|Participant in the Iraq War|
|Active||2005 – present|
Sheik Abdul Sattar Buzaigh al-Rishawi (assassinated)|
Sheikh Ali Hatem Ali Sulaiman
Sheikh Abdul-Jabbar Abu Risha
Sheikhs of Al-Bu Nimr
Sheiks of Al-Bu Issa
51,900 (estimated in January 2011)|
30,000 (June 6, 2012)
Multinational force in Iraq (ceasefire)|
Iraqi Army and police
|Opponents||al-Qaeda in Iraq|
The National Council for the Awakening of Iraq (Arabic language: المجلس الوطني لإنقاذ العراق Al-Majlis al-Waṭaniy li-Inqādh al-`Irāq), also known as the Sunni Awakening movement (Arabic language: حركة الإنقاذ السني Ḥarakat al-Inqādh al-Sunniy) Anbar Awakening (Arabic language: إنقاذ الأنبار Inqādh al-Anbār) or the Sons of Iraq (Arabic language: أبناء العراق Abnā' al-`Irāq) program, are coalitions between tribal Sheikhs in a particular province in Iraq that unite to maintain security in their communities.
The awakening fighters in Iraq have been credited by some analysts with reducing levels of violence in the areas in which they operate; however, the rapid growth of the groups, whose salaries were initially paid for completely by the US military, has also led to concerns about some members' insurgent pasts fighting against coalition forces and about infiltration by al-Qaeda. Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki has warned that the US-armed 'concerned local citizens' are an armed Sunni opposition in the making, and has argued that such groups should be under the command of the Iraqi Army or police.
The Iraqi Defense Ministry has said that it plans to disband the Sunni Awakening groups so they do not become a separate military force. The Iraqi government plans to absorb approximately a quarter of the Awakening groups into security service or the military, but analysts fear what will happen to the remaining three-quarters. The US is urging the Iraqi government to rapidly integrate the fighters into the national security forces. Some experts warn there are similarities between the awakening councils and armed groups in past conflicts that were used for short-term military gains but ended up being roadblocks for state building. In 2009, some awakening groups threatened to set the streets ablaze and "start a tribal war" after not doing well in elections.
Awakening movements in Iraq are also referred to as:
- "Mercenaries" (Maliki aide, al-Qa'eda)
- U.S. military/Government of Iraq:
- "Sahwa" militia
- "Former Sunni insurgents" – CFR Senior Fellow Steven Simon
In 2005, the Albu Mahals, a tribe that smuggled across the Syrian border, was being forced out of their territory by the Al Salmani tribe allied with Al Qaeda in Mesopotamia. The tribe proposed an alliance with the local USMC Battalion under the command of LtCol Dale Alford in November 2005, after being forcibly displaced from their traditional base in Al Qaim, and began receiving weapons and training. In September 2006, the leader of the movement, Sheik Abdul Sattar Buzaigh al-Rishawi, formed the Anbar Awakening Council also called "Anbar Awakening" to counter the influence of Al-Qaeda in Iraq.
Sheik Abdul Sattar Buzaigh al-Rishawi was assassinated along with two bodyguards, by a roadside bomb planted near his home in Ramadi, in September 2007. His brother, Ahmed Abu Risha, took over as leader, but so far has been unable to unite the various awakening militias.
In October 2008, the Iraqi government took over from the American military the responsibility for paying 54,000 members of the Awakening councils. Many of the Awakening fighters put little trust in the Iraqi government to help employ them. "I consider the transfer an act of betrayal by the U.S. Army," said one Awakening member in response to the transfer.
Work in Iraq
The groups are paid by the American military and the Iraqi government to lay down their arms against coalition forces, patrol neighborhoods, and to fight against other Sunni insurgents. The US military says the groups help it target Al-Qaeda in Iraq more precisely and avoid collateral damage. The Washington Post writes the awakening groups have caused al-Qaeda in Iraq to soften its tactics in an effort to regain public support.
Al-Qaeda in Iraq has condemned the groups for fighting insurgents and for standing by the “filthy crusaders”. Some members of the awakening groups are former insurgents, and some awakening members have been killed by former awakening members in suicide bombings. Sheiks who work with the awakening movement also frequently face killings which originate from outside the movement.
The Government Accountability Office, the audit arm of the United States Congress, has warned that the groups have still "not reconciled with the Iraqi government" and that the potential remains for further infiltration by insurgents.
The Iraqi Defense Ministry has said that it plans to disband the Awakening groups so they do not become a separate military force. "We completely, absolutely reject the Awakening becoming a third military organization," Iraqi Defense Minister Abdul-Qadir al-Obaidi said. Al-Obaidi said the groups also would not be allowed to have any infrastructure, such as a headquarters building, that would give them long-term legitimacy.
The Iraqi government has pledged to absorb about a quarter of the men into the Shiite dominated military and security services, and to provide vocational training to the rest of the members of the Awakening groups. The Iraqi Interior Ministry has agreed to hire about 7,000 men on temporary contracts and plans to hire an additional 3,000; however, the ministry hasn't specified the contract length or specific positions for the men to fill. Deborah D. Avant, director of international studies at the University of California-Irvine, said there are ominous similarities between the awakening councils and armed groups in past conflicts that were used for short-term military gains but ended up being roadblocks for state building.
According to Ramzy Mardini, an Iraq expert at The Jamestown Foundation, "the rise of the Awakening councils may risk reigniting the Jaysh al-Mahdi". On February 22, 2008, Muqtada al-Sadr announced that he will extend his ceasefire on his Jaysh al-Mahdi militia. But according to Mardini, the uncertainty facing the Awakening movement's status may cut that ceasefire short. Mardini suggests that if the movement's demands are not satisfied by Iraq's central government, the U.S. 'surge' strategy is at risk for failing, "even to the point of reverting back to pre-surge status". Those demands include that Awakening fighters be incorporated into Iraq's security forces, having permanent positions and payrolls.
In August 2008 Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri Al-Maliki offered 3,000 of the 100,000 Sons of Iraq members jobs in Diyala in hopes that it would lead to information about militants in the area. Other members of the paramilitary were used in the Diyala Campaign.
In March 2009, the leader of the Awakening Movement in Fadhil, Baghdad, was arrested on allegations of murder, extortion and "violating the Constitution". Adel al-Mashhadani was accused of being the Fadhil leader of the banned Baath Party's military wing. His arrest sparked a two day gunbattle between Awakening members and government security forces. In November 2009 he was convicted and sentenced to death for murder and kidnapping.
By June 6, 2012, about 70,000 members of the group had been integrated into the Iraqi Security Forces or given civilian jobs, with 30,000 continuing to maintain checkpoints and being paid a salary by the government of around $300 per month. On January 29, 2013, Iraqi officials said they would raise the salaries of Awakening Council fighters, the latest bid to appease Sunni anti-government rallies that erupted in December, 2012. Some 41,000 Awakening Council fighters are to receive 500,000 Iraqi dinars ($415) a month, up from 300,000 dinars ($250).
Governorate elections in 2009
Several political parties formed out of the Awakening movements contested the Iraqi governorate elections, 2009. The Iraq Awakening and Independents National Alliance list won the largest number of seats in Anbar governorate.
- Al Qaeda in Iraq
- Abdul Sattar Buzaigh al-Rishawi
- Civil war in Iraq
- Iraq War troop surge of 2007
- 2005 in Iraq
- 2006 in Iraq
- 2007 in Iraq
- 2008 in Iraq
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- Iraq government to pay Sunni groups – Al Jazeera
- US buys 'concerned citizens' in Iraq, but at what price?
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- Sunni fighters need political role
- International Herald Tribune: Iraq Sunni group accuses tribes of poll incitement
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- ABCNews: Iraq's Sunni's Fear Life Without U.S. Oversight
- AP: "Iraq: government takes command of Sons of Iraq"
- Shift in Tactics Aims to Revive Struggling Insurgency
- Group Claims Responsibility for Iraq Attack
- Iraq explosion kills U.S. soldiers, Sunni allies in Anbar province
- US Government Accountability Office (June 2008): Securing, Stabilizing, and Rebuilding Iraq
- Uncertainty Facing Iraq’s Awakening Movement Puts U.S. Strategy at Risk
- Sons of Iraq join Diyala offensive
- Awakening group in Baghdad battle, Al Jazeera, 2009-03-29
- Iraq sentences militia leader to death, Associated Press, 2009-11-19
- The Weekly Standard: Iraq Report: Anbar Awakening Spreads, Petraeus Connects Iran to Attacks in Iraq
- Institute for the Study of War: Backgrounder: Sons of Iraq and Awakening Forces
- Michael Totten: The Battle of Ramadi
- The Long War Journal: The Awakening, al Qaeda clash in Iraq
- CNN: Iraqi Awakening Council members kidnapped, killed
- SFGate: 10 tribal leaders aiding U.S. abducted
- Teen female bomber tricks, kills Iraqi CLC sheik
- Kilcullen, David. "Anatomy of a Tribal Revolt." Small Wars Journal. 8/29/2007.
- Ahmed, Farook. "Backgrounder #23: Sons of Iraq and Awakening Forces." Institute for the Study of War. 2/21/2008.
- ATimes: Al-Qaeda 'awakens' in Iraq
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