|Marshal Semyon Timoshenko|
|People's Commissar for Defense of the Soviet Union|
7 May 1940 – 19 July 1941
|Preceded by||Kliment Voroshilov|
|Succeeded by||Joseph Stalin|
|Born||Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko|
18 February 1895
Furmanivka, Bessarabia Governorate, Russian Empire
|Died||31 March 1970 (aged 75)|
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Political party||Communist Party of the Soviet Union|
|Allegiance|| Russian Empire|
|Service/branch||Russian Imperial Army|
|Years of service||1914 – 1960|
|Commands||Kiev Military District|
Belorussian Military District
|Battles/wars||World War I|
Russian Civil War
Great Patriotic War / World War II
Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (Russian: Семён Константи́нович Тимоше́нко, Semën Konstantinovič Timošenko; Ukrainian language: Семе́н Костянти́нович Тимоше́нко , Semen Kostiantynovych Tymoshenko) (18 February [O.S. 6 February] 1895 – 31 March 1970) was a Ukrainian military commander and senior professional officer of the Red Army at the beginning of the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.
Early life[edit | edit source]
Military career[edit | edit source]
First World War[edit | edit source]
In 1914, he was drafted into the army of the Russian Empire and served as a cavalryman on Russia's western front (commonly referred to in Western European and American sources as the Eastern Front given the geographical perspective of nations west of Germany). On the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917, he sided with the bolsheviks, joining the Red Army in 1918 and the Bolshevik Party in 1919.
The Russian Civil War and the 1930s[edit | edit source]
During the Russian Civil War, Timoshenko fought on various fronts. His most important encounter occurred at Tsaritsyn (later renamed Stalingrad, and now Volgograd), where he met and befriended Joseph Stalin. This would ensure his rapid advancement after Stalin gained control of the Communist Party by the end of the 1920s. In 1920–1921, Timoshenko served under Semyon Budyonny in the 1st Cavalry Army; he and Budyonny would become the core of the "Cavalry Army clique" which, under Stalin's patronage, would dominate the Red Army for many years.
By the end of the Civil and Polish-Soviet Wars, Timoshenko had become commander of the Red Army cavalry forces. Thereafter, under Stalin, he became Red Army commander in Belarus (1933); in Kiev (1935); in the northern Caucasus and then Kharkov (1937); and Kiev again (1938). In 1939, he was given command of the entire western border region and led the Ukrainian Front during the Soviet occupation of eastern Poland. He also became a member of the Communist Party's Central Committee. As a loyal friend, Timoshenko survived Stalin's Great Purge, to be left as the Red Army's senior professional soldier.
The Winter War[edit | edit source]
In January 1940, Timoshenko took charge of the Soviet armies fighting Finland in the Soviet-Finnish War. This had begun the previous November, under the disastrous command of Kliment Voroshilov. Under Timoshenko's leadership, the Soviets succeeded in breaking through the Finnish Mannerheim Line on the Karelian Isthmus, prompting Finland to sue for peace in March. His reputation increased, Timoshenko was made the People's Commissar for Defence and a Marshal of the Soviet Union in May. John Erickson writes: "Although by no means a military intellectual, Timoshenko had at least passed through the higher command courses of the Red Army and was a fully trained 'commander-commissar'. During the critical period of the military purge, Stalin had used Timoshenko as a military district commander who could hold key appointments while their incumbents were liquidated or exiled."
Timoshenko was a competent but traditionalist military commander who nonetheless saw the urgent need to modernise the Red Army if, as expected, it was to fight a war against Nazi Germany. Overcoming the opposition of other more conservative leaders, he undertook the mechanisation of the Red Army and the production of more tanks. He also reintroduced much of the traditional harsh discipline of the Tsarist Russian Army.
World War II[edit | edit source]
When the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941, Stalin took over the post of Defence Commissar and sent Timoshenko to the Central Front to conduct a fighting retreat from the border to Smolensk. In September, he was transferred to Ukraine, where the Red Army had suffered 1.5 million casualties while encircled at Uman and Kiev.
In May 1942, Timoshenko, with 640,000 men, launched a counter-offensive (the Second Battle of Kharkov) which was the first Soviet attempt to gain the initiative in the war. After initial Soviet successes, the Germans struck back at Timoshenko's exposed southern flank, halting the offensive and turning the battle into a Soviet defeat.
General Georgy Zhukov's success in defending Moscow during December 1941 had persuaded Stalin that he was a better commander than Timoshenko. Stalin removed Timoshenko from front-line command, giving him roles as overall commander of the Stalingrad (June 1942), then North-Western (October 1942), Leningrad (June 1943), Caucasus (June 1944) and Baltic (August 1944)[specify]
Postwar[edit | edit source]
After the war, Timoshenko was reappointed commander of the Baranovichi Military District (Belorussian Military District since March 1946), then of the South Urals Military District (June 1946); and then the Belorussian Military District once again (March 1949). Primo Levi mentions the arrival of Timoshenko at Starye Dorogi holding camp in September 1945, to announce their repatriation, in his book The Truce. In 1960, he was appointed Inspector-General of the Defence Ministry, a largely honorary post. From 1961 he chaired the State Committee for War Veterans. He died in Moscow in 1970.
Awards[edit | edit source]
- Russian Empire
- Cross of St. George, 2nd, 3rd and 4th classes
- Soviet Union
- Hero of the Soviet Union (21 March 1940, 18 February 1965)
- Order of Victory (№ 11 - 06/04/1945)
- Five Orders of Lenin (22 February 1938, 21 March 1940, 21 February 1945, 18 February 1965, 18 February 1970)
- Order of the October Revolution (22 February 1968)
- Order of the Red Banner, five times (25 July 1920, 11 May 1921, 22 February 1930, 3 November 1944, 6 November 1947)
- Order of Suvorov, 1st class, three times (9 October 1943, 12 September 1944, 27 April 1945)
- Honorary revolutionary weapon - a sword with a nominal Order of the Red Banner (28 November 1920)
- Honor inscribed sword with a gold National Emblem of the Soviet Union (22 February 1968)
- Medal "For the Defence of Moscow"
- Medal "For the Defence of Stalingrad"
- Medal "In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow"
- Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
- Jubilee Medal "XX Years of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army"
- Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy"
- Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
- Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
- Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941-1945"
- Foreign awards
- Order of the Tudor Vladimirescu, 1st class (Romania)
- Military Order of the White Lion "For Victory" (Czechoslovakia)
- Golden Order of the Partisan Star (Yugoslavia)
- Medal "30 Years of Victory in the Khalkhin-Gol" (Mongolia)
|People's Commissar of Defense
References[edit | edit source]
- John Erickson, The Road to Stalingrad: Stalin's War with Germany, Vol. 1 (Yale University Press, 1999: ISBN 0-300-07812-9), pp. 96, 107.
- Aleksandr Kolesnik, Хроника жизни семьи Сталина [Chronicle of the life of Stalin's family] (Interbuk, 1990), p. 108.