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Sheikh Mohammad Anwar
Birth name Shiekh Mohammad Anwar
Born (1920-09-20)September 20, 1920
Died January 24, 1979(1979-01-24) (aged 58)
Place of birth Lahore, Punjab, British India
(Now Punjab in Pakistan)
Place of death Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
Allegiance British Raj British India
(1920–47)
 Pakistan
(1947–79)
Service/branch Naval Jack of Pakistan.svg Pakistan Navy
Years of service 1941–1977
Rank US-O7 insignia.svg10px Commodore
Service number PN No. 24
Unit Naval Operations Branch
Commands held Commander Pakistan Fleet
25th Destroyer Squadron
Pakistan Merchant Navy
Battles/wars World War II
Indo-Pakistani war of 1965
Awards Legion of Merit ribbon.svgLegion of Merit
Star*.svgSitara-i-Khidmat

Commodore Sheikh Mohammad Anwar (Urdu: شيخ محمد انور; b. 19 September 1920– 24 January 1977[1]), LOM, SK, popularly known as SM Anwar, was a one-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy who is known for his role as officer in tactical command of the 25th Destroyer Squadron that attack and raided the radar station in Dwarka in Gujarat during the second war with India in 1965.

Despite his feat, Anwar's accomplishment in the Navy was not well known. He died in Karachi in 1977. It was only in 1990s when his role as war hero was highlighted when ISPR released the telefilm of same name of operation. After much literary criticism by media and veterans, his achievements were recognized in 2010s.

Biography[]

Sheikh Mohammad Anwar was born in Lahore, Punjab, India, on 12 September 1920.:6[2] After his matriculation, he was educated at the Forman Christian College University in Lahore, graduating in 1940.:25[3]

He joined and commissioned in the Royal Indian Navy as a Sub-Lieutenant in 1941, and briefly served in World War II's Burma theatre in 1942–43.:6–7[4] After the India's partition that resulted in the independence of Pakistan on 14 August 1947, Lt Anwar joined the Pakistan Navy, and was directed to attend the Naval War College in Rhodes Island, United States, in 1958.[5] After graduating from the Naval War College in 1959, Cdr. Anwar served as an exchange officer in the United States Navy's surface warships for two months.[6] In 1960, Cdr Anwar served as base commander for the PNS Bahadur, a training establishment.[6]

In 1962, Capt. Anwar was appointed by the Ministry of Defence (MoD) for a diplomatic assignment, and briefly tenured as naval attaché at the Embassy of Pakistan in Washington, D.C. in the United States until 1964.:38[7]

In 1965, Anwar was appointed as senior fleet commander when he took over the command of the Pakistan Fleet (COMPAK).[8] During the second war with India in 1965, Cdre. Anwar was the officer in tactical command of the 25th Destroyer Squadron who led the attack and raid radar station used by the Indian Air Force in Dwarka, Gujarat in India.[8]:83[9]

In 1968, the United States honoured him with their highest military award, the Legion of Merit, presented by then-U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan Eugene Locke.:39[10]:25[11] In 1969, he was appointed as chairman of Karachi Port Trust which he remained until 1970.[12]

From 1971–75, Anwar was appointed as commandant of the Pakistan Marine Academy.[13]

Despite his role and heroic feats in 1965 war, his role in the Navy was less known and was hardly recognised in the Navy.[14] He was unknown to the public, and it was not until 1990s when the ISPR highlighted his role as a war hero when releasing the telefilm bearing the same name of operation that was aired on the STN; his role was played by Talat Hussain in the 1990s.[14][15]

His death also went unnoticed in 1977, and it was only in 2016, when the Pakistan Navy officially recognised his services on their official page on Facebook.[1]

References[]

  1. 1.0 1.1 ISPR, Navy (8 September 2016). "Pakistan Navy-Official page" (in en-pk). Islamabad, Pakistan: ISPR (Facebook). https://www.facebook.com/PakistanNavyPage/photos/a.212188338827793.47912.211341692245791/1138129902900294/?type=3. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  2. (in en) Port of Karachi Magazine. Labour Welfare Department, Karachi Port Trust.. 1968. https://books.google.com/books?id=8OZPAQAAMAAJ&dq=sm+anwar+royal+indian+navy&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=1920. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  3. "Port of Karachi Magazine" (in en). Labour Welfare Department, Karachi Port Trust.. 1969. https://books.google.com/books?id=QeNPAQAAMAAJ&dq=sm+anwar+20+september+1920&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=1920. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  4. Excerpts II. https://books.google.com/books/content?id=8OZPAQAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA6&img=1&pgis=1&dq=PARBHAVATI&sig=ACfU3U0SegB42ED7oTU0fbSOX3zfiodfpA&edge=0. 
  5. Excerpts III. https://books.google.com/books/content?id=8OZPAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA60&img=1&pgis=1&dq=War+college&sig=ACfU3U15DhpHwy0IiDmkAzfiC-csXZOr-w&edge=0. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Excerpts IV. 1969. https://books.google.com/books/content?id=8OZPAQAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA6&img=1&pgis=1&dq=War+college&sig=ACfU3U1PAkF0f7WR7tszpdHSuz4p55VjTQ&edge=0. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  7. State, United States Dept of (1962) (in en). Diplomatic List. U.S. Government Printing Office. https://books.google.com/books?id=AxIgAAAAMAAJ&q=Captain++SM+Anwar&dq=Captain++SM+Anwar&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjt3qTgqeLVAhVP9WMKHaeJDkoQ6wEILzAB. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Shabbir, Usman (June 2003). "1965 War" (in en-pk). Karachi, Pk: «  PakDef Military Consortium. http://pakdef.org/1965-war-3/. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  9. Roy, Mihir K. (1995). "Trumps and Aces" (in en-gb) (google books). War in the Indian Ocean. Delhi,India: Lancer Publishers. pp. 290. ISBN 9781897829110. https://books.google.com/books?id=Tqr8r7EB18wC&pg=PA83&dq=commodore+SM+Anwar&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwio1-2dreLVAhUXS2MKHTKbCHQQ6wEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=commodore%20SM%20Anwar&f=false. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  10. (in en) Illustrated Weekly of Pakistan. Pakistan Herald Publications. 1966. https://books.google.com/books?id=f3ccAQAAMAAJ&q=Commodore+SM+Anwar+legion&dq=Commodore+SM+Anwar+legion&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwirlcfGrOLVAhVK22MKHZAaDSgQ6wEILTAB. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  11. Excerpt VI. 1968. https://books.google.com/books/content?id=QeNPAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA25&img=1&pgis=1&dq=legion&sig=ACfU3U0OC5W_Y2CzeIb9NtQSHenYMwIwgQ&edge=0. 
  12. (in en) Port of Karachi Magazine. Labour Welfare Department, Karachi Port Trust.. 1969. https://books.google.com/books?id=QeNPAQAAMAAJ&dq=SM+Anwar+commodore+in+charge&focus=searchwithinvolume&q=SM+Anwar+. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  13. Khawaja, Hammad. "Pakistan Marine Academy". Pakistan Marine Academy. http://www.macoba.org/?author=1. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Anwar, Omar (23 September 2015). "‘The forgotten hero’" (in en-pk). DAWN.COM. Karachi: Dawn newspapers, 2015. https://www.dawn.com/news/1208763. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  15. "Operation Dwarka". ISPR Films. 7 September 2015. http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x358cbb. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 

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