251,282 Pages

Purpose chart of US Army Transformation

Graphic legend of Army Transformation

The reorganization plan of the United States Army is a current modernization and reorganization plan of the United States Army that was implemented under the direction of Brigade Modernization Command. This effort formally began in 2006 when General Peter Schoomaker (the Army Chief of Staff at the time), was given the support to move the Army from its Cold War divisional orientation to a full-spectrum capability with fully manned, equipped and trained brigades. This was the most comprehensive reorganization since World War II and included modular combat brigades, support brigades, and command headquarters, as well as rebalancing the active and reserve components. (The plan was first proposed by Army Chief of Staff, Eric Shinseki, in 1999, but was bitterly opposed internally by the Army.)

In 2007 a new deployment scheme known as Grow the Army was adopted that enabled the Army to carry out continuous operations.[1] The plan was modified several times including an expansion of troop numbers in 2007 and changes to the number of modular brigades. On 25 June 2013, plans were announced to disband 13 modular brigade combat teams (BCTs) and expand the remaining brigades with an extra maneuver battalion, extra fires batteries, and an engineer battalion.

In 2016 the Army force generation process ARFORGEN is being sidelined because it relied mostly on the Active Army, in favor of the total force policy, which includes the Reserve and National Guard; in the new model, the total force could have fallen to 980,000 by 2018,[2] subject to DoD's Defense Strategic Guidance to the Joint Staff.[3]:note especially pp.1–3 By 15 June 2017, the Department of the Army approved an increase in the Active Army's end-strength from 475,000 to 476,000. The total Army end-strength increases to 1.018 million.[4]

Beginning in 2018, the US Army Futures Command,[5] a new Army command for modernization will be activated.[6][7] This modernization effort, to be coordinated with FORSCOM, Army Materiel Command, and TRADOC, addresses the long lead times for introducing new materiel and capabilities[Note 1] into the brigades of the Army.[6]

Origin and initial designEdit

Before General Schoomaker's tenure, the Army was organized around large, mostly mechanized divisions, of around 15,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to fight two major theatres simultaneously. Under the new plan, the Army would be organized around modular brigades of 3,000–4,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to deploy continuously in different parts of the world, and effectively organizing the Army closer to the way it fights. An additional 30,000 soldiers were recruited as a short-term measure to assist in the structural changes, although a permanent end-strength change was not expected because of fears of future funding cuts, forcing the Army to pay for the additional personnel from procurement and readiness accounts. Up to 60% of the defense budget is spent on personnel and an extra 10,000 soldiers would cost US$1.4 billion annually.

On November 22 and 23, 2002, the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs held the "Belfer Center Conference on Military Transformation". It brought together present and former defense officials and military commanders for the stated purpose of assessing the Department of Defense's progress in achieving a "transformation" of U.S. military capabilities. The conference was held at the Belfer Center at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. The United States Army War College and the Dwight D. Eisenhower National Security Series were co-sponsors.[8] In some respects this could be said to have been the birthplace of Transformation as a formal paradigm.

In 2004, the United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM), which commands most active Army and Army Reserve forces based in the Continental United States, was tasked with supervising the modular transformation of its subordinate structure.

In March 2004, a contract was awarded to Anteon Corporation (now part of General Dynamics) to provide Modularity Coordination Cells (MCC) to each transforming corps, division and brigade within FORSCOM. Each MCC contained a team of functional area specialists who provided direct, ground-level support to the unit. The MCCs were coordinated by the Anteon office in Atlanta, Georgia.

History of ARFORGEN

The Secretary of the Army approved implementing ARFORGEN, a transformational force generation model, in 2006. ARFORGEN process diagram 2010 Army Posture Statement, Addendum F, Army Force Generation (ARFORGEN)[9]

ARFORGEN model concept development began in the summer of 2004 and received its final approval from the Army’s senior leadership in early 2006.[10]

FORSCOM, Department of the Army AR 525-29 Military Operations, Army Force Generation, 14 Mar 2011[dead link]

Planning process, evolution, and transformationEdit

The commander-in-chief directs the planning process, through guidance to the Army by the Secretary of Defense.[3] Every year, Army Posture Statements by the Secretary of the Army and the Chief of Staff of the Army summarize their assessment[ReadyArmy 1]:minute 1:15:00/1:22:58 of the Army's ability to respond to world events,[11][12] and also to transform for the future.[13] In support of transformation for the future, TRADOC, upon the advice of the Army's stakeholders, has assembled 20 warfighting challenges.[14] These challenges are under evaluation during annual Army warfighting assessments, such as AWA 17.1, held in October 2016. AWA 17.1 is an assessment by 5,000 US Soldiers, Special Operations Forces, Airmen, and Marines,[15] as well as by British, Australian, Canadian, Danish, and Italian troops.[16][17][18] For example, "reach-back" is among the capabilities being assessed; when under attack in an unexpected location, a Soldier on the move might use WIN-T to reach back to a mobile command post, to communicate the unexpected situation to higher echelons.[19][20] [21] [22]

Implementation and current statusEdit

Grow the Army was a transformation and re-stationing initiative of the United States Army which began in 2007 and was scheduled to be completed by fiscal year 2013. The initiative was designed to grow the army by almost 75,000 soldiers, while realigning a large portion of the force in Europe to the continental United States in compliance with the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure suggestions. This grew the force from 42 Brigade Combat Teams and 75 modular support brigades in 2007 to 45 Brigade Combat Teams and 83 modular support brigades by 2013.

On 25 June 2013, US Army Chief of Staff General Raymond T. Odierno announced plans to disband 13 brigade combat teams and reduce troop strengths by 80,000 soldiers. While the number of BCTs will be reduced, the size of remaining BCTs will increase, on average, to about 4,500 soldiers. That will be accomplished, in many cases, by moving existing battalions and other assets from existing BCTs into other brigades. Two brigade combat teams in Germany had already been deactivated and a further 10 brigade combat teams slated for deactivation were announced by General Odierno on 25 June. (An additional brigade combat team was announced for deactivation 6 November 2014.) At the same time the maneuver battalions from the disbanded brigades will be used to augment armored and infantry brigade combat teams with a third maneuver battalion and expanded brigades fires capabilities by adding a third battery to the existing fires battalions. Furthermore, all brigade combat teams—armored, infantry and Stryker—will gain a Brigade Engineer Battalion, with "gap-crossing" and route-clearance capability.[23]

On 6 November 2014, it was reported that the 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team, 2nd Infantry Division, currently stationed in South Korea, will be deactivated in June 2015 and be replaced by a succession of U.S.-based brigade combat teams, which are to be rotated in and out, at the same nine-month tempo as practiced by the Army from 2001–2014.[24]

Eleven brigades were inactivated by 2015. The remaining brigades as of 2015 are listed below. On 16 March 2016, the Deputy Commanding General (DCG) of FORSCOM announced that the brigades would now also train to move their equipment to their new surge location as well as to train for the requirements of their next deployment.[25][26][27]

Reorganization plans by unit typeEdit

The Army has now been organized around modular brigades of 3,000–4,000 soldiers each, with the aim of being able to deploy continuously in different parts of the world, and effectively organizing the Army closer to the way it fights. The fact that this modernization is now in place has been acknowledged by the renaming of the 'Brigade Modernization Command' to the "U.S. Army Joint Modernization Command," on 16 February 2017.[28]

Modular combat brigadesEdit

Modular combat brigades are self-contained combined arms formations. They are standardized formations across the active and reserve components, meaning an Armored BCT at Fort Hood will be the same as one at Fort Stewart.[Note 2]

Reconnaissance plays a large role in the new organizational designs. The Army felt the acquisition of the target was the weak link in the chain of finding, fixing, closing with, and destroying the enemy. The Army felt that it had already sufficient lethal platforms to take out the enemy and thus the number of reconnaissance units in each brigade was increased.[Note 3][29] The brigades sometimes depend on joint fires from the Air Force and Navy to accomplish their mission. As a result, the amount of field artillery has been reduced in the brigade design.

The three types of BCTs are Armored Brigade Combat Teams (ABCTs), Infantry Brigade Combat Teams (includes Light, Air Assault and Airborne), and Stryker Brigade Combat Teams (SBCTs).


Armored Brigade structure

Armored Brigade Combat Teams, or ABCTs consist of 4,743 troops. This includes the third maneuver battalion as laid out in 2013. The changes announced by the U.S. army on 25 June 2013,[23] include adding a third maneuver battalion to the brigade, a second engineer company to a new Brigade Engineer Battalion, a third battery to the FA battalion, and reducing the size of each battery from 8 to 6 guns. These changes will also increase the number of troops in the affected battalions and also increase the total troops in the brigade. Since the brigade has more organic units, the command structure includes a deputy commander (in addition to the traditional executive officer) and a larger staff capable of working with civil affairs, special operations, psychological operations, air defense, and aviation units. An Armored BCT consists of:

  • the brigade headquarters and headquarters company (HHC): 43 officers, 17 warrant officers, 125 enlisted personnel – total: 185 soldiers. The commander and deputy commander each have a personal M2A3 Infantry Fighting Vehicle.[citation needed][Note 4]
  • the Brigade Engineer Battalion (BEB) (formerly Brigade Special Troops Battalion (BSTB)), consisted of a headquarters company, signal company, military intelligence company with a TUAV platoon and two combat engineer companies (A and B company). The former BSTB fielded 28 officers, 6 warrant officers, 470 enlisted personnel – total: 504 soldiers. Each of the combat engineer company fields 13× M2A2 ODS-E, 1× M113A3, 3× M1150 ABV, 1× M9 ACE, and 2× M104 AVLB.
  • a Cavalry (formerly Armed Reconnaissance) Squadron, consisting of a headquarters troop and three reconnaissance troops and one armored troop. The HHT fields 2× M3A3 cavalry fighting vehicles and 3× M7A3 fire support vehicles armed with TOW anti-tank guided missiles, while each reconnaissance troop fields 7× M3A3 cavalry fighting vehicles. The squadron fields 35 officers and 385 enlisted personnel – total: 424 soldiers.
  • three identical combined arms battalions (CABs); flagged as a battalion of an infantry, armored or cavalry regiment. Each battalion consists of a headquarters and headquarters company, two tank companies and two mechanized infantry companies. The battalions field 48 officers and 580 enlisted personnel each – total: 628 soldiers. The HHC fields 1× M1A2 main battle tank, 1× M2A3 infantry fighting vehicle, 3× M3A3 cavalry fighting vehicles, 4× M7A3 fire support vehicles and 4× M1064 mortar carriers with M120 120 mm mortars. Each of the two tank companies fields 14× M1A2 main battle tanks, while each mechanized infantry company fields 14× M2A3 infantry fighting vehicles. In 2016, the ABCT's combined arms battalions adopted a triangle structure, of two armored battalions (of two armored companies plus a single mechanized infantry company) plus a mechanized infantry battalion (of two mechanized companies and one armored company).[30] This resulted in the reduction of two mechanized infantry companies; the deleted armored company was reflagged as a troop to the Cavalry Squadron.
  • a Field Artillery battalion, consisting of a headquarters battery, two cannon batteries with 8× M109A6 self-propelled 155 mm howitzers each [The changes announced by the U.S. Army on 25 June 2013,[23] include adding a third battery to the FA battalion, and reducing the size of each battery from 8 to 6 guns. These changes also increase the number of troops in the affected battalions and also increase the total troops in the Brigade.], and a target acquisition platoon. 24 officers, 2 warrant officers, 296 enlisted personnel – total: 322 soldiers.
  • a brigade support battalion (BSB), consisting of a headquarters, medical, distribution and maintenance company, plus six forward support companies, each of which support one of the three combined arms battalions, the cavalry squadron, the engineer battalion and the field artillery battalion. 61 officers, 14 warrant officers, 1,019 enlisted personnel – total: 1,094 soldiers.

Infantry Brigade structure

Infantry Brigade Combat Team, or IBCTs, comprised around 3,300 soldiers, in the pre-2013 design, which did not include the 3rd maneuver battalion. The 2013 end-strength is now 4,413 Soldiers:

  • Special Troops Battalion (now Brigade Engineer Battalion)
  • Cavalry Squadron
  • (2), later (3) Infantry Battalions
  • Field Artillery Battalion
  • Brigade Support Battalion

Stryker Brigade structure

Stryker Brigade Combat Team or SBCTs comprised about 3,900 soldiers, making it the largest of the three combat brigade constructs in the 2006 design, and over 4,500 Soldiers in the 2013 reform. Its design includes:

  • Headquarters Company
  • Cavalry Squadron (with three 14-vehicle, two-120 mm mortar reconnaissance troops plus a surveillance troop with UAVs and NBC detection capability)
  • (3) Stryker infantry battalions (each with three rifle companies with 12 infantry-carrying vehicles, 3 mobile gun platforms, 2 120 mm mortars, and around 100 infantry dismounts each, plus an HHC with scout, mortar and medical platoons and a sniper section.)
  • Anti-tank company (9 TOW-equipped Stryker vehicles) (folded into the Brigade Engineer Battalion)
  • Field Artillery Battalion (three 6-gun 155 mm Howitzer batteries, target acquisition platoon, and a joint fires cell)
  • Engineer Company (folded into the Brigade Engineer Battalion) [An additional engineer company was added to the battalion[23] in the 2013 reform]
  • Signal Company (folded into the Brigade Engineer Battalion)
  • Military Intelligence Company (with UAV platoon) (folded into the Brigade Engineer Battalion)
  • Brigade Support Battalion (headquarters, medical, maintenance, and distribution companies)

Modular support brigadesEdit


Heavy Combat Aviation Brigade Structure


Full Spectrum Combat Aviation Brigade Structure

Similar modularity will exist for support units which fall into five types: Aviation, Fires (artillery), Battlefield Surveillance (intelligence), Maneuver Enhancement (engineers, signal, military police, chemical, and rear-area support), and Sustainment (logistics, medical, transportation, maintenance, etc.). In the past, artillery, combat support, and logistics support only resided at the division level and brigades were assigned those units only on a temporary basis when brigades transformed into "brigade combat teams" for particular deployments.

Combat Aviation Brigades will be multi-functional, offering a combination of attack helicopters (i.e., Apache), reconnaissance helicopters (i.e., Kiowa), medium-lift helicopters (i.e., Blackhawks), heavy-lift helicopters (i.e., Chinooks), and medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) capability. Aviation will not be organic to combat brigades. It will continue to reside at the division-level due to resource constraints.

Heavy divisions (of which there are six) will have 48 Apaches, 38 Blackhawks, 12 Chinooks, and 12 Medevac helicopters in their aviation brigade. These will be divided into two aviation attack battalions, an assault lift battalion, a general aviation support battalion. An aviation support battalion will have headquarters, refuelling/resupply, repair/maintenance, and communications companies.[31] Light divisions will have aviation brigades with 60 armed reconnaissance helicopters and no Apaches, with the remaining structure the same. The remaining divisions will have aviation brigades with 30 armed reconnaissance helicopters and 24 Apaches, with the remaining structure the same. Ten Army Apache helicopter units will convert to heavy attack reconnaissance squadrons, with 12 RQ-7B Shadow drones apiece.[29][32] The helicopters to fill out these large, combined-arms division-level aviation brigades comes from aviation units that used to reside at the corps-level.


Fires Brigade Structure

Fires Brigades (renamed Field Artillery Brigades in 2014) provide traditional artillery fires (Paladin, Howitzer, MLRS, HIMARS) as well as information operations and non-lethal effects capabilities. After the 2013 reform, the expertise formerly embodied in the pre-2007 Division Artillery (DIVARTY) was formally re-instituted in the Division Artillery Brigades of 2015. The operational Fires battalions will now report to this new formulation of DIVARTY, for training and operational Fires standards, as well as to the BCT.[33][34]

Air Defense: The Army will no longer provide an organic air defense artillery (ADA) battalion to its divisions. Nine of the ten active component (AC) divisional ADA battalions and two of the eight reserve (ARNG) divisional ADA battalions will deactivate. The remaining AC divisional ADA battalion along with six ARNG divisional ADA battalions will be pooled at the Unit of Employment to provide on-call air and missile defense (AMD) protection. The pool of Army AMD resources will address operational requirements in a tailorable and timely manner without stripping assigned AMD capability from other missions.

Maneuver Enhancement Brigades are designed to be self-contained, and will command units such as chemical, military police, civil affairs units, and tactical units such as a maneuver infantry battalion. These formations will be designed to be joint so that they can operate with coalition, or joint forces such as the Marine Corps, or can span the gap between modular combat brigades and other modular support brigades.[Note 5]


Combat Sustainment Brigade Structure

Sustainment Brigades provide echelon-above-brigade-level logistics.[35]


Battlefield Surveillance Brigade Structure

The former Battlefield Surveillance Brigades,[36] now denoted Military Intelligence Brigades (Expeditionary), will offer additional UAVs and long-term surveillance detachments.[37] Each of the three active duty brigades are attached to an Army Corps.[36]


Maneuver Enhancement Brigade Structure

Security Force Assistance BrigadesEdit

Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs) are brigades whose mission will be to train, advise, and assist (TAA) the armed forces of other coalition partners. The SFAB are neither bound by conventional decisive operations nor counter-insurgency operations. Operationally, a 500-soldier SFAB would free-up a 4500-soldier BCT from a TAA mission. On 23 June 2016 General Mark Milley revealed plans for train/advise/assist Brigades, consisting of seasoned officers and NCOs with a full chain of command,[38]:Minute 18:40/1:00:45 but no junior Soldiers. By October 2017, the first of six planned SFABs (the 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade)[39] will be established at Fort Benning.[38]:minute 50:00[40] The SFABs will consist of 500 senior officers and NCOs, which, the Army says, could act as a cadre to reform a full BCT in a matter of months.[41] In May 2017, the initial SFAB staffing of 529 soldiers was underway, including 360 officers. The officers will have had previous command experience.[38]:21:20 Commanders and leaders will have previously led BCTs at the same echelon.[42] The remaining personnel, all senior NCOs, are being recruited from across the Army.[43][44][45] Promotable E-4s who volunteer for the SFAB are automatically promoted to Sergeant upon completion of the Military Advisor Training Academy.[46] Funding for the first two SFABs was secured in June 2017.[4]

On 16 October 2017, BG Brian Mennes of Force Management in the Army's G3/5/7 announced accelerated deployment of the first two SFABs, possibly by Spring 2018 to Aghanistan and Iraq, if required.[47] This was approved in early July 2017, by the Secretary of Defense and the Chief of Staff of the Army. These SFABs would be trained in languages, how to work with interpreters,[48] and equipped with the latest equipment[49] including secure, but unclassified, communications and weapons to support coalition partners,[47] as well as unmanned aircraft systems (UASs).[50] The first five SFABs would align with the Combatant Commands (CENTCOM, PACOM, AFRICOM, ...) as required; an SFAB could provide up to 58 teams (possibly with additional Soldiers for force protection).[47] 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade deploys to Afghanistan in Spring 2018.[51] On 8 February 2018, 1st SFAB held an activation ceremony at Fort Benning, revealing its colors and heraldry for the first time, and then cased its colors for the deployment to Afghanistan.[52]

On 8 December 2017, the Army announced the activation of the second Security Force Assistance Brigade,[53] for January 2018, the second of six planned SFABs. The SFAB will consist of about 800 senior and noncommissioned officers who have served at the same echelon, with proven expertise in advise-and-assist operations with foreign security forces. Fort Bragg was chosen as the venue for the second SFAB[54] in anticipation of the time projected to train a Security Force Assistance Brigade.[53] On 17 January 2018 Chief of Staff Mark Milley announced the activation of the third SFAB.[55]

A team of twelve soldiers would include a medic, personnel for intelligence support, and air support,[56] as cited by Keller.[55] In the event of a national emergency the end-strengths of the SFABs could be augmented with new soldiers entering basic training and advanced individual training.[38]

Command headquartersEdit

Division commands will command and control these combat and support brigades. Divisions will operate as plug-and-play headquarters commands (similar to corps) instead of fixed formations with permanently assigned units. Any combination of brigades may be assigned to divisions for a particular mission up to a maximum of four combat brigades. For instance, the 3rd Infantry Division headquarters could be assigned two armor brigades and two infantry brigades based on the expected requirements of a given mission. On its next deployment, the same division may have one Stryker brigade and two armor brigades assigned to it. The same modus operandi holds true for support units. The goal of reorganization with regard to logistics is to streamline the logistics command structure so that combat service support can fulfill its support mission more efficiently.

The division headquarters itself has also been redesigned as a modular unit that can be assigned an array of units and serve in many different operational environments. The new term for this headquarters is the UEx (or Unit of Employment, X). The headquarters is designed to be able to operate as part of a joint force, command joint forces with augmentation, and command at the operational level of warfare (not just the tactical level). It will include organic security personnel and signal capability plus liaison elements. As of March 2015, nine of the ten regular Army division headquarters, and two national guard division headquarters are committed in support of Combatant Commands.[57]:Executive Summary [58][59]

When not deployed, the division will have responsibility for the training and readiness of a certain number of modular brigades units. For instance, the 3rd Infantry Division headquarters module based at Fort Stewart, GA is responsible for the readiness of its combat brigades and other units of the division, assuming they have not been deployed separately under a different division.

The re-designed headquarters module comprises around 1,000 soldiers including over 200 officers. It includes:

  • A Main Command Post where mission planning and analysis are conducted
  • A mobile command group for commanding while on the move
  • (2) Tactical Command Posts to exercise control of brigades[60]
  • Liaison elements
  • A special troops battalion with a security company and signal company

Divisions will continue to be commanded by major generals, unless coalition requirements require otherwise. Regional army commands (e.g. 3rd Army, 7th Army, 8th Army) will remain in use in the future but with changes to the organization of their headquarters designed to make the commands more integrated and relevant in the structure of the reorganized Army.

In January 2017, examples of pared-down tactical operations centers, suitable for brigades and divisions, were demonstrated at a command post huddle at Fort Bliss. The huddle of the commanders of FORSCOM, United States Army Reserve Command, First Army, I and III Corps, 9 of the Active Army divisions, and other formations discussed standardized solutions for streamlining command posts.[60] The Army is paring-down the tactical operations centers, and making them more agile,[61][62] to increase their survivability.[34]

Training and readinessEdit

Under Schoomaker, combat training centers (CTCs) emphasized the contemporary operating environment (such as an urban, ethnically-sensitive city in Iraq) and stress units according to the unit mission and the commanders' assessments, collaborating often to support holistic collective training programs, rather than by exception as was formerly the case.

Schoomaker's plan was to resource units based on the mission they are expected to accomplish (major combat versus SASO, or stability and support operations), regardless of component (active or reserve). Instead of using snapshot readiness reports, the Army now rates units based on the mission they are expected to perform given their position across the three force pools ('reset', 'train/ready', and 'available').[63] The Army now deploys units upon each commanders' signature on the certificate of their unit's assessment (viz., Ready). As of June 2016, only one-third of the Army's brigades are ready to deploy.[64]

"Soldiers need to be ready[ReadyArmy 2] 100 percent of the time."[2]—Robert B. Abrams, FORSCOM commander, June 2, 2016

Family Readiness GroupsEdit

Army spouses belong to Family Readiness Groups (FRGs) which mirror the command structure of an Army unit. An FRG seeks to meet the needs of soldiers and their families, for example during a deployment.[65] As a soldier transfers in and out of an installation, the soldier's entire family will typically undergo a permanent change of station (PCS) to the next post. Transfers typically follow the cycle of the school year to minimize disruption in an Army family. When a family emergency occurs, the informal support of that unit's FRG is available to the soldier.[65]

"Associated units" training programEdit

The Army announced a pilot program, 'associated units', in which a National Guard or Reserve unit would now train with a specific active Army formation. These units would wear the patch of the specific Army division before their deployment to a theater;[66] 36th Infantry Division (United States) headquarters deployed to Afghanistan in May 2016 for a train, advise, assist mission.[67]

The Army Reserve, whose headquarters are colocated with FORSCOM, and the National Guard, are testing the associated units program in a three-year pilot program with the active Army. The program will use the First Army training roles at the Army Combat Training Centers at Fort Irwin, Fort Polk, and regional and overseas training facilities.[68]

The pilot program complements FORSCOM's total force partnerships with the National Guard, begun in 2014.[69] Summer 2016 will see the first of these units.

Associated Unit[69] Reserve / Guard Paired with
Homed at AR/NG
48th IBCT Georgia Guard Army National Guard Task Force 1-28[70] Infantry battalion, Fort Benning, 3rd ID
1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment Texas Guard Army National Guard 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team stationed in Vicenza, Italy
1st Battalion, 151st Infantry Regiment Indiana Guard Army National Guard 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division (United States), Schofield Barracks, Hawaii
100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry Regiment Hawaii-based Army Reserve 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division, Schofield Barracks, Hawaii
81st Armored Brigade Combat Team Washington Guard Army National Guard 7th Infantry Division (United States), Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington
36th Infantry Division Texas Guard Army National Guard 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 36th Infantry Division, formerly 10th Mountain Division, Fort Polk, Louisiana,
86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team Vermont Guard Army National Guard 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, New York
824th Quartermaster Company North Carolina-based Army Reserve 82nd Sustainment Brigade, Fort Bragg, North Carolina
249th Transportation Company Texas Guard Army National Guard 1st Cavalry Division Sustainment Brigade, Fort Hood, Texas
1245th Transportation Company Oklahoma Guard Army National Guard 1st Cavalry Division Sustainment Brigade, Fort Hood, Texas
840th Engineer Company Texas Guard Army National Guard 36th Engineer Brigade (United States), Fort Hood, Texas
1176th Transportation Company Tennessee Guard Army National Guard 101st Sustainment Brigade, stationed in Fort Campbell, Kentucky
2123rd Transportation Company Kentucky Guard Army National Guard 101st Sustainment Brigade, stationed in Fort Campbell, Kentucky
35th Engineer Brigade (United States) Missouri Guard Army National Guard 5th Engineer Battalion (United States), stationed in Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri
79th IBCT[71] California Guard Army National Guard 4th Battalion 17th Infantry Regiment (Stryker), 1st Armored Division (United States) stationed in Fort Bliss, Texas.

Sustainable Readiness ModelEdit

ARFORGEN will be replaced by the Sustainable Readiness Model (SRM) in 2017.[2][72][73][74] In 2016 the Chief of Staff of the Army identified the objective of a sustainable readiness process as over 66 percent of the Active Army in combat ready state at any time, with an objective for readiness of the National Guard to be determined.[75]

Deployment schemeEdit

The force generation system, posited in 2006 by General Schoomaker, projected that the U.S. Army would be deployed continuously. The Army would serve as an expeditionary force to fight a protracted campaign against terrorism and stand ready for other potential contingencies across the full-spectrum of operations (from humanitarian and stability operations to major combat operations against a conventional foe).

Under ideal circumstances, Army units would have a minimum "dwell time," a minimum duration of which it would remain at home station before deployment. Active-duty units would be prepared to deploy once every three years. Army Reserve units would be prepared to deploy once every five years. National Guard units would be prepared to deploy once every six years. A total of 71 combat brigades would form the Army's rotation basis, 42 from the active component with the balance from the reserves.

Thus, around 15 active-duty combat brigades would be available for deployment each year under the 2006 force-generation plan. An additional 4 or 5 brigades would be available for deployment from the reserve component. The plan was designed to provide more stability to soldiers and their families. Within the system, a surge capability would exist so that about an additional 18 brigades could be deployed in addition to the 19 or 20 scheduled brigades.

From General Dan McNeil, former Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) Commander: Within the Army Forces Generation (ARFORGEN) model, brigade combat teams (BCTs) would move through a series of three force pools;[63] they would enter the model at its inception, the "reset force pool", upon completion of a deployment cycle. There they would re-equip and reman while executing all individual predeployment training requirements, attaining readiness as quickly as possible. Reset or "R" day, recommended by FORSCOM and approved by Headquarters, Department of the Army, would be marked by BCT changes of command, preceded or followed closely by other key leadership transitions. While in the reset pool, formations would be remanned, reaching 100% of mission required strength by the end of the phase, while also reorganizing and fielding new equipment, if appropriate. In addition, it is there that units would be confirmed against future missions, either as deployment expeditionary forces (DEFs-BCTs trained for known operational requirements), ready expeditionary forces (REFs-BCTs that form the pool of available forces for short-notice missions) or contingency expeditionary forces (CEFs-BCTs earmarked for contingency operations).

Based on their commanders' assessments, units would move to the ready force pool, from which they could deploy should they be needed, and in which the unit training focus would be at the higher collective levels. Units would enter the available force pool when there is approximately one year left in the cycle, after validating their collective mission-essential task list proficiency (either core or theater-specific tasks) via battle-staff and dirt-mission rehearsal exercises. The available phase would be the only phase with a specified time limit: one year. Not unlike the division-ready brigades of past decades, these formations would deploy to fulfill specific requirements or stand ready to fulfill short-notice deployments within 30 days.

The goal was to generate forces 12–18 months in advance of combatant commanders' requirements and to begin preparing every unit for its future mission as early as possible in order to increase its overall proficiency.

Personnel management would also be reorganized as part of the Army transformation. Previously, personnel was managed on an individual basis in which soldiers were rotated without regard for the effect on unit cohesion. This system required unpopular measures such as "stop loss" and "stop move" in order to maintain force levels. In contrast, the new personnel system would operate on a unit basis to the maximum extent possible, with the goal of allowing teams to remain together longer and enabling families to establish ties within their communities.

Abrams 2016 noted that mid-level Army soldiers found they faced an unexpected uptempo in their requirements,[2] while entry-level soldiers in fact welcomed the increased challenge.[2]

Force size and unit organizationEdit

Overall, the Army would end up with 71 brigade combat teams and 212 support brigades, in the pre-2013 design. The Regular Army would move from 33 brigade combat teams in 2003 to 43 brigade combat teams together with 75 modular support brigades, for a total of 118 Regular Army modular brigades. In addition the previously un-designated training brigades such as the Infantry Training Brigade at Fort Benning assumed the lineage & honors of formerly active Regular Army combat brigades. Within the Army National Guard, there would be 28 brigade combat teams and 78 support brigades. Within the Army Reserve, the objective was 59 support brigades.(Chief of Staff Mark Milley credits a previous Chief, Creighton Abrams, for placing most of the support brigades in the reserve and national guard, in order to insure that the nation would use the total army, rather than only the active army alone, in an extended war involving the entire nation.)[38]:minute 42:30

In the post-2013 design, the Regular Army is planned to reduce to 32 BCTs after all the BCTs have been announced for inactivation.[76]

Army commandsEdit

Army service component commandsEdit

Army direct reporting unitsEdit

Field armiesEdit

Army corpsEdit

Divisions and brigadesEdit

Note: these formations were subject to change, announced in #2013 reform[78]

The 2018 budget will further reduce 40,000 active-duty soldiers from 490,000 in 2015 to 450,000 by 2018 fiscal year-end. Thirty installations will be affected; six of these installations will account for over 12,000 of those to be let go.

In early 2015, the plan was to cut entire BCTs; by July 2015, a new plan, to downsize a BCT (4,500 soldiers) to a maneuver battalion task force (1,032 soldiers, with the possibility of upsizing if need be) was formulated. In 2015, a plan was instituted to allow further shrinking of the Army, by converting selected brigades to maneuver battalion task forces.[79] A maneuver battalion task force includes about 1,050 Soldiers rather than the 4,000 in a full BCT.[70] This 9 July 2015 plan, however, would preclude rapid deployment of such a unit until it has been reconstituted back to full re-deployable strength. This is being addressed with the #"Associated Units" training program from the Reserve and Guard, and the #Sustainable Readiness Model (SRM).[2][73] Funding has been allocated for two (out of six planned) Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs)[80] composed of 529 senior officers and senior NCOs (a full chain of command for a BCT).[81] The changes announced so far affect:[82]

Active-duty division:

  • 11 division headquarters (one division headquarters stationed overseas in South Korea)

Active-duty combat brigades: 31 at the end of 2017

Support brigadesEdit

Active-duty Support Brigades (with reserve-component numbers in parenthesis: ARNG/USAR)

See alsoEdit


  1. The capabilities. as prioritized by the Chief of Staff, will use subject matter experts in the realms of requirements, acquisition, science and technology, test, resourcing, costing, and sustainment of:
    1. Improved long-range precision fires (artillery)
    2. Vertical lift platforms
    3. Next-generation combat vehicle
    4. Mobile and expeditionary (usable in ground combat) communications network
    5. Air and missile defense
    6. Soldier lethality
  2. One consequence of a standardized BCT is that actions performed by one BCT can be made in behalf of a successor BCT. Thus pre-positioned stocks can aid in the rapidity of deployment: Army Prepositioned Stocks site in the Netherlands was established 15 Dec 2016, which will store and service about 1,600 U.S. Army vehicles.
  3. The Army is introducing drones in its combat aviation brigades in order to increase its reconnaissance capability.
  4. Army's first armored multi-purpose vehicle rolls off production line, 16 Dec 2016 The AMPV will replace vehicles for:
    • 522 general purpose
    • 993 mission command
    • 216 medical treatment
    • 790 medical evacuation
    • 386 mortar carrier
  5. In the 2013 reform, the active duty brigades are deactivating by 2015, leaving only the National Guard's, and the Reserve's, maneuver enhancement brigades.
  1. Perkins discusses operationalizing the Army Operating Concept (AOC) AOC="Win in a Complex World"
  2. "Ready Army is a proactive campaign to increase Army community resilience and enhance force readiness by informing Soldiers, their Families, Army Civilians and contractors of relevant hazards, and encouraging them to
    • Be Informed,
    • Make A Plan,
    • Build a Kit and
    • Get Involved."


  1. "Statement by General Peter Schoomaker, Chief of Staff United States Army, before the Commission on National Guard and Reserves". 14 December 2006. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Soldiers need to be ready 100 percent of time, says FORSCOM commander,, accessdate=2016-06-05
  3. 3.0 3.1 Robert M. Gates (5 Jan 2012) "Defense Strategic Guidance"
  4. 4.0 4.1 Department of the Army announces force structure decisions for fiscal year 2017 accessdate=2017-06-25
  5. David Vergun, Army News Service (December 8, 2017) US Army Futures Command to reform modernization, says secretary of the Army
  6. 6.0 6.1 Modernization turnaround worth the effort, says acting SecArmy McCarthy
  7. Army’s modernization command taking shape under freshly picked leaders
  8. White, John P.; Deutch, John (March 2003). "SECURITY TRANSFORMATION: Report of the Belfer Center Conference on Military Transformation" (citation). Strategic Studies Institute, United States Army War College, via Defense Technical Information Center. 
  9. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2010-06-23. 
  10. Henry S. Kenyon (June 2006) U.S. Army Reforges Training and Readiness.
  11. McHugh & Odierno, A STATEMENT ON THE POSTURE OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY 2015,, accessdate=2016-06-05
  12. 2017 DoD Posture Defense Statement
  13. Mission of the U.S. Army, accessdate=2016-09-11
  14. Army Warfighting Challenges (AWFCs) accessdate=2016-10-25
  16. Army tests new warfighting tech at Army Warfighting Assessment accessdate=2016-10-23
  17. Special Operations Forces integrate into AWA 17.1 accessdate=2016-10-28
  18. AWA 17.1: Increasing the pace of battle in a coalition environment accessdate=2016-10-29
  19. Army prepares to test enhanced network operation tools at NIE 16.2 accessdate=2016-11-05
  20. Future warfighting calls for semi-independent units, empowered leaders accessdate=2017-02-16
  21. ""We are going to have to empower [and] decentralize leadership to make decisions and achieve battlefield effects in a widely dispersed environment where subordinate leaders, junior leaders ... may not be able to communicate to their higher headquarters, even if they wanted to," Milley said."C. Todd Lopez May 5, 2017 Army News Service Future warfare requires 'disciplined disobedience,' Army chief says accessdate=2017-05-05
  22. Army, Marine leaders bring multi-domain concept closer to reality accessdate=2017-02-16
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 "Brigade combat teams cut at 10 posts will help other BCTs grow | Article | The United States Army". Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  24. "2nd ID unit in Korea to deactivate, be replaced by rotational force - News". Stripes. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  25. "Future of deployments: surge-ready and rotationally-focused | Article | The United States Army". Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  26. Big BCT changes mapped out for 2015 By: Michelle Tan, February 9, 2015,
  27. Army Announces Force Structure, Stationing Decisions, DoD News, July 9, 2015.
  28. BMC redesignated JMC, New Name Better Reflects Evolving Organizational Mission accessdate=2017-02-16
  29. 29.0 29.1 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-03-30. Retrieved 2015-03-28. 
  30. "Cavalry Brigade Combat Team assumes new design, transition nearly complete". U.S. Army. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2017. 
  31. "Ft Hood's 615th ASB trains at McGregor Range", Fort Bliss Monitor 6/26/2013
  32. 3rd Squadron, 6th Cavalry, in Iraq, accessdate=2016-03-18
  33. "DIVARTY - Division Artillery". Retrieved 19 October 2016. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 4-27 FA increases speed, accuracy during gunnery accessdate=2017-03-24
  35. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-08-14. Retrieved 2014-09-12. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 "USA TODAY: Latest World and US News -". Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  37. 204th Military Intelligence Battalion to join Aerial Intelligence Brigade,, accessdate=2015-05-21
  38. 38.0 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 Priorities for Our Nation's Army with General Mark A. Milley (23 Jun 2016)
  39. 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade: Who we are and why You should volunteer
  40. Army creates Security Force Assistance Brigade and Military Advisor Training Academy at Fort Benning accessdate=2017-02-24
  41. "CSA explains how skeletal advisory brigades could regenerate force". Retrieved 19 October 2016. 
  42. (16 October 2017) First security force assistance brigade training for deployment
  43. Lolita C. Baldor (4 May 2017) Associated Press Uncle Sam: We want you... to train others! $5K bonus offered accessdate=2017-05-05
  44. Security force assistance brigades to free Brigade combat teams from advise, assist mission
  45. Army Moves Closer to Establishing First Security Force Assistance Brigade
  46. 1st SFAB promotes first Soldiers to sergeant under new policy
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 AUSA (16 October 2017) AUSA Video clip, Warriors corner #9: All things Security Force Assistance Brigade (SFAB), part of the article, "First security force assistance brigade training for deployment"
  48. Capt. John May (November 27, 2017) Military Advisor Training Academy prepares 1st SFAB as combat advisors
  49. (December 21, 2017) Equipping SFABs: A 'Rubik's Cube' of logistics over 5,000 pieces of equipment
  50. (6 December 2017) Eyes in the Sky with 1st SFAB
  51. U.S. Army Public Affairs (January 11, 2018) Department of the Army announces upcoming deployment of the 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade
  52. (9 February 2018) 1st Security Force Assistance Brigade holds activation ceremony
  53. 53.0 53.1 Army announces activation of second Security Force Assistance Brigade at Fort Bragg
  54. CSM, 1st Battalion, 2nd SFAB identified
  55. 55.0 55.1 Jared Keller Task & Purpose (22 Jan 2018) The 1st SFAB’s Afghan Deployment Is A Moment Of Truth For The Global War On Terror for 2018, with subsequent SFABs after the year
  56. Jaffe and Ryan (21 January 2018), Washington Post Up to 1,000 more U.S. troops could be headed to Afghanistan this spring
  57. "Army Posture Statement, 2015". Retrieved 19 October 2016. 
  58. The 29th Division (National Guard) headquarters is deployed as Intermediate Command for ARCENT in Kuwait
  59. Two National Guard division headquarters are deployed simultaneously for the first time since the Korean war
  60. 60.0 60.1 "We need two command posts. We need to be able to shut one down and move it while the other is still in the fight." —MG Pat White, CG 1st Armored Division Army senior leaders meet at Bliss for command post huddle accessdate=2017-01-26
  61. Amy Walker, PEO C3T/PM Tactical Network Public Affairs (January 11, 2018) Army pushing to get Secure Wi-Fi on battlefield to gain strategic edge over enemies
  62. Army improves mobility, readiness with new secure wireless systems accessdate=2017-06-09
  63. 63.0 63.1 GEN Charles C. Campbell (June 2009), "ARFORGEN: Maturing the Model, Refining the Process". Army Magazine,
  64. "Allyn outlines keys to readiness under pressure | Article | The United States Army". 2016-06-13. Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  65. 65.0 65.1 Strangers as family 32nd AAMDC helps Soldier, family, in need
  66., Department of the Army Announces Associated Units Pilot accessdate=2016-03-22
  67. 36th ID making Guard history in Afghanistan
  68. Total Army Force leaders plan three-year 'Associated Units' Pilot, accessdate=2016-06-01
  69. 69.0 69.1 Myers, Meghann (2016-03-22). "army-pilot-links-active-guard-and-reserve-units-training-deployments". Retrieved 2016-10-21. 
  70. 70.0 70.1 70.2 "3rd Brigade Combat Team transitions into task force". Retrieved 19 October 2016. 
  71. Army Total Force partnerships improving readiness, accessdate=2016-06-12
  72. Readiness 2017
  73. 73.0 73.1 "STAND-TO!". Retrieved 19 October 2016. 
  74. 2nd Cavalry Regiment Stryker common chassis course
  75. CSA Mark Milley (20 Jan 2016) Army Readiness Guidance, 2016/2017
  76. Congressman Pete Gallego announces statement by Chief of Staff of the Army, Jun 26, 2013: by 2019, the Regular Army is planned to be 490,000 troops, down from 570,000 in 2012., accessdate=2014-09-03
  77. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-08-24. Retrieved 2012-06-20. 
  78. "Army outlines plan to inactivate 7 brigade combat teams | Army Times". Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  79. 79.0 79.1 79.2 79.3 79.4 Army to re-align brigades,, accessed 2015-07-10
  80. (15 June 2017) Department of the Army announces force structure decisions for fiscal year 2017
  81. (18 May 2017) Security force assistance brigades to free brigade combat teams from advise, assist mission
  82. 82.0 82.1 Army to cut 40,000 Soldiers, 17,000 civilians,, accessed 2015-07-10
  83. Mission Command in the Regionally Aligned Division Headquarters p.5,, accessed 2015-10-16
  84. 1st AD Headquarters was deployed to Iraq, 12 July 2017 —1ST AD TAKES ON MISSION accessdate=2017-07-22
  85. Roeder, Tom (2015-05-12). "Sustainment Brigade Changes Name, Gets Ready to Deploy to Afghanistan". Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  86. Combined Resolve IV, accessed 2015-05-23
  87. 2nd ABCT deploys to South Korea in the summer of 2017 —Department of the Army announces 1st Cavalry Division deployment accessdate=2017-07-22
  88. "'Dagger' brigade readies for AFRICOM missions". Retrieved 19 October 2016. 
  89. Army to pair National Guard, Reserve units with active-duty units, Stars and Stripes, by Corey Dickstein, dated 22 March 2016, last accessed 27 November 2016
  90. "Army lays out plan to cut 40,000 soldiers". 2015-07-10. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  91. Media Operations Division. "4th Infantry Division to support Operation Atlantic Resolve | United States European Command". Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  92. In May 2017, during their rotation to EUCOM, Combined Resolve VIII, 3rd ABCT/4th ID combined with land and aviation forces from six partner nations, Albania, Finland, Hungary, Kosovo, Romania and the Ukraine. The combined team will operate within 3rd ABCT's combined arms structure. The scenario is to defend a European nation from attack. in a NATO Article V incident. —(31 May 2017) 3/4 ID evolves into multinational brigade at Combined Resolve VIII accessdate=2017-07-18
  93. "7th ID reorganizing to be deployable, Army announces". 2014-12-23. Retrieved 2015-11-11. 
  94. [1] Archived May 18, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  97. 2nd IBCT/10th MD is to deploy to Iraq, Fall 2017 —Department of the Army announces 10th Mountain Division deployment
  98. Soldiers of the 2nd BCT/101st Airborne Division served as the first rotational brigade during NIE 17.2 in July 2017 at Fort Bliss. 1st Battalion 502nd Infantry Regiment served as their opposing force. —David Burge (16 July 2017) "Fort Campbell soldiers travel to Bliss for modernization mission" El Paso Times
  99. Spartan Brigade to become Army's newest armored brigade accessdate=2016-12-02
  100. "4th Brigade Combat Team (Airborne)" (in en). 

External linksEdit

This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.