved a record of eight seats, but Eitan refused to join Yitzhak Rabin's coalition.
Eitan was a supporter of the South African apartheid regime and voiced racist sentiments himself.
However, Eitan had troubles in controlling his party, resulting in some Knesset members splitting from Tzomet to join other parties. When Rabin presented the Oslo II Accords to the Knesset, it managed to pass only with the support of Alex Goldfarb and Gonen Segev – two Tzomet members who were promised ministries by Rabin in return for their support.
On 1996, Tzomet joined an alliance of Likud and Gesher headed by Benjamin Netanyahu. Although the triumvarate lost the Knesset election to Labour, Netanyahu won the election for Prime Minister, allowing him to form the government. Eitan was promised the ministry of internal security, but a criminal investigation against him blocked his nomination. The investigation eventually cleared Eitan and the case was closed on 1998 due to "lack of evidence". In the meantime, Eitan served as Agriculture and Environment Minister and also as a Deputy Prime Minister (1998–99).
In 1999 Tzomet failed to win any Knesset seats and Eitan retired from politics.
Death[edit | edit source]
On 23 November 2004, Eitan arrived at the Mediterranean sea port of Ashdod, where he was overseeing a port expansion project. A large wave swept him from a breakwater into the sea and he was lost in rough waters for over an hour. Eitan's body was recovered by the Israeli Navy and he was pronounced dead after efforts to revive him failed.
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- A Soldier's Story: The Life and Times of an Israeli War Hero by Raful Eitan (ISBN 1-56171-016-4)
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- גיא בניוביץ' (20 June 1995). "הישראלי מספר 1: יצחק רבין – תרבות ובידור". Ynet. http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-3083171,00.html. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- Raful Eitan (1992). A Soldier's Story: The Life and Times of an Israeli War Hero. SP Books. ISBN 1-56171-094-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=3Iav7igW5CQC&pg=PA18&dq=nishri+ukraine&hl=en&ei=eyOyTpyHGLOq0AGhw7D9CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=nishri%20ukraine&f=false. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION OF JURISTS and LAW IN THE SERVICE OF MAN. "Torture and intimidation in the West Bank – the case of AL-FARA'A prison". page 3. Quotation from Captain Artzi Mordechai. Newsweek 14 February 1983.
- Final Report, (Authorized Translation). Page 77
- Final Report, pages 74,75.
- Final Report, page 78.
- Final Report, page 106.
- Israel's Lebanon War, Simon and Schuster, 1984
- Israel's Lebanon War, p. 259
- Chief of Staff: A settlement for every stone Yedioth Ahronoth, 13 April 1983
- Former Israeli army chief drowns BBC News, 23 November 2004
[edit | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rafael Eitan.|
- Rafael Eitan on the Knesset website
- Rafael Eitan's biography Knesset website (English)
- Rafael "Raful" Eitan Jewish Virtual Library
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