|Royal Newfoundland Regiment|
Cap brass of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment
|Part of||Royal Canadian Infantry Corps|
RHQ - St. John's|
1st Battalion - St. John's
2nd Battalion - HQ and B COY Grand Falls-Windsor
A COY - Corner Brook
C COY - Stephenville
|Nickname(s)||The Blue Puttees|
|Motto(s)||Better than the Best|
Quick - The Banks of Newfoundland|
Slow - The Garb of Old Gaul
ANZAC Day - 25 April|
Memorial Day - 1 July
Defence of Canada, 1812-15|
Albert (Beaumont-Hamel) 1916
Le Transloy, Arras 1917
Lys, Kemmel, Kortrijk
France and Flanders 1916-18
|Lieutenant Colonel Andrew Heale|
|Colonel in Chief||HRH The Princess Royal|
The Royal Newfoundland Regiment (R NFLD R) traces its origins to 1795, and since 1949 has been a militia or reserve unit of the Canadian Army. During the First World War the battalion-sized regiment was the only North American unit to fight in the Gallipoli campaign of 1915. Later in the war the regiment was virtually wiped out at Beaumont Hamel on July 1, 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme. Since then July 1 has been marked as Memorial Day in Newfoundland and Labrador.
Early history[edit | edit source]
A Newfoundland regiment was first founded, to serve in the British Army, in 1795. It was disbanded and refounded several times under different names, including His Majesty's Royal Newfoundland Regiment of Foot, The Royal Newfoundland Veterans Companies and, The Royal Newfoundland Companies. The regiment dates its origin to 1795, when Major Thomas Skinner of the Royal Engineers stationed in St. John's at Fort Townshend, was ordered to raise a regiment.
War of 1812[edit | edit source]
The regiment, called at the time The Royal Newfoundland Regiment of Fencible Infantry, was significantly involved in the War of 1812 In May 1812, weeks before outbreak of the war with the United States, Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, commander of his Majesty’s Forces in Upper Canada, deployed the regiment into smaller companies or detachments, combined with other units or regiments in defensive positions all over the province. Some were employed as marines on board naval vessels on the Great Lakes as part of His Majesty's Provincial Marine.
Battles in which elements of the regiment took part included: Skirmish at Canard River July 16, 1812, Battle of Detroit Aug 16 1812, Battle of the River Raisin or Frenchtown, Michigan January 22, 1813, the British raid on Ogdensburg, New York February 22, 1813, the Battle of York (Toronto) April 27, 1813 and operations in northwest Ohio, including the Battle of Maumee in the spring of 1813, the Battle of Fort George (Niagara-on-the-Lake) May 25–27, 1813. The regiment was also involved in the British Raid on Sacket's Harbour NY. May 29, 1813 and provided soldiers who served as marines in the Battle of Lake Erie September 10, 1813. The regiment's service continued at the Battle of the Thames or Moraviantown October 5, 1813 and in northern Michigan at the Battle of Michilimackinac or Mackinac Island August 4, 1814 and as part of the capture of American naval vessels Tigress September 3, 1814 and Scorpion on Upper Lake Huron on September 6, 1814.
It was largely distributed throughout the zone as attached sub-units and not as a formed battalion and was disbanded in 1816. A monument depicting a toy soldier of the 1813 Royal Newfoundland Regiment standing over a fallen American toy soldier was unveiled in Toronto in November 2008. In 2012, on the occasion of the bicentennial of the War of 1812, the Government of Canada, responding to recommendations made by the Royal Newfoundland Regiment Advisory Council and similar recommendations made by an advisory committee to the Minister of Canadian Heritage for the War of 1812, awarded the Royal Newfoundland Regiment three battle honours. These were for the victory at Detroit in 1812, for the regiment's role at the battle of Maumee in 1813 and a general "theatre honour" ("Defence of Canada 1812-15"), for the regiment's broader service in successful engagements throughout the War of 1812.
First World War[edit | edit source]
Outbreak of war[edit | edit source]
During the First World War Newfoundland was a largely rural Dominion of the British Empire with a population of 240,000, and not yet part of Canada. The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 led the Government of Newfoundland to recruit a force for service with the British Army. Even though the island had not possessed any formal military organization since 1870, enough men soon volunteered that a whole battalion was formed, and later maintained throughout the war. The regiment was nicknamed the "Blue Puttees" due to a fabric shortage which saw the regiment wearing blue puttees rather than the standard olive drab puttees. The regiment trained at various locations in the United Kingdom and increased from an initial contingent of 500 men to full battalion strength of 1,000 men, before being deployed. After a period of acclimatization in Egypt, the regiment was deployed at Suvla Bay on the Gallipoli peninsula with the 29th Division in support of the Gallipoli Campaign.
Gallipoli[edit | edit source]
On 20 September 1915 the regiment landed at Suvla Bay on the Gallipoli peninsula, where the British VIII Corps, IX Corps and the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) had been attempting to seize control of the Dardanelles Strait from Turkey since the first landings on 25 April. At Gallipoli the 1st Newfoundland Regiment faced snipers, artillery fire and severe cold, as well as the trench warfare hazards of cholera, dysentery, typhus, gangrene and trench foot. Over the next three months thirty soldiers of the regiment were killed or mortally wounded in action and ten died of disease; 150 were treated for frostbite and exposure. Despite the terrible conditions, the Newfoundlanders stood up well. When the decision was made to evacuate all British Empire forces from the area, the regiment was chosen to be a part of the rearguard, finally withdrawing from Gallipoli with the last of the British Dardanelles Army troops on 9 January 1916. With the close of the Gallipoli Campaign the regiment spent a short period recuperating before being transferred to the Western Front in March 1916.
Battle of the Somme[edit | edit source]
In France, the regiment regained battalion strength in preparation for the Battle of the Somme. The regiment, still in the 29th Division, went into the line in April 1916 at Beaumont-Hamel. Beaumont-Hamel was situated near the northern end of the 45 kilometre front being assaulted by the joint French and British force. The attack, originally scheduled for 29 June 1916 was postponed by two days to July 1, 1916, partly on account of inclement weather, partly to allow more time for the artillery preparation. The 29th Division, with its three infantry brigades faced defences manned by experienced troops of the 119th (Reserve) Infantry Regiment of the 26th (Wurttemberg) Reserve Division. The 119th (Reserve) Infantry Regiment had been involved in the invasion of France in August 1914 and had been manning the Beaumont-Hamel section of the line for nearly 20 months prior to the battle. The German troops spending a great deal of their time not only training but fortifying their position, including the construction of numerous deep dugouts and at least two tunnels.
The infantry assault by the 29th Division on 1 July 1916 was preceded ten minutes earlier by a mine explosion under the heavily fortified Hawthorn Ridge Redoubt. The explosion of the 18,000 kilogram (40,000 lb) Hawthorn Mine underneath the German lines successfully destroyed a major enemy strong point but also served to alert the German forces to the imminent attack. Following the explosion, troops of the 119th (Reserve) Infantry Regiment immediately deployed from their dugouts into the firing line, even preventing the British from taking control of the resulting crater as they had planned. When the assault finally began, the troops from the 86th and 87th Brigade of the 29th Division were quickly stopped. With the exception of the 1st Battalion of the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers on the right flank, the initial assault foundered in No Man's Land at, or short of, the German barbed wire. At divisional headquarters, Major-General Beauvoir De Lisle and his staff were trying to unravel the numerous and confusing messages coming back from observation posts, contact aircraft and the two leading brigades. There were indications that some troops had broken into and gone beyond the German first line. In an effort to exploit the perceived break in the German line he ordered the 88th Brigade, which was in reserve, to send forward two battalions to support attack.
At 8:45 a.m. the Newfoundland Regiment and 1st Battalion of the Essex Regiment received orders to move forward. The Newfoundland Regiment was situated at St. John's Road, a support trench 250 yards (230 m) behind the British forward line and out of sight of the enemy. Movement forward through the communication trenches was not possible because they were congested with dead and wounded men and under shell fire. Lieutenant Colonel Arthur Lovell Hadow, the battalion commander, decided to move immediately into attack formation and advance across the surface, which involved first navigating through the British barbed wire defences. As they breasted the skyline behind the British first line, they were effectively the only troops moving on the battlefield and clearly visible to the German defenders. Subjected to the full force of the 119th (Reserve) Infantry Regiment, most of the Newfoundland Regiment who had started forward were dead, dying or wounded within 15 to 20 minutes of leaving St. John's Road trench. Most reached no further than the Danger Tree, a skeleton of a tree that lay in No Man's Land that was being utilized as a landmark. So far as can be ascertained, 22 officers and 758 other ranks were directly involved in the advance. Of these, all the officers and slightly under 658 other ranks became casualties. Of the 780 men who went forward only about 110 survived unscathed, of whom only 68 were available for roll call the following day. For all intents and purposes the Newfoundland Regiment had been wiped out, the unit as a whole having suffered a casualty rate of approximately 90 percent. The only unit to suffer greater casualties during the attack was the 10th Battalion of the West Yorkshire Regiment, attacking west of Fricourt village.
After Beaumont-Hamel[edit | edit source]
Although significantly understrength, the Newfoundland Regiment continued to see service and after taking on reinforcements was back in the front line on 14 July near Auchonvillers. On 17 July the 88th Brigade was transferred to a quieter portion of the Western Front. In the weeks and months following the attack, the surviving officers wrote letters of condolence to families and relatives in Newfoundland. A period of recovery coupled with additional reinforcements would eventually help the regiment return to full strength. Six weeks later they were beating off a German gas attack in Flanders. Subsequently they distinguished themselves in a number of battles; back on the Somme at Gueudecourt in October 1916; on 23 April 1917, at Monchy-le-Preux during the Battle of Arras, where they lost 485 men in a day but checked a German attack. In Flanders during the Third Battle of Ypres the battalion attacked on 16 August at the Battle of Langemarck and on 9 October 1917 the battalion formed the left flank of 29th Division's attack as part of the Battle of Poelcappelle. In November 1917 at Masnières-Marcoing during the Battle of Cambrai the regiment stood its ground although outflanked and in April 1918 stemmed a German advance at Bailleul. Following a period out of the line, providing the guard force for General Headquarters at Montreuil, they joined the 28th Brigade of the 9th (Scottish) Division and were in action again at Ledegem and beyond in the advances of the Hundred Days Offensive during which Thomas Ricketts became the youngest soldier of the war to win the Victoria Cross.
First World War honours[edit | edit source]
In recognition of the unit's valour during the later battles at Ypres of 1917, King George V bestowed the regiment with the prefix "Royal" on 28 September 1917, renaming them as the Royal Newfoundland Regiment. This was the only time during the First World War that this honour was given and only the third time in the history of the British Army that it has been given during a time of war, the last occasion having been 101 years earlier.
Later history[edit | edit source]
When the Second World War began, as Dominion governed directly from the UK, Newfoundland declared war a day after the United Kingdom, on September 4, 1939. However no Newfoundland infantry units were sent overseas. Instead, it raised two artillery regiments; the 59 Heavy (Newfoundland) Regiment and the 57 (later 166)(Newfoundland) Field Artillery Regiment. These units saw service in Africa, Italy, and Europe.
In 1949, after a pair of referenda, Newfoundland joined Canada as the latter's 10th province. The Royal Newfoundland Regiment became the primary militia unit for the province. The regiment is ranked last in the Canadian Forces order of precedence due to Newfoundland's entry into Canada in 1949, long after other Canadian regiments were recognized in the order of precedence. The Freedom of the City was exercised by the Royal Newfoundland Regiment in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador on July 1, 1963.
Since 1992, soldiers and sub-units of the regiment have served to augment Regular Force units in Cyprus, Bosnia, Sierra Leone and Afghanistan on peacekeeping and combat missions.
On Monday 30 August 2010, Corporal Brian Pinksen died of his wounds eight days after being injured by an improvised explosive device in Afghanistan, making him the regiment's first combat fatality since the First World War.
Popular culture[edit | edit source]
The novels of Kenneth Tam, in the His Majesty's New World series (The Grasslands and The Frontier) concern an alternate reality, where the Royal Newfoundland Regiment and its personnel are most of the main protagonists of the story.
"Blue Puttee Drive" is a residential street in St. John's, Newfoundland that was named in honour of the regiment, and developed, in 2005.
Lind Avenue in Grand Falls Newfoundland, is named for Frank (Mayo) Lind. Lind was the Regiment's unofficial correspondent until his death at Beaumont Hamel. Lind's nickname "Mayo" was given to him as a result of a letter to the Telegram newspaper in which he lamented the poor quality and relative lack of tobacco available to the soldiers at the front - Mayo being a popular brand at the time. His letters caused a swell of donations by the patriotic inhabitants of the dominion, and ensured that Newfoundland soldiers were never without the item for very long afterward.
The novel "No Man's Land" by Newfoundland author Kevin Major, is a fictionalized account of the July 1st battle of Beaumont Hamel, and follows Lieutenant Ayre through most of war up until July 1.
Alliances[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
- The Canadian Crown and the Canadian Forces
- National War Memorial (Newfoundland)
- Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial
- List of Canadian organizations with royal patronage
Order of precedence[edit | edit source]
The Toronto Scottish Regiment
|The Royal Newfoundland Regiment||Succeeded by|
Last in order of precedence of Infantry regiments
Notes[edit | edit source]
- "War of 1812 Battle Honours". Department of National Defence. September 14, 2012. http://www.forces.gc.ca/site/news-nouvelles/news-nouvelles-eng.asp?id=4389. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- Jack L. Summers and Rene Chartrand. "History and Uniform of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment of Fencible Infantry". Canadian War Museum. http://www.warof1812.ca/r_newfld.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
- Alcoba, Natalie (November 3, 2008). "Coupland's War of 1812 monument tweaks U.S. noses". National Post. http://network.nationalpost.com/np/blogs/toronto/archive/2008/11/04/205264.aspx. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
- Castell pp. 153–156 [Newfoundland's Position and War Policy — 1915]
- Nicholson p. 98
- Nicholson p. 88
- Facey-Crowther, Jaipal Singh (2003). Lieutenant Owen William Steele of the Newfoundland Regiment: Diary and Letters. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 253. ISBN 0-7735-2428-2.
- Nicholson pp. 121–154
- Nicholson pp. 155–192
- Nicholson p. 480
- Nicholson pp. 239–242
- Nicholson pp. 253, 261
- Nicholson p. 243
- Sheldon p. 66 [Contemporary map of the dugouts and tunnels associated directly with Y Ravine in June 1916]
- Rose & Nathanail p. 404
- Rose & Nathanail pp. 404–405
- Nicholson p. 264–265 [Quoting the diaries of the 119th (Reserve) Infantry Regiment]
- Nicholson p. 266
- Nicholson p. 268 [A German flare to indicate shells were falling short of target was mistakenly identified as a British flare used to indicate the first objective had been taken]
- Nicholson p. 268
- Gilbert p. 64
- Nicholson p. 270
- Nicholson p. 271
- Nicholson pp. 270, 273
- Nicholson p. 274
- Farr p. 88
- Nicholson p. 284
- Nicholson p. 423–424
- 166th Newfoundland Regiment
- Freedom of the city
- "Nfld. Regiment honours first fatality since WWI". CBC News. September 1, 2010. Archived from the original on September 6, 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100906204733/http://www.cbc.ca/canada/newfoundland-labrador/story/2010/09/01/pinksen-nfld-regiment-grieve-901.html. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- Nicholson, Gerald W. L. (2007). The Fighting Newfoundlander. Carleton Library Series. 209. McGill-Queen's University Press. ISBN 0-7735-3206-4.
A Directory of Officers & Men of the Royal Newfoundland Regiment 1795-1816 by R.T. Lee ISBN 978-0-9868880-0-7
[edit | edit source]
- The Royal Newfoundland Regiment
- Royal Newfoundland Regiment Advisory Council
- The Newfoundland Regiment and the Great War
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