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George Hamilton
George Hamilton, portrait engraved by W. N. Gardiner
Died June 1676
Col de Saverne, France
Nationality Irish
Occupation Soldier (army officer)

George Hamilton, comte d'Hamilton (died 1676) was a 17th-century Irish soldier in English and French service and a courtier at Charles II's Whitehall.

At Whitehall he was a favourite of the King. He courted La belle Stuart and married Frances Jennings, the future Lady Tyrconnell, who was then a maid of honour of the Duchess of York. He appears in the Mémoires du comte de Grammont, written by his brother Anthony.

He began his military career as an officer in the Life Guards but was dismissed in an anti-Catholic purge in 1667, upon which he took French service and commanded an English and Irish regiment in the Franco-Dutch War (1672–1678). He served under Turenne at the battles of Sinsheim and Entzheim in 1674. He also fought at Sasbach (1675) where Turenne was killed. He then covered the retreat at Altenheim. He was killed while serving under Luxembourg at the Col de Saverne in 1676. His final rank was Maréchal de camp.

Birth and origins[]

George was born about 1635[1][2][lower-alpha 1] in Ulster, Ireland. He was one of the nine children[3] and the second of the six sons of George Hamilton and his wife Mary Butler. His father was Scottish, the fourth son of James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn, and would in 1660 be created Baronet of Donalong and Nenagh. George's mother was Irish, a member of the Butler dynasty, an influential Old English family in southern Ireland. She was the third daughter of Thomas Butler, Viscount Thurles and a sister of the future 1st Duke of Ormond.[4]

He appears below among his siblings as the second child:

  1. James (c. 1630 – 1673), who became ranger of Hyde Park and lost a leg in a sea-fight;[5]
  2. George (died 1676), the subject of this article;
  3. Elizabeth (1641–1708), who was a famous beauty and married Philibert de Gramont;[6]
  4. Anthony (c. 1645 – 1719), who fought for the Jacobites and wrote the Mémoires du comte de Grammont;[7]
  5. Thomas (died 1687), who served in the Royal Navy and died in Boston, Massachusetts;[8][9][10]
  6. Richard (died 1717), who fought for the Jacobites and was taken prisoner at the Boyne;[11]
  7. John (died 1691), who fought for the Jacobites and fell at Aughrim;[12]
  8. Lucia (died 1676), who married Sir Donough O'Brien, 1st Baronet;[13] and
  9. Margaret, who married Mathew Forde of Seaforde.[14]

His place of birth was probably on the Dunnalong (or Donalong) estate, which was his father's share of the land granted to his grandfather Abercorn during the Plantation of Ulster.[16]

Both his parents were Catholic, but some relatives, on his father's as on his mother's side, were Protestants. His grandfather, James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn, had been a Protestant,[17] but his father and all his paternal uncles were raised as Catholics due to the influence of his paternal grandmother, Marion Boyd, a recusant.[18] Some branches of the Hamilton family were Protestant, such as that of his father's second cousin Gustavus (1642–1723). His mother's family, the Butlers, were generally Catholic with the notable exception of the future 1st Duke of Ormond, his maternal uncle. His eldest brother, James, would turn Protestant when marrying Elizabeth Colepeper in 1661.[19] His brother Thomas seems to have made the same choice as he became a captain in the Royal Navy.[20]

Irish wars and first exile[]

His father, Sir George Hamilton, served in the Irish army and fought for the royalists under his uncle James Butler, Earl of Ormond, in the Irish Confederate Wars (1641–1648) and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (1649-1653) until he followed Ormond into exile in 1651.[21]

His uncle Claud had lived in the Castle of Strabane until his death in 1638. In 1641 Phelim O'Neill burned the Castle of Strabane during the Rebellion and took his aunt Jean, Claud's widow, prisoner.[22]

He was about 11 on 17 September 1646, when Owen Roe O'Neil, who had taken over from Phelim as leader of the Confederate Ulster army, captured Roscrea Castle where he lived. The confederates spared him, his siblings, and his mother but put everybody else in the castle to the sword.[23][24] Owen O'Neill was leading his army south after his victory over the Scottish Covenanters at Benburb in June and was now attacking the royalists as directed by Rinuccini, the papal nuncio.[25][26]

His father was governor of Nenagh Castle, 30 kilometres (19 mi) west of Roscrea, in October 1650 when the Parliamentarian army under Henry Ireton attacked and captured the castle on the way back from the unsuccessful siege of Limerick to their winter quarters at Kilkenny.[27]

In spring 1651, when he was about 16, his family followed Ormond into French exile.[28] They first went to Caen[29] where they were accommodated for some time by the Marchioness of Ormond. He then became a page to Charles II,[30][31] and was knighted in due course.[32] His father was employed in various missions for Ormond and the King and his mother found shelter in the convent of the Feuillantines in Paris, together with her sister Eleanor Butler, Lady Muskerry.[33]

Restoration[]

At the Restoration, Georg Hamilton was accepted into the Life Guards that Charles II and the Duke of York established, early in 1660 in preparation of their return to London in June.[34] He served in the King's troop,[35] which was commanded by Charles Gerard as Captain and Colonel.[36] George was an officer rather than a private.[37]

In addition to his military duties, he attended the court at Whitehall where he, like his brothers James and Anthony, and his sister Elizabeth, were part of to the inner circle around the King. In January 1663 arrived in London Philibert, chevalier de Gramont,[38] who had been exiled by Louis XIV because he had courted Mademoiselle Anne-Lucie de la Mothe-Houdancourt, on whom the King had set his eyes.[39][40][41][lower-alpha 2] De Gramont was welcome at the court as he came from the court of which Whitehall was the imitation. He had no difficulties to integrate as French was the predominant language at the English Restoration court.[43]

At the court George met Elizabeth Wetenhall and fell in love with her, but she was married.[44] He then courted Frances Stewart, called "La belle Stuart" or the "fair Stuart", a maid of honour of the Queen,[45] Catherine of Braganza. De Gramont warned George about courting the fair Stuart as the King had set his eyes on her.[46] Then he met and courted Frances Jennings, a maid of honour of Anne Hyde, the Duchess of York.[47]

Marriage and children[]

In 1665 he married Frances Jennings.[48][49] The King granted the couple a pension of £500 per year.[50] His marriage is the sixth of the seven marriages with which end the Memoirs of Count Grammont.[51] The couple had three daughters:

  1. Elizabeth (1667–1724), who married Richard Parsons, 1st Viscount Rosse in 1685, and was mother of Richard Parsons, 1st Earl of Rosse;[52][53]
  2. Frances (died 1751), who married Henry Dillon, 8th Viscount Dillon in 1687;[54][55][56] and
  3. Mary (1676–1736), who married Nicholas Barnewall, 3rd Viscount Barnewall in 1688.[57][58]

The eldest was born in England in 1667 and baptised on 21 March at St Margaret's, Westminster in an Anglican ceremony.[59] The other two were born in France and were brought up as Catholics. All three married Irish viscounts and were therefore known as the "three Viscountesses".[60]

Second exile and death[]

On 28 September 1667 in an increasingly anti-Catholic political climate, the King felt obliged to dismiss from his Life Guards the Catholics who refused to take the Oath of supremacy, among them, Hamilton.[61] The king arranged with Louis XIV that Hamilton would be made the captain-lieutenant of a company of gens d'armes under Louis's direct command as captain.[62]

His wife followed him to France and converted to the Catholic religion.[63] She stayed in Paris. During the Franco-Dutch War (1672–1678) he commanded an English and Irish regiment.[64] First he fought under Turenne until 1675, then under his successor Condé and finally under Luxembourg.

In February 1674 England and the Netherlands concluded by the Treaty of Westminster (1674) which ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War. This peace did not affect George as he served under French command.

George fought under Turenne in the battles of Sinsheim in June 1674, and Entzheim in October against the Imperialists under the Duke von Bournonville.[65] At Entzheim the Régiment d'Hamilton fought on the right wing. He and his brother Anthony were wounded.[66] George's and Anthony's wounds and the voyage to England, described below, undertaken by the three brothers, caused them to miss Turenne's winter campaign 1674/1675, during which the French marched south and surprised the Imperialists by launching a surprise attack on Upper Alsace, which culminated in Turenne's victory at the Battle of Turckheim on 5 January 1675.[67]

In March 1675 he visited England with his younger brothers Anthony and Richard, who had also taken French service. George returned to France from England, but Anthony and Richard continued to Ireland to recruit for the regiment.[68] The recruits were picked up by French ships at Kinsale in April[69] after a missed appointment at Dingle in March.[70]

On 27 July 1675 George fought at Sasbach (or Salzbach), where Turenne was killed.[71] The French army retreated pursued by the imperial army under Montecuccoli resulting in rearguard actions known as the Battle of Altenheim. In this the French army was commanded by the comte Guy Aldonce de Durfort de Lorges and the marquis de Vaubrun, who is slain in the battle.[72] George and his unit were part of the rearguard under Boufflers.[73] After this the command passed to Condé and finally to Luxembourg. George was killed in June 1676 while commanding Luxembourg's rear-guard at the Col de Saverne where imperial troops under Charles V, Duke of Lorraine pursued the French who were retreating eastward to Saverne in lower Alsace.[74][75][76]

Notes and references[]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Strictly speaking, his birth date is constrained by the marriage of his parents (mid 1629),[89] minus the gestation of his eldest brother James, and the date of birth of his sister Elizabeth (1641).[77]
  2. The girl courted by Louis and Philibert in 1662 was Anne-Lucie de La Motte-Houdancourt, who would marry fr (René-François de La Vieuville) in 1676. Walpole, when translating the Mémoires du comte de Gramont into English, confused her with fr (Anne-Madeleine de Conty d'Argencourt), who had been a lesser mistress of Louis XIV four years earlier, in 1658.[42]
  3. The dual year shows that this Julian date falls into the next year when the start of the year is adjusted from 25 March to 1 January. See Old Style and New Style dates.
  1. Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 2: "[Sir George] m. (art. dated 2 June 1629) Mary, 3rd dau. of Thomas, Viscount Thurles, ..."
  2. Rigg 1890, p. 146, left column: "[Elizabeth] was born in 1641."
  3. Debrett 1816, p. 92, line 17: "He [Sir George] m. Mary, 3d daughter of Thomas, Viscount Thurles, son of Walter, 11th earl of Ormond and sister of James, duke of Ormond, and had issue 6 sons and 3 daughters, ..."
  4. Lodge 1789, p. 40, line 14: "Mary, married to Sir George Hamilton, ancestor by her to the Earl of Abercorn, and died in August 1680."
  5. Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 8: "... he [James Hamilton] d.v.p. of a wound received in a naval engagement with the Dutch, 6 June 1673 and was buried in Westminster Abbey."
  6. Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 29: "Elizabeth, the beautiful and accomplished wife of Philibert, comte de Grammont; she d. 1708."
  7. Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 17: "Anthony, the celebrated Count Hamilton, author of 'Mémoires de Grammont', Lieut.-Gen. in the French service, d. 20 April 1719, aged 74."
  8. Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 25: "Thomas, in the sea service; d. in New England."
  9. Clark 1921, p. 74: "[Thomas Hamilton] rendered James no small service in capturing, off the west coast of Scotland, some of the ships which the Earl of Argyle had equipped to aid Monmouth in his rising."
  10. Sewall 1878, p. 176: "May 9 [1687]. Hamilton, Capt. of the Kingsfisher dies."
  11. Boulger 1911, p. 155: "Richard Hamilton had been wounded and taken prisoner by the time that William's cavalry came down from Donore on the right flank of the Irish infantery commanded by him in and behind Oldbridge."
  12. Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 27: "John, Colonel in the army of James II., killed at the battle of Aughrim."
  13. Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 31: "Lucia, who married Sir Donogh of Lamineagh, Bart"
  14. Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 33: "Margaret, m. to Mathew Forde, Esq. of Seaforde."
  15. Cokayne 1910, p. 4: "Tabular pedigree of the Earls of Abercorn"
  16. Lodge 1789, p. 110, footnote: "The great proportion and manor of Donalong on his third son George and his heirs ..."
  17. Metcalfe 1909, p. 234, line 10: "Her [Marion Boyd's] husband had been a staunch Protestant, an elder in the Kirk, and a member of the General Assembly."
  18. Metcalfe 1909, p. 234, line 12: "During his [James Hamilton's] lifetime she had evidently conformed; but after his death she had evidently relapsed."
  19. Clark 1921, p. 16: "James Hamilton's marriage to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Colepeper ... took place as early as 1660 or 1661. As the lady was a Protestant, James Hamilton left the Church of Rome shortly before his marriage, to the great sorrow and anger of his devout mother ..."
  20. Clark 1921, p. 13: "... Thomas, Anthony's junior had entered the Navy in 1666 or earlier."
  21. Millar 1890, p. 177, left column, line 46: "... the Marquis of Ormonde, whom he [Sir George Hamilton] followed to Caen in the spring of 1651 with his wife and family."
  22. Paul 1904, p. 50, line 12: "[Jean Gordon] who was taken prisoner by Sir Phelim O'Neile, in the rebellion of 1641, when he burned and destroyed the castle of Strabane, but whom she afterwards married, ..."
  23. Sergeant 1913, p. 145, line 21: "For some reason, when the rebel leader Owen O'Neill took Roscrea, Tipperary, the home of the Hamiltons, in September 1646, and put the inhabitants to the sword, he spared Lady Hamilton and her young children ..."
  24. Carte 1851, p. 265: "... after taking Roscrea on Sept. 17, and putting man, woman, and child to the sword, except sir G. Hamilton's lady, sister to the marquis of Ormond, ..."
  25. Hayes-McCoy 1990, p. 197: "He [Owen Roe O'Neill] listened to the nuncio's plea, 'quitted the opportunity of conquest in Ulster' and marched south."
  26. Coffey 1914, p. 178: "Now seemed the time to follow up the victory of Benburb and subdue the whole North of Ireland; but it was not to be for letters from the Nuncio caused O'Neill to withdraw from the North and move South ..."
  27. Warner 1768, p. 228: "... taking Nenagh and two other castles, on the tenth of November, he came to his winter quarters at Kilkenny."
  28. Clark 1921, p. 5: "In the spring of 1651 took place, at last, the event which had such a determining influence on the fate of the young Hamiltons. Sir George Hamilton left his country for France with his family ..."
  29. Millar 1890, p. 177, left column: "Marquis of Ormonde, whom he followed to Caen in the spring of 1651 with his wife and family."
  30. Clark 1921, p. 8, line 12: "Thanks to Ormond, always mindful of his relatives' welfare, George, the second son, was made a page to Charles II ..."
  31. Paul 1904, p. 53, line 26: "Sir George Hamilton who was page to King Charles II. during his exile ..."
  32. Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 13: "George (Sir), Knight, Count of France ..."
  33. Clark 1921, p. 8, line 27: "... his [Antoine Hamilton's] mother and his aunt, Lady Muskerry, had apartments at the Couvent des Feuillantines in Paris, ..."
  34. Cannon 1837, p. 2: "His Majesty selected from among them eighty cavalier gentlemen, who had adopted the profession of arms and adhered to the royal cause with unshaken fidelity, and on the 17th of May, 1660, constituted them a corps of LIFE GUARDS for the protection of the royal person."
  35. White-Spunner 2006, p. 56: "...Sir George Hamilton of the King's Troop ..."
  36. Akin 1797, p. 171: "The first troop was raised in the year 1660 and the command given to Lord Gerard;"
  37. Paul 1904, p. 53, line 27: "... and after the Restoration [George] was an officer in the Horse Guards till 1667 ...."
  38. Auger 1805, p. 2: "Près de deux ans après le rétablissement de Charles II, arriva à Londres le fameux chevalier de Grammont, exilé de France ..."
  39. Hamilton 1713, p. 104: "LA MOTTE HOUDANCOURT étoit une des filles de la Reine-Mère."
  40. Auger 1805, pp. 2–3: "Près de deux ans après le rétablissement de Charles II, arriva à Londres le fameux chevalier de Grammont, exilé de France pour avoir voulu disputer à son maître le cœur de mademoiselle La Mothe-Houdancourt."
  41. Hamilton 1888, p. 107: "La Motte-Agencourt was one of maids of honour of the queen dowager ..."
  42. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named FOOTNOTEHamilton1888[httpsarchiveorgdetailsmemoirsofcountgr00hamipage107 107]
  43. Auger 1805, p. 2, line 25: "... enfin on parloit françois à St.-James presqu'aussi habituellement qu'à Versailles."
  44. Hamilton 1888, p. 301: "Hamilton, upon the whole, was pretty well treated by her [Mrs Wetenhall], if a man in love who is never satisfied until the completion of his wishes, could confine himself within the bounds of moderation ..."
  45. Hartmann 1924, p. 15: "The mayds of honour were likewise in wayting, viz. Mrs. Cary, Mrs. Stuart ..."
  46. Hamilton 1888, p. 345: "Believe me, my dear friend, there is no playing tricks with our masters, I mean there is no ogling of their mistresses. I myself wanted to play the agreeable in France ..."
  47. Green 1967, p. 23: "Of her sisters, Frances, eight years years Sarah's senior, preceded her to court as a maid of honour."
  48. Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 12: "George (Sir), Count of France, and Maréchal du Camp; m. 1665 Frances dau. and co-heir of Richard Jennings ..."
  49. Sergeant 1913, p. 201: "The date of this grant was April 20th, 1666, so that the wedding evidently took place in the spring of that year."
  50. Sergeant 1913, p. 201: "... the King in particular hastened to show his approval of the marriage by bestowing on Hamilton a pension of £500 a year."
  51. Hamilton 1888, p. 365: "George Hamilton, under more favourable auspices, married the lovely Jennings;"
  52. Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 18: "Elizabeth, m. to Richard, viscount Ross;"
  53. Burke 1949, p. 1725, left column, line 38: "RICHARD, 1st VISCOUNT ROSSE, who was elevated to the peerage, 2 July 1681, as Baron of Oxmantown and Viscount Rosse with remainder to the male issue of his great-grandfather; m. 1stly, by licence 27 Feb. 1676-7, Anne (d.s.p.), dau. of Thomas Walsingham, m. 2ndly, 14 Oct. 1681, Catherine Brydges (d.s.p. 24 Aug. 1682), dau. of George, Lord Chandos. He m. 3rdly, 1685, Elizabeth, eldest dau. of Sir George Hamilton (and niece of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough), by whom he had two sons and three daus. He d. 30 Jan 1702-3 and was s. by his elder son."
  54. Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 19: "Frances, m. to Henry, Viscount Dillon;"
  55. Burke 1949, p. 603, left column, line 91: "HENRY, 8th Viscount Dillon, MP Westmeath in James II's Parliament in Dublin, Lieut, of Roscommon 1689, and Col. in JAMES's army and Gov. of Galway, m. July 1687, Frances, 2nd dau. of Count Sir George Hamilton, by his wife, Frances Jennings, afterwards Duchess of Tyrconnel ; by whom, who m. 2ndly, Patrick, eld. son of Sir John Bellew, Bt., of Barmeath, he has issue. He died 13 Jan. 1713 and was s. by his son."
  56. Cokayne 1916, pp. 359-360: "His [Henry Dillon's] widow who was b. in France, m. Patrick BELLEW of Barmeath, who d. v.p., 12 June 1720. She d. 16 Nov. 1751."
  57. Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 20: "... Mary, m. to Nicholaus, Viscount Kingsland."
  58. Cokayne 1910, p. 428: "NICHOLAS (BARNEWALL) VISCOUNT BARNEWALL OF KINGSLAND &c [I.], s. and h. by his 2nd wife. He was b. 15 Apr. 1668. He sat in King James's Parl. [I.] in May 1689. He m., 15 May 1688, Mary, 3rd and yst. da. and coh. of Sir George HAMILTON (Comte Hamilton and Maréchal du Camp in France), by Frances ..."
  59. Sergeant 1913, p. 202: "... before a year had passed, a child was born. On March 21, 1667, a daughter was baptized at St Margaret's, Westminster, under the name of Elizabeth ..."
  60. Bagwell 1898, p. 336: "Of her six children by Hamilton, three daughters, Elizabeth, Frances, and Mary, married Viscounts Ross, Dillon and Kingsland and were well known in Ireland as the 'three viscomtesses'."
  61. Clark 1921, p. 29: "It therefore became necessary to cashier all Roman Catholics serving in the Royal Guards, and, on the 28th of September, 1667, on the ground that they refused to take the Oath of Supremacy, they were dismissed."
  62. Walpole 1888, p. 3: "Charles II, being restored to his throne brought over to England several Catholic officers and soldiers who had served abroad with him and his brother the Duke of York and incorporated them with his guards; but the parliament having obliged him to dismiss all officers who were Catholics, the king permitted George Hamilton to take such as were willing to accompany him to France, where Louis XIV. formed them into a company of gens d'armes, and being highly pleased with them, became himself their captain, and made George Hamilton their captain-lieutenant."
  63. Clark 1921, p. 28: "This marriage too, like James Hamilton's, involved a change of religion, but this time it was the bride who changed, becoming a Roman Catholic."
  64. Corp 2004, p. 766, right column, last paragraph: "They [Anthony and Richard] served in the Franco-Dutch war 1672-8."
  65. Sergeant 1913, p. 213, line 4: "In 1674 it [the Régiment d'Hamilton] was engaged in two desperate struggles between Turenne and the Duke of Bournonville, at Sintzheim on June 16th and at Entzheim on October 6th, on both occasions playing a distinguished part in Turenne's victory."
  66. Clark 1921, p. 54: "George and Anthony were both wounded."
  67. Clark 1921, p. 55, line 31: "Turenne defeated them at Mulhouse on the 29th of December and at Turckheim on January 5th. George and Anthony did not, however, take part in these operations ..."
  68. Clark 1921, p. 56, line 10: "He [George Hamilton] left in the very beginning of March [1675], but Anthony was put in charge of the difficult expedition ..."
  69. Clark 1921, p. 56, bottom: "All in a sudden, in the first week of April, the French ships arrived unexpectedly in Kinsale."
  70. Clark 1921, p. 56, line 31: "Hamilton expected the French ships on the 8th of March but they did not appear."
  71. Clark 1921, p. 213, last line: "Hamilton was at his side when the fatal shot struck him down ..."
  72. Quincy 1726, p. 448: "Le marquis de Vaubrun y fut tué en donnant de grandes marques de vleur."
  73. Quincy 1726, p. 447: "Il [Montecuculli] trouva le Chevalier de Bouflers avec ses dragons & le Comte Hamilton avec ses Anglois qui le repoussèrent après une action des plus vives."
  74. 74.0 74.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named FOOTNOTESergeant1913[httpsarchiveorgdetailslittlejenningsfi01sergpagen243 217]
  75. Clark 1921, p. 63: "Near Saverne Lorraine [i.e. the duc de L.] attacked his rear-guard, commanded by George Hamilton, but was driven back in a fierce combat, in which Hamilton and his regiment fought with all possible bravery, though the Imperialists spread a report that all the English and Irish in the French service had surrendered. In the moment of victory George Hamilton fell."
  76. Sergeant 1913, p. 217: "At the beginning of June [1676] he took part in the battle of Zebernstieg and was engaged in covering the French retreat on Saverne when he was killed by a musket-shot."
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