287,298 Pages

Rubin Carter
Born (1937-05-06)May 6, 1937
Clifton, New Jersey, U.S.
Died April 20, 2014(2014-04-20) (aged 76)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Nationality Canadian
Style Orthodox
Height 5 ft 8 in (1.73 m)
Weight Light heavyweight

Rubin "Hurricane" Carter (May 6, 1937 – April 20, 2014) was a middleweight boxer who was wrongfully convicted of murder[1] and later released following a petition of habeas corpus after spending almost 20 years in prison.

In 1966, police arrested both Carter and friend John Artis for a triple-homicide committed in the Lafayette Bar and Grill in Paterson, New Jersey. Police stopped Carter's car and brought him and Artis, also in the car, to the scene of the crime.[citation needed] On searching the car, the police found ammunition that fit the weapons used in the murder.[2] Police took no fingerprints at the crime scene and lacked the facilities to conduct a paraffin test for gunshot residue. Carter and Artis were tried and convicted twice (1967 and 1976) for the murders, and both served time in Rahway State Prison. After the second conviction was overturned in 1985, prosecutors chose not to try the case for a third time.

Carter's autobiography, titled The Sixteenth Round, which he wrote while he was in prison, was published in 1975 by Warner Books. The story inspired the 1975 Bob Dylan song "Hurricane" and the 1999 film The Hurricane (with Denzel Washington playing Carter). From 1993 to 2005, Carter served as executive director of the Association in Defence of the Wrongly Convicted.

Early life[edit | edit source]

Carter was born in Clifton, New Jersey, the fourth of seven children.[3] He acquired a criminal record and was sentenced to a juvenile reformatory for assault, having stabbed a man when he was 12.[4] Carter escaped from the reformatory in 1954 and joined the Army.[3] A few months after completing infantry basic training at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, he was sent to West Germany.[5] While in Germany, Carter began to box for the United States Army.[5] He was later discharged in 1956 as unfit for service, after four courts-martial.[6] Shortly after his discharge, he was convicted of two muggings and sent to prison.[7]

Boxing career[edit | edit source]

Rubin Carter

After his release from prison in September 1961, Carter became a professional boxer.[8] At 5 ft 8 in (1.73 m), Carter was shorter than the average middleweight, but he fought all of his professional career at 155–160 lb (70–72.6 kg). His aggressive style and punching power (resulting in many early-round knockouts) drew attention, establishing him as a crowd favorite and earning him the nickname "Hurricane." After he defeated a number of middleweight contenders—such as Florentino Fernandez, Holley Mims, Gomeo Brennan, and George Benton—the boxing world took notice. The Ring first listed him as one of its "Top 10" middleweight contenders in July 1963. At the end of 1965, they ranked him as the number five middleweight.[9]

He fought six times in 1963, winning four bouts and losing two.[8] He remained ranked in the lower part of the top 10 until December 20, when he surprised the boxing world by flooring past and future world champion Emile Griffith twice in the first round and scoring a technical knockout.[citation needed] That win resulted in The Ring's ranking of Carter as the number three contender for Joey Giardello's world middleweight title. Carter won two more fights (one a decision over future heavyweight champion Jimmy Ellis) in 1964, before meeting Giardello in Philadelphia for a 15-round championship match on December 14. Carter landed a few solid rights to the head and staggered Giardello in the fourth, but was unable to follow them up, and Giardello took control of the fight in the fifth round. The judges awarded Giardello a unanimous decision.[citation needed] After that fight, Carter's ranking in The Ring began to decline. He fought nine times in 1965, winning five but losing three of four against contenders Luis Manuel Rodríguez, Dick Tiger, and Harry Scott.[8] Tiger, in particular, floored Carter three times in their match. "It was," Carter said, "the worst beating that I took in my life—inside or outside the ring."[10] During his visit to London (to fight Scott) Carter was involved in an incident in which a shot was fired in his hotel room.[11]

Carter's career record in boxing was 27 wins, 12 losses, and one draw in 40 fights, with 19 total knockouts (8 KOs and 11 TKOs).[12] He received an honorary championship title belt from the World Boxing Council in 1993 (as did Joey Giardello at the same banquet) and was later inducted into the New Jersey Boxing Hall of Fame.[8]

Homicides[edit | edit source]

On June 17, 1966, at approximately 2:30 a.m., two men entered the Lafayette Bar and Grill at East 18th Street at Lafayette Street in Paterson, New Jersey, and began shooting.[13] The bartender, James Oliver, and a customer, Fred Nauyoks, were killed immediately. A severely wounded customer, Hazel Tanis, died almost a month later, having been shot in the throat, stomach, intestine, spleen and left lung, and having her arm shattered by shotgun pellets. A third customer, Willie Marins, survived the attack, despite a gunshot wound to the head that cost him the sight in one eye. During questioning, both Marins and Tanis told police that the shooters had been black males, though neither identified Carter or John Artis.[14] Petty criminal Alfred Bello, who had been near the Lafayette that night to burglarize a factory, was an eyewitness. Bello later testified that he was approaching the Lafayette when two black males—one carrying a shotgun, the other a pistol—came around the corner walking towards him.[15] He ran from them, and they got into a white car that was double-parked near the Lafayette.[13]

Bello was one of the first people on the scene of the shootings, as was Patricia Graham (later Patricia Valentine), a resident on the second floor (above the Lafayette Bar and Grill). Graham told the police that she saw two black males get into a white car and drive off.[16] Another neighbor, Ronald Ruggiero, also heard the shots, and said that, from his window, he saw Alfred Bello running west on Lafayette Street toward 16th Street. He then heard the screech of tires and saw a white car shoot past, heading west, with two black males in the front seat.[citation needed] Both Bello and Valentine gave police a description of the car that was the same. Valentine's testimony, in which she initially stated that the car had rear lights which lit up completely like butterflies, changed when she testified during the second trial to an accurate description of Carter's car, which had conventional taillights with aluminum decoration in a butterfly shape.[17] The prosecution theorized that the dissimilarity in Valentine's description was the result of a misreading of a court transcript by the defense.[18]

Investigation, indictment and first conviction[edit | edit source]

Hours before the triple murder, Carter was searching for guns that he had lost a year earlier.[19] Carter was driving a white Dodge Polara, which was notable for its out-of-state license plate with blue background and gold lettering[20] and taillights with butterfly-shaped aluminum decoration.[17] Ten minutes after the murder, police stopped Carter's car. The police, who were searching for a vehicle with three occupants, let Carter go.[21] Minutes later, the same police officers solicited a description of the getaway car from eyewitness Al Bello. He described the car as white with “a geometric design, sort of a butterfly type design in the back of the car”, and as bearing out-of-state license plates with blue background and orange lettering.[18] On hearing his description, the police realized that Al Bello was describing a car similar to the one that they had only moments earlier let go.[20]

When police found Carter's car they stopped it and brought Carter and another occupant, John Artis, to the scene about 31 minutes after the incident. Police took no fingerprints at the crime scene, and lacked the facilities to test Carter and Artis for gunshot residue.[citation needed]

On searching the car about 45 minutes later, Detective Emil DiRobbio found a live .32 caliber pistol round under the front passenger seat and a 12-gauge shotgun shell in the trunk. Firearms Identification later established that the murder weapons had been a .32 caliber pistol and a 12-gauge shotgun.[15] The defense later raised questions about this evidence, as it was not logged with a property clerk until five days after the murders.[22] The prosecution responded to this line of questioning by producing a report lodged 75 minutes after the murders that documents the presence of the .32 caliber pistol round and 12-gauge shotgun shell.[23] The defense was able to show that the bullet found in the Carter car was brass cased, rather than copper coated like those found at the Lafayette Bar, and that the shotgun shell found in the Carter car was an older model, with a different wad and color.[24] In response, the prosecution argued that the metal and make of the retrieved ammunition was meaningless because the ammunition found at the crime scene was also dissimilar. Furthermore, the ammunition found in the car was usable by the murder weapons.[18]

Police took Carter and Artis to police headquarters and questioned them. Witnesses did not identify them as the killers, and they were released.[5] Carter and Artis voluntarily appeared before a grand jury, which did not return an indictment.[24]

Several months later, Bello disclosed to the police that he had an accomplice during the attempted burglary, one Arthur Dexter Bradley. On further questioning, Bello and Bradley both identified Carter as one of the two males they had seen carrying weapons outside the bar the night of the murders. Bello also identified Artis as the other. Based on this additional evidence, Carter and Artis were arrested and indicted.[25]

At the 1967 trial, Carter was represented by well-known attorney Raymond A. Brown.[26] Brown focused on inconsistencies in some of the descriptions given by eyewitnesses Marins and Bello.[27] The defense also produced a number of alibi witnesses who testified that Carter and Artis had been in the Nite Spot (a nearby bar) at about the time of the shootings.[15] Both men were convicted. Prosecutors sought the death penalty, but jurors recommended that each defendant receive a life sentence for each murder. Judge Samuel Larner imposed two consecutive and one concurrent life sentence on Carter, and three concurrent life sentences on Artis.[citation needed]

In 1974, Bello and Bradley recanted their identifications of Carter and Artis, and these recantations were used as the basis for a motion for a new trial. Judge Samuel Larner denied the motion on December 11, saying that the recantations "lacked the ring of truth."[28]

Despite Larner's ruling, Madison Avenue advertising guru George Lois organized a campaign on Carter's behalf, which led to increasing public support for a retrial or pardon. Muhammad Ali lent his support to the campaign, and Bob Dylan co-wrote (with Jacques Levy) and performed a song called "Hurricane" (1975), which declared that Carter was innocent. In 1975, Dylan performed the song at a concert at Trenton State Prison, where Carter was temporarily an inmate.[citation needed]

However, during the hearing on the recantations, defense attorneys also argued that Bello and Bradley had lied during the 1967 trial, telling the jurors that they had made only certain narrow, limited deals with prosecutors in exchange for their trial testimony. A detective taped one interrogation of Bello in 1966, and when it was played during the recantation hearing, defense attorneys argued that the tape revealed promises beyond what Bello had testified to. If so, prosecutors had either had a Brady obligation to disclose this additional exculpatory evidence, or a duty to disclose the fact that their witnesses had lied on the stand.[citation needed]

Larner denied this second argument as well, but the New Jersey Supreme Court unanimously held that the evidence of various deals made between the prosecution and witnesses Bello and Bradley should have been disclosed to the defense before or during the 1967 trial as this could have "affected the jury's evaluation of the credibility" of the eyewitnesses. "The defendants' right to a fair trial was substantially prejudiced," said Justice Mark Sullivan.[15] The court set aside the original convictions and granted Carter and Artis a new trial.[citation needed]

Despite the difficulties of prosecuting a ten-year-old case, Prosecutor Burrell Ives Humphreys decided to try Carter and Artis again. To ensure, as best he could, that he did not use perjured testimony to obtain a conviction, Humphreys had Bello polygraphed—once by Leonard H. Harrelson and a second time by Richard Arther, both well-known and respected experts in the field.[citation needed] Both men concluded that Bello was telling the truth when he said that he had seen Carter outside the Lafayette immediately after the murders.[citation needed]

However, Harrelson also reported orally that Bello had been inside the bar shortly before and at the time of the shooting, a conclusion that contradicted Bello's 1967 trial testimony wherein he had said that he had been on the street at the time of the shooting. Despite this oral report, Harrelson's subsequent written report stated that Bello's 1967 testimony had been truthful.[29]

Second conviction and appeal[edit | edit source]

During the new trial, Alfred Bello repeated his 1967 testimony, identifying Carter and Artis as the two armed men he had seen outside the Lafayette Grill. Bradley refused to cooperate with prosecutors, and neither prosecution nor defense called him as a witness.[citation needed]

The defense responded with testimony from multiple witnesses who identified Carter at the locations he claimed to be at when the murders happened.[30] Investigator Fred Hogan, whose efforts had led to the recantations of Bello and Bradley, appeared as a defense witness. Hogan was asked on cross examinations whether any bribes or inducements were offered to Bello to secure his recantation, which Hogan denied.[31] His original handwritten notes on his conversations with Bello were entered into evidence.[citation needed] The defense also pointed out the inconsistencies in the testimony of Patricia Valentine, and read the 1967 testimony of William Marins, who had died in 1973, noting that his descriptions of the shooters were drastically different from Artis and Carter's actual appearances.[17]

The court also heard testimony from a Carter associate that Passaic County prosecutors had tried to pressure her into testifying against Carter. Prosecutors denied the charge.[32] After deliberating for almost nine hours, the jury again found Carter and Artis guilty of the murders. Judge Leopizzi re-imposed the same sentences on both men: a double life sentence for Carter, a single life sentence for Artis.[citation needed]

Artis was paroled in 1981.[33] Carter's attorneys continued to appeal. In 1982, the Supreme Court of New Jersey affirmed his convictions (4–3). While the justices felt that the prosecutors should have disclosed Harrelson's oral opinion (about Bello's location at the time of the murders) to the defense, only a minority thought this was material. The majority thus concluded that the prosecution had not withheld information that the Brady disclosure law required that they provide to the defense.[34]

According to bail bondswoman Carolyn Kelley, in 1975–1976 she helped raise funds to win a second trial for Carter, which resulted in his release on bail in March 1976. On a fund-raising trip the following month, Kelley said the boxer beat her severely over a disputed hotel bill. The Philadelphia Daily News reported the alleged beating in a front-page story several weeks later, and celebrity support for Carter quickly eroded, though Carter denied the accusation and there was insufficient evidence for legal prosecution.[17][35] Mae Thelma Basket, whom Carter had married in 1963,[4] divorced him after their second child was born, because she found out that he had been unfaithful to her.[36]

Federal court action[edit | edit source]

Three years later, Carter's attorneys filed a petition for a writ of habeas corpus in federal court. In 1985, Judge Haddon Lee Sarokin of the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey granted the writ, noting that the prosecution had been "predicated upon an appeal to racism rather than reason, and concealment rather than disclosure," and set aside the convictions.[24] Carter, 48 years old, was freed without bail in November 1985.[13]

Prosecutors appealed Sarokin's ruling to the Third Circuit Court of Appeals and filed a motion with the court to return Carter to prison pending the outcome of the appeal.[37][38] The court denied this motion and eventually upheld Sarokin's opinion, affirming his Brady analysis without commenting on his other rationale.[39]

The prosecutors appealed to the United States Supreme Court, which declined to hear the case.[13][40]

Prosecutors therefore could have tried Carter (and Artis) a third time, but decided not to, and filed a motion to dismiss the original indictments. "It is just not legally feasible to sustain a prosecution, and not practical after almost 22 years to be trying anyone," said New Jersey Attorney General W. Cary Edwards. Acting Passaic County Prosecutor John P. Goceljak said several factors made a retrial impossible, including Bello's "current unreliability" as a witness and the unavailability of other witnesses. Goceljak also doubted whether the prosecution could reintroduce the racially-motivated crime theory due to the federal court rulings.[41] A judge granted the motion to dismiss, bringing an end to the legal proceedings.[42]

Aftermath[edit | edit source]

Carter lived in Toronto, Ontario, where he became a Canadian citizen,[43] and was executive director of the Association in Defence of the Wrongly Convicted (AIDWYC) from 1993 until 2005. Carter resigned when the AIDWYC declined to support Carter's protest of the appointment (to a judgeship) of Susan MacLean, who was the prosecutor of Canadian Guy Paul Morin,[44] who served over eighteen months in prison for rape and murder until exonerated by DNA evidence.[45]

Carter's second marriage was to Lisa Peters. The couple separated later.[4]

In 1996, Carter, then 59, was arrested when Toronto police mistakenly identified him as a suspect in his thirties believed to have sold drugs to an undercover officer. He was released after the police realized their error.[46]

Carter often served as a motivational speaker. On October 14, 2005, he received two honorary Doctorates of Law, one from York University (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and one from Griffith University (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia), in recognition of his work with AIDWYC and the Innocence Project. Carter received the Abolition Award from Death Penalty Focus in 1996.[citation needed]

Prostate cancer and death[edit | edit source]

In March 2012, while attending the International Justice Conference in Burswood, Western Australia, Carter revealed that he had terminal prostate cancer.[47] At the time, doctors gave him between three and six months to live. Beginning shortly after that time, John Artis lived with and cared for Carter,[48] and on April 20, 2014, he confirmed that Carter had succumbed to his illness.[49]

In the months leading up to his death, Carter worked for the exoneration of David McCallum, a Brooklyn man who has been incarcerated since 1985 on charges of murder.[50] Two months before his death, Carter published "Hurricane Carter's Dying Wish," an opinion piece in the New York Daily News, in which he asked for an independent review of McCallum's conviction. "I request only that McCallum be granted a full hearing by the Brooklyn conviction integrity unit, now under the auspices of the new district attorney, Ken Thompson. Knowing what I do, I am certain that when the facts are brought to light, Thompson will recommend his immediate release ... Just as my own verdict 'was predicated on racism rather than reason and on concealment rather than disclosure,' as Sarokin wrote, so too was McCallum’s," Carter wrote.[51] On Wednesday, October 15, 2014, McCallum was exonerated.[52]

In popular culture[edit | edit source]

Carter's story inspired:

  • The 1975 Bob Dylan song "Hurricane"; Carter also appeared as himself in Dylan's 1978 movie Renaldo and Clara.[53]
  • Nelson Algren's 1983 novel The Devil's Stocking.[54]
  • Norman Jewison's 1999 feature film The Hurricane, starring Denzel Washington in the lead role. The film is about Rubin Carter's accusation, trials, and time spent in prison. Carter later discussed at a lecture how he fell in love with Washington's portrayal of him during auditions for The Hurricane, noting that boxer Marvelous Marvin Hagler and actors Wesley Snipes and Samuel L. Jackson all vied for the role.[55]

Professional boxing record[edit | edit source]

27 Wins (19 knockouts, 8 decisions), 12 Losses (1 knockout, 11 decisions), 1 Draw [56]
Result Opponent's Record Opponent Type Round Date Location Notes
Loss 52–13–3 Argentina Juan Carlos Rivero PTS 10 06/08/1966 Argentina Rosario, Santa Fe
Draw 18–4 United States Wilbert McClure PTS 10 08/03/1966 United States Toledo Sports Arena, Toledo, Ohio
Win 37–14–3 United States Ernest Burford KO 8 26/02/1966 South Africa Orlando Stadium, Johannesburg, Transvaal
Loss 59–16–2 United States Stan Harrington PTS 10 25/01/1966 United States Hawaii International Center, Honolulu, Hawaii
Loss 25–9 United States Johnny Morris SD 10 18/01/1966 United States Pittsburgh Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 44–47, 45–47, 47–44.
Win 18–3 United States Wilbert McClure SD 10 08/01/1966 United States Aragon Ballroom, Chicago, Illinois
Win 45–6–1 South Africa Joe N'Gidi TKO 2 18/09/1965 South Africa Orlando Stadium, Johannesburg, Transvaal
Loss 63–4 Cuba Luis Manuel Rodriguez UD 10 26/08/1965 United States Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California 3–7, 2–7, 4–5.
Win 21–1–1 United States Fate Davis TKO 1 14/07/1965 United States Akron, Ohio Referee stopped the bout at 1:26 of the first round.
Loss 50–16–3 Nigeria Dick Tiger UD 10 20/05/1965 United States Madison Square Garden, New York City 1–9, 1–8, 2–6.
Win 18–23–6 United States Johnny Torres TKO 9 30/04/1965 United States Paterson, New Jersey
Loss 22–15–4 United Kingdom Harry Scott PTS 10 20/04/1965 United Kingdom Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, London
Win 22–14–4 United Kingdom Harry Scott TKO 9 09/03/1965 United Kingdom Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, London
Win 20–11–7 France Fabio Bettini KO 10 22/02/1965 France Palais des Sports, Paris
Loss 57–4 Cuba Luis Manuel Rodriguez UD 10 12/02/1965 United States Madison Square Garden, New York City 3–6, 3–7, 3–7.
Loss 96–24–8 United States Joey Giardello UD 15 14/12/1964 United States Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania WBC/WBA World Middleweight Titles. 66–72, 66–71, 67–70.
Win 8–3–1 United States Clarence James TKO 1 24/06/1964 United States Los Angeles Sports Arena, Los Angeles, California Referee stopped the bout at 1:54 of the first round.
Win 14–2 United States Jimmy Ellis UD 10 28/02/1964 United States Madison Square Garden, New York City 7–2, 6–3, 7–3.
Win 38–4 United States Virgin Islands Emile Griffith TKO 1 20/12/1963 United States Pittsburgh Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Referee stopped the bout at 2:13 of the first round.
Loss 36–1 United States Joey Archer SD 10 25/10/1963 United States Madison Square Garden, New York City 4–5, 5–4, 4–6.
Win 38–4–3 Argentina Farid Salim UD 10 14/09/1963 United States Pittsburgh Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 50–40, 50–41, 49–45.
Win 48–7–1 United States George Benton SD 10 25/05/1963 United States Madison Square Garden, New York City 4–5, 6–4, 7–2.
Loss 23–7–1 Puerto Rico Jose "Monon" Gonzalez TKO 6 30/03/1963 United States Madison Square Garden, New York City
Win 52–7–5 The Bahamas Gomeo Brennan UD 10 02/02/1963 United States Madison Square Garden, New York City 9–1, 8–1, 7–3.
Win 59–23–6 United States Holley Mims UD 10 22/12/1962 United States Madison Square Garden, New York City 6–3, 6–3, 7–3.
Win 31–5 Cuba Florentino "The Ox" Fernandez KO 1 27/10/1962 United States Madison Square Garden, New York City Fernandez knocked out at 1:09 of the first round.
Win 22–20–2 United States Mel Collins TKO 5 08/10/1962 United States Jersey City Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey Referee stopped the bout at 0:42 of the fifth round.
Win 25–10–1 United States Ernest Burford TKO 2 04/08/1962 United States Madison Square Garden, New York City Referee stopped the bout at 2:17 of the second round.
Loss 24–10–1 United States Ernest Burford UD 8 23/06/1962 United States Madison Square Garden, New York City
Win 53–20–5 Aruba Sugar Boy Nando TKO 3 21/05/1962 United States St. Nicholas Arena, New York City
Win 8–4–1 United States Walter McDaniels TKO 2 30/04/1962 United States St. Nicholas Arena, New York City
Win 13–2 United States Johnny Tucker TKO 1 16/04/1962 United States St. Nicholas Arena, New York City Referee stopped the bout at 1:05 of the first round.
Win 2–8 United States Jimmy McMillan KO 3 16/03/1962 United States Jersey City Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey
Win 3–9–2 Puerto Rico Felix Santiago KO 1 28/02/1962 United States State Garden, Union City, New Jersey
Win 5–8 United States Tommy Settles KO 1 14/02/1962 United States State Garden, Union City, New Jersey
Loss 9–3 United States Herschel Jacobs PTS 6 19/01/1962 United States Gladiators Arena, Totowa, New Jersey
Win 7–2 United States Herschel Jacobs PTS 4 17/11/1961 United States Gladiators Arena, Totowa, New Jersey
Win 1–0 United States Frank Nelson TKO 1 24/10/1961 United States Alhambra A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win 1–0–1 United States Joey Cooper KO 2 11/10/1961 United States American Legion Arena, Reading, Pennsylvania
Win 1–0 United States Pike Reed SD 4 22/09/1961 United States Navy–Marine Corps Memorial Stadium, Annapolis, Maryland

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]


  1. "Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter dead at 76". April 20, 2014. http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/rubin-hurricane-carter-dead-at-76-1.2616026. Retrieved April 21, 2014. 
  2. Maravel, Harry; Johnson, Ed (1975). "Jury discounted testimony of witnesses who identified Carter, Artis". http://www.graphicwitness.com/carter/jury.html. Retrieved April 22, 2014. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 McLaughlin, Eliott C.. "Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter still fighting long after boxing days pass". CNN. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/CRIME/02/26/rubin.hurricane.carter.book/. Retrieved January 10, 2014. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Rubin 'The Hurricane' Carter - obituary". Telegraph.co.uk. 21 April 2014. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/10778176/Rubin-The-Hurricane-Carter-obituary.html. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Houston, Frank. "Storm of the century". Salon. http://www.salon.com/1999/12/24/hurricanecarter/. Retrieved January 10, 2014. 
  6. "The Hurricane: the facts of Rubin Carter's life story are beaten to a pulp | Film | The Guardian". https://www.theguardian.com/film/2014/apr/24/the-hurricane-rubin-carter-denzel-washington. 
  7. "Newsmaker / Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter: Film of his life a contender". http://old.post-gazette.com/regionstate/20000327newsmaker3.asp. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 "Rubin Carter 'Hurricane'". New Jersey Boxing Hall of Fame. http://www.njboxinghof.org/cgi-bin/henryseehof.pl?57. Retrieved January 24, 2009. 
  9. Hirsch 2000, p. 85.
  10. "Dick Tiger: The Life and Times of a Boxing Immortal (Part three) by Adeyinka Makinde". Hometown.aol.com. Archived from the original on May 13, 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20080513104900/http://hometown.aol.com/adeyinkamakinde/page8.html. Retrieved April 8, 2011. 
  11. Duff, Mickey (1999). Twenty and Out: A Life in Boxing. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-218926-2. 
  12. "Rubin Carter". Boxrec. http://www.boxrec.com/list_bouts.php?human_id=11387&cat=boxer. Retrieved January 24, 2009. "won 27 (KO 19) + lost 12 (KO 1) + drawn 1 = 40 rounds boxed 256 : KO% 47.5" 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Raab, Selwyn (January 12, 1988). "Supreme Court Refuses to Revive Hurricane Carter's Murder Case". The New York Times. https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE6DC1E3EF931A25752C0A96E948260&scp. Retrieved January 24, 2009. "The United States Supreme Court refused yesterday to consider reinstating the triple-murder convictions of Rubin (Hurricane) Carter and John Artis. It was the latest and perhaps the last chapter in a tangled 21-year legal struggle." 
  14. Hirsch 2000, pp. 17, 34.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 "The Seventeenth Round". Time magazine. March 29, 1976. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,918176,00.html. Retrieved January 24, 2009. 
  16. Hirsch 2000, p. 37.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 Wice, Paul B (2000). Rubin "Hurricane" Carter and the American Justice System. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-2864-9. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 "Carter v. Rafferty". Cal Deal. http://www.graphicwitness.com/carter/brief/2-Statement-of-Facts.pdf. Retrieved 2014-04-24. 
  19. Deal, Cal. "Hours Before The Murders Carter Hunts For His Guns". Hurricane Carter - The Other Side of the Story. http://www.graphicwitness.com/carter/guns.html. Retrieved April 22, 2014. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Hurricane Carter a victim of racism? There's another side to the story". September 2000. http://www.graphicwitness.com/carter/australia.html. Retrieved April 22, 2014. 
  21. "Rubin ‘Hurricane’ Carter dead at 76". April 2014. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/rubin-hurricane-carter-dead-at-76/article18071079/. Retrieved April 22, 2014. 
  22. "Hurricane Carter Case Back in Court". Nytimes.com. March 30, 1987. https://www.nytimes.com/1987/03/30/nyregion/hurricane-carter-case-is-back-in-court.html?pagewanted=3&src=pm. Retrieved April 8, 2011. 
  23. "Police recover live shotgun shell, bullet from Carter's car 75 minutes after the murder". http://www.graphicwitness.com/carter/bullets.html. Retrieved April 2014. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 "Carter v. Rafferty". 621 F. Supp. 533, 534 (D.N.J. 1985). Leagle.com. http://www.leagle.com/decision/19851154621FSupp533_11085.xml/CARTER%20v.%20RAFFERTY. Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  25. "Carter Artis arrest report, 1966". Hurricane Carter - The Other Side of the Story. http://www.graphicwitness.com/carter/bradley.html. Retrieved April 8, 2011. 
  26. Berger, Joseph. "Raymond A. Brown, Civil Rights Lawyer, Dies at 94", The New York Times, October 11, 2009. Accessed October 12, 2009.
  27. "Microsoft Word - Valentine 1967 Trial Testi.doc" (PDF). http://www.graphicwitness.com/carter/pdfs/Valentine--1967-Trial.pdf. Retrieved April 8, 2011. 
  28. Hirsch, James S. (2000). Hurricane: The Miraculous Journey of Rubin Carter. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. https://books.google.com/books?id=XFTH_Qs5O-wC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  29. "826 F2d 1299 Carter v. J Rafferty I Artis". OpenJurist. http://openjurist.org/826/f2d/1299/carter-v-j-rafferty-i-artis. Retrieved April 8, 2011. 
  30. Maitland, Leslie (December 12, 1976). "Testimony Supports Rubin Carter's Alibi". New York, NY. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F0081FF93E5812718DDDAB0994DA415B868BF1D3&scp=22&sq=Rubin%20carter&st=cse. Retrieved April 17, 2010. 
  31. Maitland, Leslie (December 10, 1976). "Rubin Carter Jury Hears Investigator Deny Bribe Offers". New York, NY. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30E12FB3F59157493C2A81789D95F428785F9&scp=33&sq=rubin%20carter&st=cse. Retrieved April 17, 2010. 
  32. Raab, Selwyn (October 14, 1976). "An Ex-Associate of Rubin Carter Charges 'Pressure' by Prosecution". New York, NY. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30C1EF73F5A167493C6A8178BD95F428785F9&scp=46&sq=rubin%20carter&st=cse. Retrieved April 17, 2010. 
  33. McFadden, Robert D. (December 15, 1981). "Artis Wins Parole". The New York Times. https://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30B1EFC3E5C0C768DDDAB0994D9484D81. Retrieved January 24, 2009. "John Artis, who was convicted twice with Rubin (Hurricane) Carter of killing three persons in a Paterson, N.J., bar holdup 15 years ago, will be paroled from Rahway State Prison on December 22, the New Jersey Parole Board announced yesterday. Mr. Artis, 35 years old, was sentenced to a..." 
  34. Rhoden, William; Levine, Richard (August 22, 1982). "Rubin Carter's Plea Rejected". New York, NY. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0C1FFE3D5C0C718EDDA10894DA484D81&scp=73&sq=rubin%20carter&st=cse. Retrieved April 17, 2010. 
  35. "Woman claims 'Hurricane' movie left out boxer's attack". February 17, 2000. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2000/feb/17/20000217-010911-1953r/?page=all. Retrieved April 20, 2014. 
  36. Michael Carlson (1937-05-06). "Guardian obituary". Theguardian.com. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/21/rubin-hurricane-carter. Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  37. Carter v. Rafferty, 826 F.2d 1299 (3rd Cir. 1987)
  38. "Court Urged to Return Rubin Carter to Prison". The New York Times. December 20, 1985. https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C01E1D6153BF933A15751C1A963948260&scp=38&sq. Retrieved January 24, 2009. "Prosecutors have petitioned a Federal appeals court to return Rubin (Hurricane) Carter to prison. A judge ordered Mr. Carter's release last month on the ground that his conviction in a 1966 triple murder had been based on racism." 
  39. "U.S. Court Refuses to Order Rubin Carter Back to Prison". The New York Times. January 19, 1986. https://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F5071FF839580C7A8DDDA80894DE484D81&scp. Retrieved January 24, 2009. "A Federal appeals court has denied a request by New Jersey prosecutors that Rubin (Hurricane) Carter be returned to prison while they appeal a dismissal of his 1977 murder conviction. A three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit here denied the request by..." 
  40. Carter v. Rafferty, 484 U.S. 1011 (1988)
  41. Raab, Selwyn (February 20, 1988). "Jersey Ends Move to Retry Rubin Carter". The New York Times. https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE2DF1E3CF933A15751C0A96E948260. Retrieved January 24, 2009. "New Jersey prosecutors said yesterday that they would not try Rubin (Hurricane) Carter and John Artis a third time for a triple-murder in a case that provoked national attention over charges that the authorities had framed both men." 
  42. "Judge Drops Murder Charges in the Hurricane Carter Case". Nytimes.com. February 27, 1988. https://www.nytimes.com/1988/02/27/nyregion/judge-drops-murder-charges-in-the-hurricane-carter-case.html?ref=rubincarter. Retrieved April 8, 2011. 
  43. "Rubin "Hurricane" Carter dead at 76". thestar.com. 20 April 2014. https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2014/04/20/rubin_hurricane_carter_dead_at_76.html. 
  44. "Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter continues to stand for what is right". Injusticebusters.org. August 13, 2004. http://injusticebusters.org/04/Carter_Rubin.shtml. Retrieved April 20, 2014. 
  45. Farnsworth, Clyde H. (April 11, 1995). "Queensville Journal; Jailed in Killing, He's Guilty Only of Being a Misfit". The New York Times. p. 4. Archived from the original on August 16, 2010. https://www.webcitation.org/5s2C5DQ15. Retrieved May 14, 2014. 
  46. "World News Briefs; American Boxer May Sue Toronto Police for Arrest". The New York Times. April 14, 1996. https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A04E0D91139F937A25757C0A960958260. Retrieved February 8, 2009. 
  47. "Wrongly convicted boxer's cancer battle". Perth Now News. March 10, 2012. http://www.perthnow.com.au/news/western-australia/wrongly-convicted-boxers-cancer-battle/story-e6frg13u-1226295939420. Retrieved April 1, 2014. 
  48. "Rubin (Hurricane) Carter faces a lonely last fight against cancer". The Globe and Mail. March 31, 2014. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/rubin-hurricane-carter-faces-a-lonely-last-fight-against-cancer/article17734346/. Retrieved April 1, 2014. 
  49. "Rubin "Hurricane" Carter has died at 76". The Globe and Mail. April 20, 2014. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/rubin-hurricane-carter-dead-at-76/article18071079/. Retrieved April 20, 2014. 
  50. "Rubin (Hurricane) Carter, Boxer Found Wrongly Convicted, Dies at 76". The New York Times. April 20, 2014. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/21/sports/rubin-hurricane-carter-fearsome-boxer-dies-at-76.html?_r=0. Retrieved April 22, 2014. 
  51. "Hurricane Carter's Dying Wish". The NY Daily News. February 21, 2014. http://www.nydailynews.com/opinion/hurricane-carter-dying-article-1.1621747. Retrieved April 22, 2014. 
  52. "Exonerated and Set Free After 29 Years". The Wall Street Journal. October 15, 2014. https://online.wsj.com/articles/wrongly-imprisoned-for-29-years-man-goes-free-in-brooklyn-1413420015?mod=e2fb. Retrieved October 16, 2014. 
  53. Maslin, Janet (January 26, 1978). "Renaldo Clara (1978) 'Renaldo and Clara,' Film by Bob Dylan:Rolling Thunder". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9A03EFD71330E631A25755C2A9679C946990D6CF. 
  54. Algren, Nelson (January 1, 2006). The Devil's Stocking. Seven Stories Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-58322-699-5. 
  55. Parmar, Raj. "Dare To Dream: Rubin "Hurricane" Carter Shares His Thoughts", 3MoreRounds.com, February 22, 2011
  56. "Rubin Carter – Boxer". Boxrec.com. http://boxrec.com/list_bouts.php?human_id=11387&cat=boxer. Retrieved April 20, 2014. 

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