Royal Artillery Cap Badge
|Active||1716 – Present|
|Size|| 15 Regular regiments|
7 Territorial regiments
|Motto|| Quo Fas Et Gloria Ducunt (Where Right And Glory Lead)|
|Commanders||Brigadier NH Eeles (Director Royal Artillery)HM The Queen Elizabeth IIGeneral Sir Timothy Granville-Chapman|
|British Army arms and services|
|Royal Armoured Corps|
|Special Air Service|
|Army Air Corps|
|Special Reconnaissance Regiment|
|Combat Support Arms|
|Royal Corps of Signals|
|Royal Army Chaplains' Department|
|Royal Logistic Corps|
|Army Medical Services|
|Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers|
|Adjutant General's Corps|
|Small Arms School Corps|
|Royal Army Physical Training Corps|
|General Service Corps|
|Corps of Army Music|
The introduction of artillery into the English Army came as early as the Battle of Crécy in 1346 but was not a permanent body, Henry VIII recognised what artillery could achieve and created a semi-permanent body of artillery. The recognition of the need for a permanent body of artillery however, did not happen until 1716. Before the 18th century, artillery 'traynes' were raised by royal warrant for specific campaigns and disbanded again when they were over. On 26 May 1716, however, by royal warrant of George I two regular companies of field artillery, each 100 men strong, were raised at Woolwich. The title "Royal Artillery" (RA) was first used in 1720. On 1 April 1722 the two companies were increased to four and grouped with independent artillery companies at Gibraltar and Minorca to form the Royal Regiment of Artillery, commanded by Colonel Albert Borgard. In 1741 the Royal Military Academy was formed in the Royal Arsenal at Woolwich (RWA) to provide training for RA and Royal Engineers (RE) officers. The regiment expanded rapidly and, by 1757, had 24 companies divided into two battalions, as well as a cadet company formed in 1741. During 1748, the presidential artilleries of Bengal, Madras and Bombay were formed. 1756 saw the creation of the Royal Irish Regiment of Artillery. In 1762 the Royal Artillery Band was formed at Minden. By 1771 there were 32 companies in four battalions, as well as two "invalid companies" comprising older and unfit men employed in garrison duties. During 1782, the regiment moved to the current Royal Artillery Barracks (front parade) on Woolwich Common. In January 1793, two troops of Royal Horse Artillery (RHA) were raised to provide fire support for the cavalry, augmented by two more in November 1793. All RHA personnel were mounted. The Royal Irish Artillery was absorbed into the RA in 1801. During 1805, the Royal Artillery moved to Woolwich Common. In 1819, the Rotunda was given to the regiment by the Prince Regent to celebrate end of the Napoleonic Wars. (It was originally built in St. James's Park as the outer casing of the tent in which the Prince Regent entertained the Allied sovereigns in 1814.) In 1832, the regimental mottoes were granted.
The regiment was under the control of the Board of Ordnance until the board was abolished in 1855. Thereafter the regiment came under the War Office along with the rest of the army. The School of Gunnery established at Shoeburyness, Essex in 1859. In 1862 the regiment absorbed the artillery of the British East India Company—21 horse batteries and 48 field batteries—which brought its strength up to 29 horse batteries, 73 field batteries and 88 heavy batteries.
On 1 July 1899, the Royal Artillery was divided into three groups: the Royal Horse Artillery of 21 batteries and the Royal Field Artillery of 95 batteries comprised one group, while the coastal defence, mountain, siege and heavy batteries were split off into another group named the Royal Garrison Artillery of 91 companies. The third group continued to be titled simply Royal Artillery, and was responsible for ammunition storage and supply. Which branch a gunner belonged to was indicated by metal shoulder titles (R.A., R.F.A., R.H.A., or R.G.A.). The RFA and RHA also dressed as mounted men, whereas the RGA dressed like foot soldiers. In 1920 the rank of Bombardier was instituted in the Royal Artillery. The three sections effectively functioned as separate corps. This arrangement lasted until 1924, when the three amalgamated once more to became one regiment. In 1938, RA Brigades were renamed Regiments. During World War II there were over 1 million men serving in 960 gunner regiments. In 1947 the Riding Troop RHA was renamed The King's Troop RHA and, in 1951, the title of the regiment's colonel-in-chief became Captain General.
Before the Second World War, Royal Artillery recruits were required to be at least 5 feet 4 inches (1.63 m) tall. Men in mechanised units had to be at least 5 feet 8 inches (1.73 m) tall. They initially enlisted for six years with the colours and a further six years with the reserve or four years and eight years. They trained at the Royal Artillery Depot in Woolwich.
From its beginnings, the Royal Artillery has been based at Woolwich, in south-east London. In 2003 it was decided to move the headquarters to Larkhill on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire (the RA's training ground, where the Royal School of Artillery has been based since 1915). The last Royal Artillery troops left Woolwich Barracks in 2007; in 2012, however, the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery was relocated to Woolwich from their former headquarters in St John's Wood.
The Royal Artillery todayEditThe Royal Artillery is equipped with a variety of equipment and performs a wide range of roles, including:
- Surveillance and Target Acquisition
- Commando and Airborne artillery
- Self Propelled Artillery
- Multiple Launch Rocket Systems
- Air defence
The Captain General of the regiment is Queen Elizabeth II. The post was previously known as Colonel-in-Chief until King George VI expressed the desire to be known as Captain General. The head of the regiment is the Master Gunner, St. James's Park.
The Royal Regiment of Artillery comprises both Regular (full-time) and Territorial (part-time) units. The current regiments of the Royal Artillery are:
Regular regiments of the Royal Horse Artillery
- King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery - Ceremonial Artillery based at Royal Artillery Barracks
- 1st Regiment Royal Horse Artillery - Self-Propelled Artillery based at Royal Artillery Barracks
- 3rd Regiment Royal Horse Artillery - Mobile Artillery based at Albemarle Barracks
- 7th (Parachute) Regiment Royal Horse Artillery - Light Field Artillery based at Merville Barracks
Regular regiments of the Royal Artillery
- 4th Regiment Royal Artillery - Mobile Artillery based at Albroke Barracks
- 5th Regiment Royal Artillery - Surveillance and Target Acquisition based at Marne Barracks
- 12th Regiment Royal Artillery - Mobile Air Defence based at Barker Barracks
- 14th Regiment Royal Artillery - Training Artillery based at Royal Artillery Barracks
- 16th Regiment Royal Artillery - Light Air Defence based at Barker Barracks
- 19th Regiment Royal Artillery - Self-Propelled Artillery based at Royal Artillery Barracks
- 26th Regiment Royal Artillery - MLRS Artillery based at Royal Artillery Barracks
- 29th Commando Regiment Royal Artillery - Light Artillery, RHQ at The Royal Citadel
- 47th Regiment Royal Artillery - UAV Controling based at Royal Artillery Barracks
The Territorial ArmyEdit
Only RHQ are shown, sub units and bases can be seen on their respective pages.
- Honourable Artillery Company (Not a Royal Artillery Unit, but ADMIN under RA for OP reasons) - Surveillance and Target Acquisition, RHQ at Finsbury Barracks
- 101st (Northumbrian) Regiment Royal Artillery (Volunteers) - MLRS Artillery, RHQ at Napier Armoury
- 103rd (Lancashire Artillery Volunteers) Regiment Royal Artillery - Light Artillery, RHQ at Jubilee Barracks
- 104th Regiment Royal Artillery (Volunteers) - Light Artillery, RHQ at Raglan Barracks
- 105th Regiment Royal Artillery (Volunteers) - Light Artillery, RHQ at Artillery House
- 106th (Yeomanry) Regiment Royal Artillery (Volunteers), Mobile and Light Air Defence, RHQ at Napier House
The Royal Regiment of Artillery is unique in that it has sub-units that often move between regiments, or are placed into suspended animation. See List of Royal Artillery Batteries.
- 2nd Regiment Royal Artillery
- 20th Regiment Royal Artillery
- 21st Regiment Royal Artillery
- 27th Regiment Royal Artillery
- 50th Regiment Royal Artillery
- 124th (Northumbrian) Field Regiment, Royal Artillery
- The Buckinghamshire Regiment Royal Artillery
- The County of Durham Regiment, Royal Artillery
- The Greater London Regiment Royal Artillery
The Royal Artillery is equipped with two main weapons in the air defence mission;
- Rapier FSC – Rapier is the standard Low Level Air Defence (LLAD) weapon in the British Army. In the Royal Artillery, it equips 16 Regiment. No Army Reserve unit will be armed with Rapier.
- Starstreak HVM – Starstreak is a continuation of the Blowpipe and Javelin series. In the RA it can be used as a shoulder-launched weapon, in the Lightweight Multiple Launcher (LML) or mounted on a Stormer armoured vehicle. The weapon equips 12 Regiment and two batteries of 106 Regiment RA(V) by Army 2020.
In the support mission, the Royal Artillery has three types of weapon;
- MLRS – the Multiple Launch Rocket System equips the "heavy" regiments of the Royal Artillery, 39 Regiment and 101(V) Regiment.
- AS-90 – the AS-90 is a self-propelled gun that equips five field regiments, 1 RHA, 3 RHA, 4 Regiment, 19 Regiment and 26 Regiment.
- Light gun – the Light Gun is a 105 mm gun used in the close support mission in support of light or specialist forces. It equips three Regular regiments, 7 (Para) RHA, 29 (Commando) Regt RA and 40 Regiment RA, as well as three Territorial Army Regiments – 100 Regt RA(V), 103 Regt RA(V) and 105 Regt RA(V).
Surveillance and target acquisitionEdit
- MAMBA and ASP – the Mobile Artillery Monitoring Battlefield Asset (MAMBA) and Advanced Sound ranging Program (ASP) are the main pieces of equipment used in the battlefield surveillance mission by 5th Regiment RA & 101st (Northumbrian) Regiment Royal Artillery (Volunteers).
- Hermes 450 UAV (due to be replaced by the Watchkeeper WK450 UAV), operated by 32nd Regiment Royal Artillery
- Desert Hawk UAV – the Desert Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is a smaller, more discreet vehicle. Also operated by 32, 47, and 104(V) Regiment.
- 13 pounder - the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery retains six operational First World War-era QF 13 pounders for use as state saluting guns
Order of precedenceEdit
Royal Armoured Corps
|Order of Precedence|| Succeeded by|
Corps of Royal Engineers
When on parade with its guns the Royal Horse Artillery takes precedence over all Army units.
The Future of the Royal ArtilleryEdit
- 1st Regiment Royal Horse Artillery
- 3rd Regiment Royal Horse Artillery
- 4th Regiment Royal Artillery
- 5th Regiment Royal Artillery
- 7th Parachute Regiment Royal Horse Artillery
- 12th Regiment Royal Artillery
- 16th Regiment Royal Artillery
- 19th Regiment Royal Artillery
- 26th Regiment Royal Artillery
- 29th Commando Regiment Royal Artillery
- 32nd Regiment Royal Artillery
- 47th Regiment Royal Artillery
- The King’s Troop Royal Horse Artillery
Due to the disbanding of the 39th RA, It has been noted that six AS-90 batteries and one GMLRS battery will form the three artillery regiments support the three Reaction Force Brigades. 1 RHA has already announced that it will be one of those artillery regiments.
It has been said that the RA may lose its M2270 GLMRS in the future.
1 RHA, 3 RHA, 4 RA, 19 RA 26 RA and the Army Reserve units, 101 RA and 105 RA will be grouped together under the 1st Artillery Brigade. 12th and 16th RA will continue to be under the joint Army-RAF unit, Joint Ground Based Air Defence.[not in citation given (See discussion.)] 5 RA, along with 104 RA, will be under the 1 Intelligence and Surveillance Brigade.
A list of Army Reserve (formerly Territorial Army) units has recently been published. 100th (Yeomanry) Regiment Royal Artillery will be suspended in animation.
101st (Northumbrian) Regiment Royal Artillery will be fully re-roled to GMLRS. 106th (Yeomanry) Regiment Royal Artillery will entirely be re-roled to Starstreak missiles, on Stormer vehicles or LML.
The Regimental family supports a wide range of social and sporting activities including - in addition to football, rugby, cricket, sailing etc. - the RA Hunt and a Point-to-Point racecourse. The Regimental magazine, "Gunner" is published monthly and the RA Journal (with a more academic flavour) twice a year. The RA Association has branches across the UK and some internationally.
- Canada – Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery
- Australia – Royal Regiment of Australian Artillery
- New Zealand – Royal Regiment of New Zealand Artillery
- India – Regiment of Artillery
- Pakistan – Regiment of Artillery
- Sri Lanka – Sri Lanka Artillery
- Singapore – Singapore Volunteer Artillery
- Malta – Armed Forces of Malta
- Malaysia – Rejimen Artileri Diraja
- Gibraltar – The Royal Gibraltar Regiment
- South Africa – South African Artillery Corps
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Royal Artillery.|
- Royal Artillery Mounted Band
- Royal Artillery Band
- Royal Artillery Memorial
- Royal Artillery Barracks
- Royal School of Artillery
- Firepower – The Royal Artillery Museum
- Bermuda Militia Artillery
- Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery
- Royal Regiment of Australian Artillery
- Royal Regiment of New Zealand Artillery
- 79th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery
- Manx Regiment
- ↑ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 History and Traditions of the Royal Artillery
- ↑ Woolwich Common in Garden and Landscape Guide
- ↑ The Royal Artillery has the motto and battle honour Ubique ("Everywhere"), granted by William IV in 1833. The subsidiary motto is Quo fas et gloria ducunt ("Where right and glory lead"). Both mottoes are shared with the , due to the shared Board of Ordnance history.
- ↑ Royal Artillery History
- ↑ War Office, His Majesty's Army, 1938
- ↑ King's Troop moves to its 'spiritual home' in Woolwich at BBC News, 7 February 2012. Accessed 8 February 2012
- ↑ Transforming the British Army
- ↑ "UK Royal Artillery rolls out new structure". Janes.com. 2013-02-18. http://www.janes.com/products/janes/defence-security-report.aspx?id=1065976367. Retrieved 2013-03-06.
- ↑ "Operations & Training - British Army Website". Army.mod.uk. http://www.army.mod.uk/artillery/regiments/27819.aspx. Retrieved 2013-03-06.
- ↑ About IHS Jane's
- ↑ Regular Army Basing Matrix
- ↑ Army 2020 Report
- ↑ Summary of Army 2020 Reserve Structure and Basing Changes, pages 4-6
- ↑ Summary of Army 2020 Reserve Structure and Basing Changes, pages 3,5
- Graham C A L DSO psc, Brig Gen The Story of the Royal Regiment of Artillery RA Institution, Woolwich 1939
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|