|Siegfried von Forstner|
|File:File:Siegfried von Forstner.jpg|
|Born||19 September 1910|
|Died||13 October 1943(aged 33)|
|Place of birth||Hannover|
|Place of death||Atlantic Ocean †|
Weimar Republic (to 1933)|
|Years of service||1930–1943|
posthumously promoted to Fregattenkapitän
survey vessel Meteor
cruiser Admiral Scheer
|Awards||Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross|
Korvettenkapitän Siegfried Freiherr von Forstner[a] (19 September 1910 – 13 October 1943[b]) was a German U-boat commander during World War II. He was also a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German language: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes). The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership. He and his entire crew of U-402 were killed in action on 13 October 1943.
Background[edit | edit source]
Von Forstner was the son of an aristocratic Prussian family whose men had served for generations as Army and Navy officers. His younger brother Wolfgang Friedrich (*1916) was also a U-boat commander, and two other brothers (Ernst Richard and Hans Dietrich) were Army officers. Wolfgang was the only brother to survive World War II. Their great-grandfather and grandfather had been army officers, and their father was a general, Ernst Freiherr von Forstner (1869–1950), who had won the Pour le Mérite with cluster as a regimental commander during World War I. Their uncle George Gunther von Forstner had commanded U-1 and U-28 during World War I, and another uncle of the Imperial Navy had died in that conflict.
Career[edit | edit source]
Siegfried von Forster joined the Kriegsmarine in 1930 and served four years on the German cruiser Nürnberg following training as an artillery technical officer. Many of his year group were already at sea in submarines when he entered U-boat school in 1940. Von Forstner received training as a student commander aboard U-99 under his Naval School classmate Otto Kretschmer. After a 5-month tour in U-59, von Forstner assumed command of U-402. Von Forstner carried out eight combat patrols in U-402 sinking 14 merchantmen and one warship and damaging three other ships.
Von Forstner married in Hamburg in December, 1940, while waiting to take command of U-402. His wife Annamaria made distinctive red pom-poms for the crew of U-402 to wear on their uniform hats. The Baron and Baroness saved their home in Hamburg from burning during August, 1943, air-raids by staying on the roof and extinguishing incendiary bombs.
No ships were sunk during the first U-402 patrol from 26 October 1941 to 9 December 1941. On the second patrol von Forstner damaged the 12000-ton troopship Llangibby Castle off the Bay of Biscay on 16 January 1942 but the damaged troopship was able to make repairs in the Azores.
Von Forstner then made two patrols off the Atlantic coast of the United States. He sank a 4800-ton ship en route and then sank the 5300-ton Russian tanker Ashkabad and the 1000-ton converted yacht USS Cythera (PY-26) off Cape Hatteras on 2 May 1942. On the next patrol, U-402 was depth charged by patrol bombers off Cape Hatteras in mid-July and suffered a battery explosion.
Von Forstner received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for torpedoing twelve ships from convoy SC 107 and convoy SC 118. Baron von Forstner sank two ships during a submerged daylight attack on convoy SC 129 before U-402 was depth charged and damaged by the corvette Gentian.
Baron von Forstner shot down an attacking RAF 172 Squadron Vickers Wellington bomber over the Bay of Biscay following departure for his last patrol on 4 September 1943. U-402 provided flak protection for U-377 when the latter was attacked by a B-24 Liberator bomber during the battle of Convoy ON 202. A U-boat believed by the Allied Anti-Submarine Assessment Committee to be U-402 was sunk with all hands on 13 October 1943 by a Mark 24 FIDO Torpedo dropped by TBF Avenger aircraft from USS Card (CVE-11).
Summary of career[edit | edit source]
Ships attacked[edit | edit source]
As a U-boat commander of U-402 Siegfried von Forstner is credited with the sinking of 14 ships for a total of 70,434 gross register tons (GRT), further damaging three ships of 28,682 GRT and sinking one auxiliary warship of 602 metric tons (592 long tons; 664 short tons).
|16 May 1941||Llangibby Castle||Great Britain||11,951||Damaged|
|13 April 1942||Empire Progress||Great Britain||5,249||Sunk|
|30 April 1942||Ashkhabad||Soviet Union||5,284||Sunk|
|2 May 1942||USS Cythera||USA||602||Sunk|
|2 November 1942||Dalcroy||Great Britain||4,558||Sunk|
|2 November 1942||Empire Antelope||Great Britain||4,945||Sunk|
|2 November 1942||Empire Leopard||Great Britain||5,676||Sunk|
|2 November 1942||Empire Sunrise||Great Britain||7,459||Damaged|
|2 November 1942||Rinos||Greece||4,649||Sunk|
|7 February 1942||Afrika||Great Britain||8,597||Sunk|
|7 February 1942||Daghild||Norway||9,272||Damaged|
|7 February 1942||Henry R. Mallory||USA||6,063||Sunk|
|7 February 1942||Kalliopi||Greece||4,695||Sunk|
|7 February 1942||Robert E. Hopkins||Great Britain||6,625||Sunk|
|7 February 1942||Toward||Great Britain||1,571||Sunk|
|8 February 1942||Newton Ash||Great Britain||1,571||Sunk|
|11 May 1943||Antigone||Great Britain||4,545||Sunk|
|11 May 1943||Grado||Norway||3,082||Sunk|
Awards[edit | edit source]
- Wehrmacht Long Service Award 4th Class (2 October 1936)
- Sudetenland Medal (20 December 1938)
- Iron Cross (1939)
- Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 9 February 1943 as Kapitänleutnant and commander of U-402
Footnotes[edit | edit source]
- a Regarding personal names: Freiherr is a former title (translated as Baron), which is now legally a part of the last name. The female forms are Freifrau and Freiin.
- b Sources are inconclusive with respect to date of death. Some sources indicate that von Forstner succumbed to his injuries on 22 October 1943 nine days after the sinking of U-402 on 13 October 1943.
References[edit | edit source]
- Waters December 1966 p.99
- Waters 1967 p.260
- Waters 1967 p.266
- Waters 1967 p.267
- Blair 1996 pp.489-492
- Blair 1996 p.544
- Blair 1998 p.329
- Blair 1998 pp.420&762
- Waters 1967 p.268
- Blair 1998 p.432
- Cressman 2000 p.187
- Kafka & Pepperburg 1946 p.1085
- Lenton 1976 p.180
- Taylor 1967 p.125
- Waters December 1966 p.105
- Waters 1967 p.269
- Busch and Röll 2003, p. 315.
- Scherzer 2007, p. 314.
- Fellgiebel 2000, p. 184.
- Kurowski 1995, p. 57.
- Range 1974, p. 78.
- Blair, Clay (1996). Hitler's U-Boat War - The Hunters 1939-1942. Random House. ISBN 0-394-58839-8.
- Blair, Clay (1998). Hitler's U-Boat War The Hunted 1942-1945. Random House. ISBN 0-679-45742-9.
- Busch, Hans-Joachim; Röll (2003) (in German). Der U-Boot-Krieg 1939–1945 — Die Ritterkreuzträger der U-Boot-Waffe von September 1939 bis Mai 1945 [The U-Boat War 1939–1945 — The Knight's Cross Bearers of the U-Boat Force from September 1939 to May 1945]. Hamburg, Berlin, Bonn Germany: Verlag E.S. Mittler & Sohn. ISBN 978-3-8132-0515-2.
- Cressman, Robert J. (2000). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-149-1.
- Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) (in German). Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtsteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches]. Friedburg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
- Kafka, Roger and Pepperburg, Roy L. (1946). Warships of the World. Cornell Maritime Press.
- Kurowski, Franz (1995). Knight's Cross Holders of the U-Boat Service. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-88740-748-2.
- Lenton, H.T. (1976). German Warships of the Second World War. Arco Publishing Company. ISBN 0-668-04037-8.
- Range, Clemens (1974). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Kriegsmarine [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Navy]. Stuttgart, Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87943-355-1.
- Scherzer, Veit (2007) (in German). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives]. Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
- Taylor, J.C. (1967). German Warships of the World War II. Doubleday & Company.
- Waters, John M. Jr., CAPT USCG (December 1966). "Stay Tough". United States Naval Institute Proceedings.
- Waters, John M. Jr., CAPT USCG (1967). Bloody Winter. Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Company.
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