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Bundesarchiv Bild 121-1500, Ukraine, Ordnungspolizei, Rayonposten Sarig

Ordnungspolizei officers visiting the Schutzmannschaft unit in Zarig (ukr), near Kiev. December 1942

Schutzmannschaft (abbr. Schuma) as well as Hilfspolizei (abbr. Hipo) were the collaborationist auxiliary police battalions of native policemen in countries occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II. Created to fight the anti-Nazi resistance, many of them participated in massacres conducted by the German Ordnungspolizei, mostly in Eastern Europe. The term Hilfspolizei refers also to auxiliary police units such as HIPO Corps in occupied Denmark, Waffen-SS divisions, Selbstschutz, etc.[1][2]

The term is mostly historical; it has been also applied to some units created in 1933 by the early Nazi government (mostly from members of SA and SS) and disbanded the same year due to international protests.[1][3][4][5][6]

Within the territories seized from the Soviet Union, the Germans utilised local police auxiliaries much more freely. These volunteers were called Hilfswilligen ("those willing to help"),[7] often abbreviated to "Hiwis". As the so-called Protective Detachments (Schutzmannschaft); they usually augmented the Order Police (Ordnungspolizei, Orpo) and Einsatzgruppen in their operations with organizational pragmatics. Eventually, they were numbered tens of thousands.[6]

The Schutzmannschaft battalions were organized by nationality at each location: Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians, Estonians, Lithuanians, Latvians, Tatars,[7] and Poles (failed attempt; with two volunteers, and forcible draft of 360 men in Kraków,[8] most of whom deserted to join the AK against the massacres of Poles in Volhynia).[9] Each battalion had an authorized strength of about 500. Everywhere, local police far outnumbered the equivalent German personnel. For example, in the Brześć Litewski area, there were 26 German gendarmerie as opposed to 308 Belorussians. In the district of Baranowicze, there were 73 German gendarmerie and 816 native auxiliaries. By 1 July 1942, eighteen-and-a-half Ukrainian Schutzmannschaft battalions had been formed, with a further three battalions set up in Belarus mainly staffed by Ukrainians. Local police units were deployed in occupied territories to Anti-partisan operations and during the Holocaust.[7]

Subsequently, as German casualties on the Eastern front mounted, many Schutzmannschaft battalions in Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine and elsewhere were joined in SS raised military divisions wearing national insignia.

Participation in the HolocaustEdit

Following Operation Barbarossa, between September 1941 and July 1944,[10] the SS began the process of recruiting collaborationist auxiliary police from among Soviet nationals in regions conquered by the Wehrmacht.[11] They were known as "Trawniki men" (German: Trawnikimänner) for deployment in all major killing sites of Operation Reinhard on Polish territories (most deadly phase of "the Final Solution") – it was their primary purpose of training. Trawnikis took an active role in the executions of Jews at Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka II, Warsaw (three times, see Stroop Report), Częstochowa, Lublin, Lwów, Radom, Kraków, Białystok (twice), Majdanek as well as at Auschwitz, not to mention Trawniki itself,[10] and the remaining subcamps of KL Lublin/Majdanek including Poniatowa, Budzyn, Kraśnik, Puławy, Lipowa, but also during massacres in Łomazy, Międzyrzec, Łuków, Radzyń, Parczew, Końskowola, Komarówka and all other locations, augmented by the SS and the Reserve Police Battalion 101 (alone, responsible for the annihilation of at least 83,000 Jews).[7][12]

Schutzmannschaften became an indispensable component of the mass execution of Jews in Nazi occupied Soviet Union. In places such as Zhitomir, Korosten, Kherson, Kakhovka, Uman and many others throughout Ukraine, local militia formed part of the killing squads. The militia were paid by the German authorities, often with funds confiscated from the Jews. Ukrainians were frequently used in the shooting of the families of Jewish men,[2] so that in Radomyshl (Radomyśl) for example, Einsatzkommando IVa could restrict itself to the killing of adult men and women. The Einsatzgruppen Operational Report USSR No.88 of September 6, 1941 records that, 1,107 Jewish adults were shot in Radomyshl while the Ukrainian militia unit assisted by liquidating 561 Jewish children and youths.[13] By December 29, 1942, a year-and-a-half after the outbreak of war with the USSR the number of Jews executed on Soviet territories with the help of Schutzmannschaften amounted to 363,211 dead (Meldung # 51 to Hitler), with 285 Schutzmänner registered as “killed in action”.[14]

SS-Gruppenführer Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski established a special department in charge of foreign Schutzmannschaften that dealt with recruitment and deployment of units for security tasks, guard duties, and labour commando management. Although numerically fewer, Belarusian Auxiliary Police were used just as intensively as were the Ukrainians, even if, as Einsatzgruppe B noted, the general Belarusian population was "incapable" of acting on its own against the Jews.[14]

Organization in Eastern EuropeEdit

Each battalion had a German command, and a projected number of four companies of 124 men each, one with a group of machine gun and three groups of infantry. In reality, the numbers varied greatly between occupied territories.

  1. Belarusian Schutzmannschaft [15]
  2. Danish Hilfspolizei [16]
  3. Estonian Schutzmannschaft [17]
  4. Latvian Schutzmannschaft (including Arajs Kommando)[18]
  5. Lithuanian Schutzmannschaft [19]
  6. Polish Schutzmannschaft [20]
  7. Russian Schutzmannschaft (later 30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Russian))[21]
  8. Ukrainian Schutzmannschaft [22]

Schuma uniforms had a Escutcheon of nationality on the right sleeve.[23][24][25] Some Schutzmannschaften were armed with Soviet rifle Mosin-Nagant 91/30, but also with Mauser Mk 98k rifles and MP38 and MP41 submachine guns.

RanksEdit

  • 1. Schutzmann (Schütze)
  • 2. Unterkorporal (Gefreiter)
  • 3. Vizekorporal (Obergefreiter)
  • 4. Korporal (Unteroffizier)
  • 5. Vizefeldwebel (Unterfeldwebel)
  • 6. Kompaniefeldwebel (Feldwebel)

Reichskommissariat Ostland (Baltic Land)Edit

The OKW's Guidelines for Special Fields (Directive No 21, Case Barbarossa) issued on March 13, 1941 in Berlin, divided the new territories following the commencement of war with the USSR, into North (Baltic), Centre (Belarus), and South (Ukraine).[26]

Generalbezirk EstlandEdit

Original German name Local name In operation Commander
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 2929. Kaitse Rindepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 2929. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Estnische Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 2929. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 3030. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Estnische Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 3030. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 3131. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Estnische Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 3131. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 3232. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Estnische Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 3232. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 3333. Kaitse Rindepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 3333. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Estnische Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 3333. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 3434. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon nr. 3434. Kaitse Rindepataljon
Estnische Polizei Front Bataillon 3434. Eesti Politsei Rindepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 3535. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Erzats Bataillon nr. 3535. Kaitse Tagavarapataljon
Polizei Erzats Bataillon 3535. Politsei Tagavarapataljon
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon nr. 3636. Kaitse Rindepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 3737. Kaitse Vahipataljon Dorpat
Estnische Polizei Bataillon 3737. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 3838. Kaitse Vahipataljon Fellin
Estnische Polizei Bataillon 3838. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon nr. 3939. Kaitse Vahipataljon Oberpahlen
Estnische Schutzmannschaft Bataillon nr. 4040. Kaitse Vahipataljon Pleskau
Estnische Polizei Bataillon 4040. Eesti Politseipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Bataillon nr. 4141. Kaitse Tagavarapataljon
Schutzmannschaft Pionier Bataillon 4242. Kaitse Pioneeripataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 286286. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 286286. Politsei Jalaväepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 287287. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Wacht Bataillon 287287. Politsei Vahipataljon
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 288288. Kaitse Rindepataljon
Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 288288. Politsei Jalaväepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 289289. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 289289. Politsei Jalaväepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 290290. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Blau Pionier Bataillon 290290. Politsei Pioneeripataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 291291. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 291291. Politsei Jalaväepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 292292. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 292292. Politsei Jalaväepataljon
Schutzmannschaft Wacht Bataillon 293293. Kaitse Vahipataljon
Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 293293. Politsei Jalaväepataljon
Estnische Polizei Füsilier Bataillon 521521. Eesti Politseipataljon
Polizei Front-Bataillon OstlandPolitsei SS-pataljon Ostland

Generalbezirk LettlandEdit

Original German name In operation Commander
Polizei z. b. V. Bataillon 1 Meiers? – October 1944
Polizei z. b. V. Bataillon 2? – October 1944
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 16 ZemgaleOctober 22, 1942 – February 8, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 16March 21, 1942 – May 18, 1942
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 17 VidzemeDecember 21, 1941 – May 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 17 RezekneMarch 18, 1942 – May 18, 1942
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 18 KurzemeJanuary 13, 1942 – May 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 18 ErgliMarch 18, 1942 – May 18, 1942
Schutzmannschaft Front Bataillon 19 LatgaleDecember 16, 1941 – January 30, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 19March 18 – May 18, 1942
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Wacht Bataillon 20 RigaApril 1942 – January 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 20 AbreneMay 9/18, 1942 –
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 21 LiepajaFebruary 25, 1942 – January 30, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 22 DaugavaFebruary 25, 1942 – February 7, 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 23 GaujaFebruary 25, 1942 – May 8, 1945
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 24 TalsiMarch 1, 1942 – April 18, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 24 VentaJune 1942 – 1942
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 25 AbavaMarch 6, 1942 – February 7, 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 25June 1942 – July 1942
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 26 TukumsMarch 6, 1942 – April 23, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 27 BurtniekiMarch 14, 1942 – April 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 28 BartaMarch 9, 1942 – July 13, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 266May 18, 1942 – November 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 267 RezekneMay 18, 1942 – June 1, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Ost Bataillon 268 ErgliMay 18, 1942 – February 3, 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Wacht Bataillon 269May 18, 1942 – June 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 270May 18, 1942 – February 18, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 271 ValmieraJanuary 15, 1943 – October 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 272 DaugavgrivaJuly 1, 1942 – April 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 273 LudzaJuly 1, 1942 – July 15, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 274October 1, 1942 – September 30, 1944
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 275October 16, 1942 – June 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 276 KuldigaDecember 17, 1942 – August 11, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 277 SiguldaDecember 17, 1942 – August 11, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 278 DobeleDecember 17, 1942 – August 11, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 279 CesuJanuary 4, 1943 – July 15, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 280 BolderajaJanuary 23 – April 9, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 281 AbreneJanuary 23, – April 9, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 282 Venta1942 – July 15, 1943
Schutzmannschaft/Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 283July 1942 – May 1944
Lettische Polizei Bataillon 283May 1944 – December 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 311 ValmieraMay 12, 1943 – July 2, 1943
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 312May 15, 1943 – August 11, 1943
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 313August 2, 1943 – February 7, 1944
Lettische Polizei Bataillon 314May 1944 – July 1944
Lettische Polizei Bataillon 315January 1944 – April 1945
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 316August 2, 1943 – February 7, 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 317October 18, 1943 – February 14, 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 318October 25, 1943 – February 14, 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 319October 25, 1943 – May 8, 1945
Lettische Polizei Wacht Bataillon 320December 21, 1943 – September 20, 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 321December 22, 1943 – February 14, 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 322July 23, 1944 – May 8, 1945
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 325March 1944 – December 1944
Lettische Polizei Front Bataillon 326March 1944 – May 1944
Lettische Polizei Bataillon 327March 1944 – April 1944
Lettische Polizei Bataillon 328March 1944 – July 1944
Lettisches Freiwilligen Polizei Regiment 1 RigaAugust 1, 1943 – November 19, 1944
Lettisches Freiwilligen Polizei Regiment 2 LiepajaFebruary 1944 – October 26, 1944
Lettisches Freiwilligen Polizei Regiment 3 CesisFebruary 1944 – August 1944

Generalbezirk LitauenEdit

[27]

Generalbezirk WeißruthenienEdit

General Government (occupied Poland)Edit

Reichskommissariat UkraineEdit

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Christopher J Ailsby (1998) (Google Books). Ss: Hell on the Eastern Front : The Waffen-Ss War in Russia 1941-1945. Zenith Imprint. ISBN 0760305382. http://books.google.com/books?id=HAMd81LJJs4C&pg=PA9&dq=Hilfspolizei&lr=&ei=v4juR-aZDpW2ygTWxsFa&sig=1e9W2AsErvNKVcgXPmL4Ml0X6kc. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ray Brandon, Wendy Lower (May 28, 2008). "Ukrainian Society, Soviet Officialdom, and the West". The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization. Indiana University Press. p. 55. ISBN 0253001595. http://books.google.ca/books?id=hyYGOyX1IQUC&pg=PA55&dq=%22battalions+of+indigenous+policemen+under+German+command%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wmrGUYG9CqGCiwKA44CAAg&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22battalions%20of%20indigenous%20policemen%20under%20German%20command%22&f=false. Retrieved 2013-06-22. 
  3. Gordon Williamson (September 2006). "World War II German Police Units". Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781846030680. http://www.ospreypublishing.com/title_detail.php/title=T0684~view=extract. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  4. David Littlejohn (1990-03-22) (Google Books). The SA 1921-45: Hitler's Stormtroopers. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0850459443. http://books.google.com/books?id=-loCEm4maE8C&pg=PA37&dq=Hilfspolizei&ei=WofuR7ieFIOOywS2y6SpAQ&sig=eegphVoUYC7cqlhmL915TsVMtRk. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  5. Richard Wires (Google Books). Terminology of the Third Reich. Ball State University. http://books.google.com/books?id=pA0fAAAAMAAJ&q=Hilfspolizei&dq=Hilfspolizei&lr=&ei=kIfuR76cIpfayASt77zGCw&pgis=1. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Spector, Robert Melvin (2005). World without civilization: mass murder and the Holocaust. University Press of America. pp. 678. http://books.google.ca/books?id=F2TzAAAAMAAJ&q=%22Ukrainische+Hilfspolizei%22&dq=%22Ukrainische+Hilfspolizei%22&hl=en&ei=Ww-wTNOcKsOlnQfev_X_BQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAzgK. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Browning, Christopher R. (1992; 1998). "Arrival in Poland" (PDF file, direct download 7.91 MB complete). Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 52, 77, 79, 80. http://hampshirehigh.com/exchange2012/docs/BROWNING-Ordinary%20Men.%20Reserve%20Police%20Battalion%20101%20and%20the%20Final%20Solution%20in%20Poland%20(1992).pdf. Retrieved May 1, 2013. "Also: PDF cache archived by WebCite." 
  8. Andrzej Solak (17-24.05.2005). "Zbrodnia w Malinie – prawda i mity (1)" (Internet Archive). Nr 29-30. Myśl Polska: Kresy. http://web.archive.org/web/20061005064715/http://www.myslpolska.icenter.pl/index.php?menu=kresy&nr=2005071718269. Retrieved 2013-06-23. "Reprint: Zbrodnia w Malinie (cz.1) Głos Kresowian, nr 20." 
  9. Jan Niewiński (2005) (Google Books search). Stosunki polsko-ukraińskie: "Głos Kresowian". Muzeum Historii Polskiego Ruchu Ludowego. pp. 491. ISBN 8360093105. http://books.google.ca/books?id=gKsjAQAAIAAJ&q=GG+Schutzmannschaftsbataillon. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Holocaust Encyclopedia. "Trawniki" (permission granted to be reused, in whole or in part, on Wikipedia; OTRS ticket no. 2007071910012533). United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007397. Retrieved July 21, 2011. "Text from USHMM has been released under the GFDL." 
  11. Tadeusz Piotrowski (2006). "Ukrainian Collaboration". Poland's Holocaust. McFarland. pp. 217. ISBN 0786429135. http://books.google.ca/books?id=NBbnrEMswbUC&lpg=PA217&dq=Trawniki&pg=PA217#v=onepage&q=Trawniki&f=false. Retrieved 2013-04-30. 
  12. ARC (2004). "Erntefest". Occupation of the East. ARC. http://www.deathcamps.org/occupation/erntefest.html. Retrieved 2013-04-26. 
  13. ARC (6 May 2005). "Volunteer Auxiliaries". Aktion Reinhard Overview. Aktion Reinhard Camps ARC. http://www.deathcamps.org/reinhard/hiwis.html. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Anders Rudling (2013). "Schooling in Murder: Schutzmannschaft Battalion 201". Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Greifswald (Germany).. http://www.academia.edu/536217/Schooling_in_Murder_Schutzmannschaft_Battalion_201_and_Hauptmann_Roman_Shukhevych_in_Belarus_1942. Retrieved 2013-06-24. "Where the partisan is, there also is the Jew, and where the Jew is, is the partisan. — von dem Bach-Zelewski" 
  15. Belarusian Research Centre of Electronic Records. [not in citation given]
  16. Emmy E. Werner (2002) (Google Books). A Conspiracy of Decency: The Rescue of the Danish Jews During World War II. Westview Press. ISBN 0813339065. http://books.google.com/books?id=OiQfwJA37CAC&pg=PA171&dq=Hilfspolizei&lr=&ei=v4juR-aZDpW2ygTWxsFa&sig=38GCC4mz2rY5rGD52bbZwa_zmyA. Retrieved 2012-11-07.  [not in citation given]
  17. "Estonian Auxiliary Police" (Google books). Germany's Eastern Front Allies (2): Baltic Forces. Osprey Publishing. May 22, 2012. http://books.google.ee/books?id=uuejV0aP_aUC&pg=PT11&lpg=PT11&dq=Estonian+Auxiliary+Police&source=bl&ots=iOrEW9zhjS&sig=yJhxDw7vY9BIfrHT-8cxcnIHKio&hl=et&sa=X&ei=KXDHUcuaHO7RigK6kIHoAg&ved=0CEwQ6AEwBQ. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  18. Operational Situation Report USSR No. 24.
  19. (Google Books) Lithuanian Hilfspolizei - My library. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?q=lithuanian+hilfspolizei&btnG=Search+Books. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  20. Grzegorz Motyka (1998). "Polski policjant na Wołyniu". Vol. 24. Karta: kwartalnik historyczny. pp. 126–128 (3 pages)..  [verification needed]
  21. Hans Siegling. Career highlights including his Schutzmannschaft Bataillon in Riga. The German police.com
  22. (Google Books) Ukrainian Hilfspolizei - My library. Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?q=ukrainian+hilfspolizei&btnG=Search+Books. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  23. Schuma uniform
  24. Krim-Tatarische Legion
  25. Pilte Hando Ruus'ist ja pataljon "Narwa" võitlejat...
  26. Alex J. Kay (2006). "Guidelines for Special Fields (13 March 1941)". Exploitation, Resettlement, Mass Murder: Political And Economic Planning for German Occupation Policy in the Soviet Union, 1940-1941. Berghahn Books. pp. 70–71. ISBN 1845451864. http://books.google.ca/books?id=l20PlJtfk0IC&pg=PA70&dq=%22Guidelines+for+Special+Fields%22+%2213+March+1941%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UavJUc6rOMbliwK33oHABA&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=%22Guidelines%20for%20Special%20Fields%22%20%2213%20March%201941%22&f=false. Retrieved 2013-06-25. 
  27. От "партизанских отрядов" к шуцманшафту. Холокост по-литовски

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