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Sieges of Baghdad
Date812-813, 865-866, 946, 1157, 1258, 1401, 1534, 1624, 1638, 1917, 1941, 2003
LocationBaghdad, Iraq

Black flag.svg Forces of Al-Ma'mun

Black flag.svg Al-Mu'tazz (Samarra)

Buyid amirate of Iraq

Black flag.svg Abbasid Caliphate

Flag of Ayyubid Dynasty.svg Ayyubid dynasty

Timurid.svg Timurid Empire

Safavid Flag.png Safavid Empire

 British Empire

Iraq Iraqi Government Supported by:
 United Kingdom

United States
 United Kingdom
(Air Support)

Black flag.svg Forces of Al Amin

Black flag.svg Al-Musta'in (Baghdad)

Hamdanid amirate of Mosul

22px Seljuqs of Hamadan
Zengids of Mosul

Mongol Empire

Rubenid Flag.svg Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia
Flag of Kingdom of Georgia.svg Kingdom of Georgia
Armoiries Bohémond VI d'Antioche.svg Principality of Antioch
Mongolian China

Fictitious Ottoman flag 3.svg  Ottoman Empire

Iraq Golden Square Supported by:
 Nazi Germany

Commanders and leaders

Black flag.svg Al-Ma'mun
Black flag.svg Tahir ibn Husayn
Black flag.svg Harthama ibn A'yan
Black flag.svg Zuhayr ibn al-Musayyab al-Dabbi

Black flag.svg Abu Ahmad al-Muwaffaq
Black flag.svg Kalbatikin al-Turki,
Black flag.svg Muhammad b. Rashid al-Maghribi

Mu'izz al-Dawla
Abu Ja'far Saymari

Black flag.svg Al-Muqtafi

Black flag.svg Al-Musta'sim
Black flag.svg Mujaheduddin
Black flag.svg Sulaiman Shah
Black flag.svg Qarasunqur

Timurid.svg Timur

Safavid Flag.png Tekkelu Muhammad Sultan Khan
Safavid Flag.png Abbas I of Persia
Safavid Flag.png Qrar Chay Khan
Safavid Flag.png Bektas Khan

United Kingdom Frederick Maude

Iraq 'Abd al-Ilah
Iraq Taha al-Hashimi

United States George W. Bush
United States Tommy Franks
United Kingdom Tony Blair
United Kingdom Brian Burridge

Black flag.svg Al-Amin
Black flag.svg Abd al-Rahman ibn Jabala
Black flag.svgMuhammad ibn Yazid al-Muhallabi
Black flag.svg al-Samarqandi

Black flag.svg Muhammad b. 'Abdallah
Black flag.svg Wasif
Black flag.svg Bugha al-Sharabi
Black flag.svg Abu 'l-Saj Dewdad

Nasir al-Dawla
Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Shirzad
Abu 'Abdallah Husayn b. Sa'id

22px Muhammad II ibn Mahmud
Qutb ad-Din Mawdud of Mosul

Hulagu Khan
Koke Ilge

Fictitious Ottoman flag 3.svg Suleiman the Magnificent

Fictitious Ottoman flag 3.svg Murad IV
Fictitious Ottoman flag 3.svg Hassan Pasha
Fictitious Ottoman flag 3.svg Bakersoo Bashi

Fictitious Ottoman flag 3.svg Murat IV
Fictitious Ottoman flag 3.svg Grand Vizier Tayyar Mehmet Pasha

Ottoman Empire Khalil Pasha

Iraq Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
IraqSalah al-Din al-Sabbagh
Iraq Kamal Shabib
Iraq Fahmi Said
Iraq Mahmud Salman

Saddam Hussein
Iraq Qusay Hussein
Iraq Sayf al-Din al-Rawi
Iraq Ra'ad al-Hamdani

At least 19,000

7000+ unknown number of militias (including Ahdath, Ayyārs and Naffatuns)


300 troops still loyal to the Safavids and the city commander

40,000 infantry
211 fortified city towers
100 cannons

I Corps
III Corps (50,000 men)

Royal Guard


30,000 Seljuqs


Deserted Safavid troops and army that Suleiman brought in winter to Baghdad

35,000 infantry
73,000 cavalry
200 cannons
not in combat: 8,000 (lağımcı) miners and sappers
24,000 (beldar) military laborers

Sixth Army (25,000 men)

3rd Infantry Division
1st Infantry Division
Independent Mechanized Brigade

Casualties and losses




50,000 soldiers
200,000–800,000 civilians (Western sources)
2,000,000 civilians (Arab sources)

Entire garrison

Unknown, but small

34 killed
1 A-10 Thunderbolt II shot down
2 M1 Abrams tanks destroyed
17 unarmored vehicles destroyed


Unknown but heavy

Unknown but believed to be minimal


Over 9,000 taken prisoner

1,700–2,120 killed (Independent estimate)
2,320 killed (U.S. military estimate)

There have been at least 8 major sieges of Baghdad.

Abbasid caliphate[edit | edit source]

  • In 812, Caliph Al Ma'mun sent his general Tahir ibn Husayn to capture Baghdad and depose his brother Caliph Al Amin. The siege was successful; Taher captured the city and executed the caliph.
  • The Siege of Baghdad (1157) in which the Seljuqs of Hamadan along with the Zengid of Mosul unsuccessfully besieged Baghdad.
  • The Siege of Baghdad (1258) was a victory for the Mongol leader Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. who captured Baghdad and burnt it to the ground.

Ottoman Empire[edit | edit source]

Modern era[edit | edit source]

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