|Second United States Army|
Second United States Army shoulder sleeve insignia
15 October 1918 – 15 April 1919; |
20 October 1933 – 1 January 1966;
1 October 2010 – present
|Motto(s)||"Second To None"|
|Engagements||World War I|
|George Windle Read, Jr.|
|Distinctive Unit Insignia||150px|
Second United States Army was originally formed 15 October 1918 during World War I. It functioned as a training and administrative headquarters until being deactivated 15 April 1919. It operated 1933 to 1966, training and organizing troops for overseas deployment during World War II. It later operated under U.S. Army Forces Command as a regional command to control Army Reserve forces 1983 to 1995. Second Army was reactivated on 1 October 2010 as U.S. Army Cyber Command/Second Army, it is based at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.
History[edit | edit source]
World War I[edit | edit source]
Second Army's task during the First World War was to hold the line a short distance east of the Moselle River in France following the end of the Saint-Mihiel offensive along the Western Front. The army was also tasked with reinforcing units from the active-in-combat soldiers of the U.S. First Army.
On 10 November, Second Army advanced on German positions, already in disorder and retreating. Word did not reach the units advancing until after eleven-hundred hours on 11 November, making it one of the last units to fight to the very conclusion of the war. On 15 April 1919, Second Army was deactivated.
Subordinate units[edit | edit source]
Along the line[edit | edit source]
- U.S. 33rd Division (Illinois National Guard)
- U.S. 28th Division (Pennsylvania National Guard)
- U.S. 7th Division (Regular Army)
- U.S. 92nd Division (United States Colored Troops)
In reserve[edit | edit source]
- U.S. 4th Division (Regular Army)
- U.S. 35th Division (Missouri and Kansas National Guard)
- one brigade, U.S. 88th Division (Minnesota and North Dakota National Guard)
World War II[edit | edit source]
Second United States Army was reactivated on 1 October 1933 under a plan developed by then-Army Chief of Staff Douglas MacArthur to consolidate forces in the continental United States under four regional army commands. It was headquartered in Memphis, Tennessee. In 1940, with the activation of Army General Headquarters (succeeded by Army Ground Forces in 1942), the four field armies were given responsibility for training forces in their respective areas and conducting maneuvers to evaluate training and readiness. In September 1941, Second U.S. Army participated in large-scale maneuvers pitting it against Third U.S. Army in what were known as the Louisiana Maneuvers. Over 350,000 troops took part. Also in 1941, four regional defense commands were established coterminous with the army areas, and the Commander, Second U.S. Army became also Commanding General, Central Defense Command.
With First and Fourth Armies be given primary responsibility for defense of the eastern and western coasts of the United States, and later with First Army's relocation to England to command U.S. Army forces in the invasion of France, Second and Third Armies assumed increasing responsibility for the training and organization of the rapidly expanding army and preparing troops for overseas deployment. When Third Army headquarters was relocated to France in 1944 to serve as a combat command, Second Army assumed its stateside responsibilities as well.
Second U.S. Army was commanded from 1940 to 1943 by Lt. Gen. Ben Lear. He was succeeded by Lt. Gen. Lloyd Fredendall after Fredendall's removal from command in North Africa. General Fredendall held command until war's end.
Post-World War II[edit | edit source]
In November 1964, as an effort to reorganize military operations, the Department of the Army announced the closure of Fort Jay at Governors Island New York and the relocation of U.S. First Army to Fort Meade, Maryland. First and Second Armies would merge and Second Army subsequently inactivated. It had been proposed that First Army be inactivated, but its commander Lt. General Robert W. Porter, Jr. strongly protested the proposal and it was dropped. In the end, Second Army headquarters staff were retained and became the new staff for U.S. First Army. On 1 January 1966 at Fort Meade, Second Army was deactivated and its colors cased by commander, Lt. General William F. Train who then assumed command of U.S. First Army.
Second Army was reactivated on 1 October 1983 under U.S. Army Forces Command as a regional command to control Army Reserve forces in the southeastern United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was headquartered at Fort Gillem, Georgia. It was again deactivated on 3 July 1995 with First Army once again assuming its functions. First Army was then relocated to Fort Gillem.
Current[edit | edit source]
On 1 October 2010, Second Army was again re-activated as United States Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER)/Second Army. The new command is based out of Fort Belvoir, Virginia and a part of the larger, U.S. Cyber Command (CYBERCOM). Lieutenant General Rhett A. Hernandez became the first commander of the newly reactivated Army.
Past Commanders[edit | edit source]
|Date Began||Date Ended||Commanding General|
|15 October 1918||15 April 1919||Robert Lee Bullard|
|20 October 1939||25 April 1943||Ben Lear|
|25 April 1943||7 May 1945||Lloyd Fredendall|
|1945 October||1946 November||William Simpson|
|1948 January||1950 July||Leonard T. Gerow|
|10 August 1950||11 April 1951||James Alward Van Fleet|
|11 April 1951||1953 April||Edward H. Brooks|
|1953||1956||Floyd L. Parks|
|1957||1960||George Windle Read, Jr.|
|2010||2013||Rhett A. Hernandez|
|2013||present||Edward C. Cardon|
See also[edit | edit source]
- U.S. Army Cyber Command
- Army Network Enterprise Technology Command / 9th Army Signal Command
- 1st Information Operations Command (Land)
- United States Army Intelligence and Security Command
References[edit | edit source]
- US Army (1 October 2010). "Army establishes Army Cyber Command". army.mil. http://www.army.mil/-news/2010/10/01/46012-army-establishes-army-cyber-command/. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
-  Army Ground Forces, Study No. 1
-  Army Ground Forces, Study No. 1
- "News Release: Army Forces Cyber Command Headquarters Standup Plan Announced". Defense.gov. http://www.defense.gov//releases/release.aspx?releaseid=13549. Retrieved 10 July 2010.
Ray, Max (1980). The History of the First United States Army From 1918 to 1980. Fort Meade MD: First United States Army. pp. 120, 124.
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