|Born||1 January 1909|
Uhryniv Staryi, Galiсia, Austria-Hungary (today Ukraine)
|Died||15 October 1959 (aged 50)|
Munich, West Germany
|Battles/wars||World War II|
Stepan Andriyovych Bandera (Ukrainian language: Степан Андрійович Бандера ) (1 January 1909 – 15 October 1959) was a Ukrainian politician and one of the leaders of Ukrainian national movement in Western Ukraine (Galicia), who headed the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), a right-wing movement that engaged in acts of political violence. The son of a clerical family, Bandera was an activist, a scout, and eventually the leader of the Ukrainian nationalist movement.
During his political career, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) split into two factions: the OUN-M and the OUN-B. Stepan Bandera was responsible for the proclamation of an Independent Ukrainian State in Lviv on 30 June 1941.
On July 6, 1941 Bandera was arrested and later imprisoned by the Nazis; in September 1944 he was released. Soviet authorities authorised the KGB to assassinate as it happened in Munich, West Germany, on 15 October 1959.
Assessments of his work have ranged from totally apologetic to sharply negative. On 22 January 2010, the outgoing President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko awarded to Bandera the title of Hero of Ukraine (posthumously). The award was condemned by Jewish, Polish, American and Russian opinion, and was declared illegal by a Ukrainian court in April 2010. In January 2011, under President Viktor Yanukovych, the award was officially annulled. As a result, Stepan Bandera remains a controversial figure today both in Ukraine and internationally.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Political activism
- 3 Relationship with Nazi Germany
- 4 Views towards other ethnic groups
- 5 Death
- 6 Legacy
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Biography[edit | edit source]
Early life[edit | edit source]
Born in the village of Uhryniv Staryi, in the Kalush District of Galiсia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in present day Ukraine. His father, Andriy Bandera, was the Greek-Catholic rite parish priest of Uhryniv Staryi. His mother, Myroslava, was also from an established clerical family, the daughter of a Greek-Catholic priest in Uhryniv Staryi.
Stepan spent his childhood in Uhryniv Staryi, in the house of his parents and grandparents.
In the spring of 1922, his mother died from tuberculosis of the throat.
Education[edit | edit source]
In 1923, at the age of 14, Bandera joined the Ukrainian scout organization "Plast" (Ukrainian language: Пласт ). Later in his association with Plast, he became a member of the group Chornomortsi (Black Sea Sailors). Bandera received an unconfirmed 4 reprimands during his time as a yunak ("junior"), and is still considered an ideal Plast member.
After graduation from high school in 1927, he planned to attend the Ukrainian College of Technology and Economics in Podebrady in Czechoslovakia, but was not granted travel papers by the Polish authorities.
In both high school and University, Bandera was an active member of a number political groups with a nationalist agenda. One of the most active of these groups was the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, the OUN (Ukrainian language: Організація Українських Націоналістів ).
Political activism[edit | edit source]
Early Activities[edit | edit source]
Stepan Bandera had met and associated himself with members of a variety of Ukrainian nationalist organizations throughout his schooling - from Plast, to the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine (Ukrainian language: Українська Визвольна Організація ) and also the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, the OUN (Ukrainian language: Організація Українських Націоналістів ). The most active of these organizations was the OUN, and the leader of the OUN was Andriy Melnyk.
Because of his determined personality, Stepan Bandera quickly rose through the ranks of these organizations, becoming the chief propaganda officer of the OUN in 1931, the second in command of OUN in Galicia in 1932-33, and the head of the National Executive or the OUN in 1933.
For Bandera, an inclusive policy of nation building was important and therefore, he focused on growing support amongst all classes of Ukrainians in Western parts of Ukraine. In the early 1930s, Bandera was very active in finding and developing groups of Ukrainian nationalists in both Western and Eastern Ukraine.
OUN[edit | edit source]
Stefan Bandera became head of the OUN national executive in Galicia in June 1933. He expanded the OUN's network in Western Ukraine, directing it against both Poland and the Soviet Union. To stop expropriations, Bandera turned OUN against the Polish officials who were directly responsible for anti-Ukrainian policies. Activities included mass campaigns against Polish tobacco and alcohol monopolies and against the denationalization of Ukrainian youth. He was arrested in Lviv in 1934, and tried twice: first, concerning involvement in a plot to assassinate the minister of internal affairs, Bronisław Pieracki, and second at a general trial of OUN executives. He was convicted of terrorism and sentenced to death.
Soon thereafter Eastern Poland fell under Soviet occupation. Upon release from prison, Bandera moved to Krakow, the capital of the Germany's occupational General Government. There, he came in contact with the leader of the OUN, Andriy Melnyk. In 1940, the differences between the opinions of the two leaders were strained and the OUN split into two factions - the Melnyk faction led by Andriy Melnyk, which preached a more conservative approach to nation-building, (also known as the OUN-M), and the Bandera faction led by S. Bandera, which supported a revolutionary approach, (also known as the OUN-B).
OUN(B) sought support in Germany's military circles, while the OUN(M) sought connections with its ruling clique. In November 1939 about 800 Ukrainian nationalists began training in Abwehr's military camps. In the first days of December, Bandera, without co-ordination with Melnyk, sent a courier to Lviv with directives for preparation of an armed uprising. The courier was intercepted by the NKVD, which had captured some of the OUN(M)'s leaders. Another such attempt was prevented in Autumn 1940.
Formation of Mobile Groups[edit | edit source]
Before the independence proclamation of 30 June 1941, Bandera oversaw the formation of so-called "Mobile Groups" (Ukrainian language: мобільні групи ) which were small (5-15 members) groups of OUN-B members who would travel from General Government to Western Ukraine and after German advance to Eastern Ukraine to encourage support for the OUN-B and establishing the local authorities ruled by OUN-B activists. This included printing out pamphlets and growing membership in OUN.
In total, approximately 7,000 people participated in these mobile groups, and they found followers among a wide circle of intellectuals, such as Ivan Bahriany, Vasyl Barka, Hryhorii Vashchenko, and many others.
Formation of the UPA[edit | edit source]
Relationship with Nazi Germany[edit | edit source]
The intermittently close relationship between Bandera, the OUN and Nazi Germany have been described by historians such as David Marples as "ambivalent", tactical and opportunistic, with both sides trying to exploit the other unsuccessfully.
Prior to Operation Barbarossa, the OUN actively cooperated with Nazi Germany. According to the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and other sources, Bandera held meetings with the heads of Germany's intelligence, regarding the formation of "Nachtigall" and "Roland" Battalions. In spring the OUN received 2.5 million marks for subversive activities inside the USSR.
On June 30, 1941, with the arrival of Nazi troops in Ukraine, Bandera and the OUN-B declared an independent Ukrainian State. Some of the published proclamations of the formation of this state that it "will work closely with the National-Socialist Greater Germany, under the leadership of its leader Adolf Hitler which is forming a new order in Europe and the world and is helping the Ukrainian People to free itself from Moscovite occupation." - as stated in the text of the "Act of Proclamation of Ukrainian Statehood".
In 1941 relations between Nazi Germany and the OUN-B soured to the point where a Nazi document dated 25 November 1941 stated that "... the Bandera Movement is preparing a revolt in the Reichskommissariat which has as its ultimate aim the establishment of an independent Ukraine. All functionaries of the Bandera Movement must be arrested at once and, after thorough interrogation, are to be liquidated...". On July 5, Bandera was arrested and transferred to Berlin. On July 12, the president of the newly formed Ukrainian state, Yaroslav Stetsko, was also arrested and taken to Berlin. Although released from custody on July 14, both were required to stay in Berlin.
In September 1944  Bandera was released by [the German authorities] which hoped that he will incite the native populace to fight the advancing Soviet Army. With German consent Bandera set up headquarters in Berlin. Germans supplied OUN-B and UIA by air with arms and equipment. Assigned German personnel and agents trained to conduct terrorist and intelligence activities behind Soviet lines, as well as some OUN-B leaders, were also transported by air until early 1945.
Views towards other ethnic groups[edit | edit source]
Bandera and the Poles[edit | edit source]
In May 1941 at a meeting in Krakow the leadership of Bandera's OUN faction adopted the program "Struggle and action for OUN during the war" (Ukrainian language: "Боротьба й діяльність ОУН під час війни» ) which outlined the plans for activities at the onset of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union and the western territories of the Ukrainian SSR. Section G of that document –"Directives for first days of the organization of the living state" Ukrainian language: "Вказівки на перші дні організації державного життя»
outline activity of the Bandera followers during summer 1941  In the subsection of "Minority Policy" the OUN-B ordered the removal of hostile Poles, Jews, and Russians via deportation and the destruction of their respective intelligentsias, stating further that the "so-called Polish peasants must be assimilated" and to "destroy their leaders."
In late 1942, Bandera's organization, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, was involved in a campaign of ethnic cleansing of Volhynia, and in early 1944, these campaigns began to include Eastern Galicia. It is estimated that over 40,000 Poles were killed during the spring and summer campaign of 1943 in Volhynia by the OUN-Bandera which bears primary responsibility for the massacres.
Despite the central role played by Bandera's followers in the massacre of Poles in western Ukraine, Bandera himself was interned in a German concentration camp when the concrete decision to massacre the Poles was made and when the Poles were killed. During his internment, from the summer of 1941, he was not completely aware of events in Ukraine and moreover had serious differences of opinion with Mykola Lebed, the OUN-B leader who remained in Ukraine  and who was one of the chief architects of the massacres of Poles. Bandera was thus not directly involved in those massacres, although it cannot be ruled out that they would have occurred had he been present.
Bandera and antisemitism[edit | edit source]
Unlike competing Polish, Russian, Hungarian or Romanian nationalisms in late imperial Austria, imperial Russia, interwar Poland and Romania, Ukrainian nationalism did not include antisemitism as a core aspect of its program and saw Russians as well as Poles as the chief enemy with Jews playing a secondary role. Nevertheless, Ukrainian nationalism was not immune to the influence of the antisemitic climate in the Eastern and Central Europe, had already become highly racialized in the late 19th century, and had developed an elaborate anti-Jewish discourse. However, Ukrainian nationalistic Jews were welcome in the Banderivtsy, provided their adoption of the identity of the Galician Karaim, who were regarded as loyal compatriots.
The predominance of the Russians, rather than the Jewish minority, as the principal perceived enemy of Ukrainian nationalists was highlighted at the OUN-B's Conference in Krakow in 1941 when it declared that "The Jews in the USSR constitute the most faithful support of the ruling Bolshevik regime, and the vanguard of Muscovite imperialism in Ukraine. The Muscovite-Bolshevik government exploits the anti-Jewish sentiments of the Ukrainian masses to divert their attention from the true cause of their misfortune and to channel them in a time of frustration into pogroms on Jews. The OUN combats the Jews as the prop of the Muscovite-Bolshevik regime and simultaneously it renders the masses conscious of the fact that the principal foe is Moscow." In May 1941 at a meeting in Krakow the leadership of Bandera's OUN faction adopted the program "Struggle and action of OUN during the war" (Ukrainian language: "Боротьба й діяльність ОУН під час війни» ) which outlined the plans for activities at the onset of the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union and the western territories of the Ukrainian SSR. Section G of that document –"Directives for first days of the organization of the living state" Ukrainian language: "Вказівки на перші дні організації державного життя»
outline activity of the Bandera followers during summer 1941  In the subsection of "Minority Policy" the OUN-B ordered:
"Moskali, Poles, Jews are hostile to us must be exterminated in this struggle, especially those who would resist our regime: deport them to their own lands, importantly: destroy their intelligentsia that may be in the positions of power ... Jews must be isolated, removed from governmental positions in order to prevent sabotage, those who are deemed necessary may only work with an overseer... Jewish assimilation is not possible."  Later in June Yaroslav Stetsko sent to Bandera a report in which he indicated - "We are creating a militia which would help to get remove the Jews and protect the population."  Leaflets spread in the name of Bandera in the same year called for the "destruction" of ""Moscow", Poles, Hungarians and Jewry. In 1941-1942 while Bandera was cooperating with the Germans, OUN members did take part in anti-Jewish actions.
In 1942 German intelligence concluded that Ukrainian nationalists were indifferent to the plight of the Jews and were willing to either kill them or help them, depending on what better served their cause. Several Jews took part in Bandera's underground movement, including one of Bandera's close associates Richard Yary who was also married to a Jewish woman. Another notable Jewish UPA member was Leyba-Itzik "Valeriy" Dombrovsky. According to a report to the Chief of the Security Police in Berlin dated March 30, 1942, "...it has been clearly established that the Bandera movement provided forged passports not only for its own members, but also for Jews.". The false papers were most likely supplied to Jewish doctors or skilled workers who could be useful for the movement.
When Bandera was in conflict with the Germans, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army under his authority sheltered many Jews. and included Jewish fighters and medical personnel. In the official organ of the OUN-B's leadership, instructions to OUN groups urged those groups to "liquidate the manifestations of harmful foreign influence, particularly the German racist concepts and practices."  In summary, Bandera's movement sometimes harmed and sometimes helped Jews depending on particular circumstances and on Bandera's relationship with Germany.
Death[edit | edit source]
On 15 October 1959, Stepan Bandera collapsed outside of Kreittmayrstrasse 7 in Munich and died shortly thereafter. A medical examination established that the cause of his death was poison (cyanide gas). On October 20, 1959 Stepan Bandera was buried in the Waldfriedhof Cemetery in Munich (near the well in sector 43).
Two years later, on 17 November 1961, the German judicial bodies announced that Bandera's murderer had been a KGB defector Bohdan Stashynsky who acted on the orders of Soviet KGB head Alexander Shelepin and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev. After a detailed investigation against Stashynsky, a trial took place from 8 October to 15 October 1962. The sentence was handed down on 19 October in which Stashynsky was sentenced to 8 years imprisonment. The Federal Court of Justice of Germany confirmed at Karlsruhe that in the Bandera murder, the Soviet secret service was the main guilty party.
Family[edit | edit source]
His brother Oleksandr (who had a PhD in Political Economy from the University of Rome) and brother Vasyl (a graduate in Philosophy, Lviv University) were arrested and interned in Auschwitz, where they were allegedly killed by Polish inmates in 1942.
Andriy Bandera, Stepan's father was arrested in late May 1941 for harbouring an OUN member and transferred to Kiev. In 8 July he was sentenced to death and executed on the 10th. His sisters Oksana and Marta-Maria were arrested by the NKVD in 1941 and sent to a GULAG in Siberia. Both were released in 1960 without the right to return to Ukraine. Marta-Maria died in Siberia in 1982, and Oksana returned to Ukraine in 1989 where she died in 2004. Another sister, Volodymyra - was sentenced to a term in Soviet labour camps from 1946-1956. She returned to Ukraine in 1956. Stepan's brother Bohdan's fate remains unknown, as accounts vary: some sources say he was killed by the Gestapo in Mykolayiv in 1943, other sources say he was killed by the NKVD operatives in 1944, but to date even the family members have no definite information.
Legacy[edit | edit source]
In an interview with Russian newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda in 2005 former KGB Chief Vladimir Kryuchkov claimed that "the murder of Stepan Bandera was one of the last cases when the KGB disposed of undesired people by means of violence."
In late 2006 the Lviv city administration announced the future transference of the tombs of Stepan Bandera, Andriy Melnyk, Yevhen Konovalets and other key leaders of OUN/UPA to a new area of Lychakivskiy Cemetery specifically dedicated to Ukrainian national liberation struggle.
In October 2007, the city of Lviv erected a statue dedicated to the OUN and UPA leader Stepan Bandera. The appearance of the statue has engendered a far-reaching debate about the role of Stepan Bandera and UPA in Ukrainian History. The two previously erected statues were blown up by unknown perpetrators, the current is guarded by a militia detachment 24/7. On October 18, 2007, the Lviv City Council adopted a resolution establishing the "Award of Stepan Bandera."
Attitudes in Ukraine Towards Bandera[edit | edit source]
Bandera continues to be a divisive figure in Ukraine. Although Bandera is venerated in certain parts of western Ukraine, and 33% of Lviv's residents consider themselves to be followers of Bandera, in surveys of Ukraine as a whole he, along with Joseph Stalin and Mikhail Gorbachev, is considered among the three historical figures who produce the most negative attitudes. A national survey conducted in Ukraine in 2009 inquired about attitudes by region toward's Bandera's faction of the OUN. It produced the following results: In Galicia (provinces of Lviv, Ternopil, and Ivano-Frankivsk) 37% had a "very positive" opinion of Bandera, 26% a "mostly positive" opinion, 20% were neutral, "mostly negative", 6% very negative, and 6% unsure. In Volhynia, 5% had a very positive opinion, 20% a mostly positive opinion, 57% were neutral, 7% were mostly negative, 5% very negative and 7% were unsure. In Transcarpathia 4% of the respondents had a very positive opinion, 32% a mostly positive opinion, 50% were neutral, none had a mosly negative opinion, 7% had a very negative opinion and 7% were unsure. In contrast, in central Ukraine (comprising the capital Kiev, as well as the provinces of Zhytomyr, Cherkasy, Chernihiv, Poltava, Sumy, Vinnytsia, and Kirovohrad) attitudes towards Bandera's faction of the OUN were 3% very positive, 10% mostly positive, 24% neutral, 17% mostly negative, 21% very negative and 25% unsure. In Eastern Ukraine (the provinces of Donetsk, Luhansk, Kharkiv, Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhia) 1% each had very positive or mostly positive attitudes towards Bandera's OUN, 19% were neutral, 13% mostly negative, 26% very negative and 20% unsure. In Ukraine's south (the Odessa, Mykolaiv and Kherson regions plus Crimea) 1% each were very or mostly positive, 13% were neutral, 31% mostly negative, 48% very negative and 25% were unsure. In Ukraine as a whole, 6% of Ukrainians had a very positvie opinion, 8% a mostly positive opinion, 23% were neutral, 15% had a mostly negative opinion, 30% had a very negative opinion, and 18% were unsure.
Hero of Ukraine award (annulled)[edit | edit source]
On January 22, 2010, on the Day of Unity of Ukraine, the then-President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko awarded to Bandera the title of Hero of Ukraine (posthumously) "for "defending national ideas and battling for an independent Ukrainian state." A grandson of Bandera, also named Stepan, accepted the award that day from the Ukrainian President during the state ceremony to commemorate the Day of Unity of Ukraine at the National Opera House of Ukraine.
Reactions to Bandera's award vary. This award has been condemned by the Simon Wiesenthal Center and the Student Union of French Jews. On the same day, numerous Ukrainian media, such as the pro-Russian Segodnya, published dishonoring articles in that regard mentioning cases of some former Soviet spies wishing to dump their Hero of Ukraine title. The representatives from several antifascist organizations in neighboring Slovakia condemned the award to Bandera, calling Yushchenko's decision a provocation was reported by the RosBisnessConsulting referring to the Radio Praha. On February 25, 2010, the European Parliament criticized the decision by then ex-president of Ukraine Yushchenko to award Bandera the title of Hero of Ukraine and expressed hope it would be reconsidered. On May 14, 2010 in the statement of the Russian Foreign Ministry was said about the award: "that the event is so odious that it could no doubt cause a negative reaction in the first place in Ukraine. Already it is known a position on this issue of a number of Ukrainian politicians, who believe that solutions this kind do not contribute to the consolidation of Ukrainian public opinion".
On the other hand, the decree was applauded by Ukrainian nationalists, in western Ukraine and by a small portion of the Ukrainian-Americans. On January 25, 2010, the head of the Czech Confederation political prisoners Nadia Kavalirova expressed support for the decision of the Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko to award the title of Hero of Ukraine to Stepan Bandera, stating "It is good that he (Yushchenko) made this step, many Czech politicians can draw lessons from it..."
On February 9, 2010, the Poland's Senate Marshal Bogdan Borusewicz said at a meeting with the head of Russia's Federation Council Sergei Mironov, that adaptation of the Hero title of Ukraine to Bandera is an internal matter of the Ukrainian government.
On March 3, 2010, the Ivano-Frankivsk regional council called on the European Parliament to review this resolution.
Taras Kuzio, a senior fellow in the chair of Ukrainian studies at the University of Toronto, has suggested Yushchenko awarded Bandera the award in order to frustrate Yulia Tymoshenko's chances to get elected President during the Ukrainian Presidential elections 2010.
President Viktor Yanukovych stated on March 5, 2010 he would make a decision to repeal the decrees to honour the title as Heroes of Ukraine to Bandera and fellow nationalist Roman Shukhevych before the next Victory Day, although the Hero of Ukraine decrees do not stipulate the possibility that a decree on awarding this title can be annulled. On April 2, 2010, an administrative Donetsk region court ruled the Presidential decree awarding the title to be illegal. According to the court's decision, Bandera wasn't a citizen of the Ukrainian SSR (vis-à-vis Ukraine).
On April 5, 2010, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine refused to start constitutional proceedings on the constitutionality of the President Yushchenko decree the award was based on. A ruling by the court was submitted by the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea on January 20, 2010.
According to the grandson, Stepan Bandera, although the Bandera family has been officially informed of the Donetsk's court ruling it still has not been asked by President Yanukovych to return the award. In January 2011, the presidential press service informed that the award was officially annulled. This was done after a cassation appeals filed against the ruling by Donetsk District Administrative Court was rejected by the Higher Administrative Court of Ukraine on January 12, 2011. Former President Yushchenko called the annulment "a gross error".
Honorary citizen titles[edit | edit source]
- Honorary citizen of Nadvirna
- Honorary citizen of Khust (March 10, 2010)
- Honorary citizen of Ternopil (April 30, 2010)
- Honorary citizen of Ivano-Frankivsk (May 6, 2010)
- Honorary citizen of Lviv (May 7, 2010)
- Honorary citizen of Zhovkva (January 2011)
- Honorary citizen of Dubliany (January 2011)
- Honorary citizen of Rava-Ruska (January 2011)
Monuments[edit | edit source]
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Staryi Uhryniv
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Lviv
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Ternopil
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Ivano-Frankivsk
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Kolomyia
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Kozivka
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Drohobych
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Dubliany
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Terebovlya
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Berezhany
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Boryslav
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Buchach
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Mykytyntsi
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Mostyska
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Sambir
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Stryi
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Zalishchyky
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Chervonohrad
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Verbiv
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Horodenka
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Hrabivka
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Seredniy Bereziv
- Monument of Stepan Bandera in Strusiv
Museums[edit | edit source]
- Museum of Stepan Bandera in Dubliany
- Museum of Stepan Bandera in Volya-Zaderevatska
- Museum of Stepan Bandera in Staryi Uhryniv
- Museum of Stepan Bandera in Yahilnytsya
- Museum of liberation struggle named after Stepan Bandera in London
- Museum of Stepan Bandera in Stryi
Streets[edit | edit source]
- Stepan Bandera street in Lviv
- Stepan Bandera street in Lutsk (former Suvorovska street)
- Stepan Bandera street in Rivne (former Moskovska street)
- Stepan Bandera street in Kolomyia
- Stepan Bandera prospect in Ternopil
- Stepan Bandera street in Ivano-Frankivsk
- Stepan Bandera street in Chervonohrad
- Stepan Bandera street in Berezhany (former Chernyakhovskoho street)
- Stepan Bandera street in Drohobych (former Slyusarska street)
- Stepan Bandera street in Stryi
- Stepan Bandera street in Kalush
- Stepan Bandera street in Kovel
- Stepan Bandera street in Volodymyr-Volynskyi
- Stepan Bandera street in Horodenka
References[edit | edit source]
- Biography of Bandera
- БАНДЕРА Степан Андрійович at Institute of History - National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
- WEST GERMANY: The Partisan Monday, Nov. 02, 1959
- Довкола цієї контраверсійної постаті й донині точаться гострі суперечки, що супроводжуються розмаїттям оцінок: від різко негативних до суцільно апологетичних. D.Vyedeneyev O.Lysenko OUN and foreign intelligence services 1920s-1950s Ukrainian Historical Magazine 3, 2009 p.132– Institute of History National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine http://www.history.org.ua/JournALL/journal/2009/3/11.pdf
- United Kingdom УКАЗ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА УКРАИНЫ № 46/2010: О присвоении С.Бандере звания Герой Украины. President of Ukraine. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
- "Russia condemns Yushchenko for declaring Bandera a Hero of Ukraine". Voice of Russia. January 26, 2010. http://english.ruvr.ru/2010/01/26/3851355.html. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- , Simon Wiesenthal Center (January 28, 2010) Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Wiesenthal Center" defined multiple times with different content
-  Student Union of French Jews, (February 1, 2010) Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Student Union of French Jews" defined multiple times with different content
- Narvselius, Eleonora (2012). "The ‘Bandera Debate’: The Contentious Legacy of World War II and Liberalization of Collective Memory in Western Ukraine". pp. 469–490. ISSN 0008-5006.
- Рішенням суду президентський указ «Про присвоєння С.Бандері звання Герой України» скасовано, President.gov.ua. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
- "Murdered by Moscow. -  Stepan Bandera, His Life and Struggle (by Danylo Chaykovsky)". Exlibris.org.ua. http://exlibris.org.ua/murders/r04.html. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- Ukrainian College of Technology and Economics in Podebrady
- "Bandera, Stepan". Encyclopediaofukraine.com. http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/pages/B/A/BanderaStepan.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- (Polish) Janusz Marciszewski, Uwolnić Banderę, NaszeMiasto.pl
- T. Snyder, Causes of Ukrainian Polish ethnic cleansing, Past&Present, nr 179, p. 205
- Anna Reid, Borderland: a journey through the history of Ukraine, Phoenix, 2002, p. 158
- S. Karnautska, Portret bez retushi, L'vovs'kaya pravda, 8 May 1991, p. 2
- "Ukraine :: World War II and its aftermath - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/612921/Ukraine/30082/World-War-II-and-its-aftermath#ref=ref404610. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- ОУН в 1941 році: документи: В 2-х ч Ін-т історії України НАН України К. 2006 ISBN 966-02-2535-0
- By Sviatoslav LYPOVETSKY. "Eight decades of struggle /ДЕНЬ/". Day.kiev.ua. http://www.day.kiev.ua/264657/. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- David Marples. (2007). Heroes and villains: creating national history in contemporary Ukraine . Central European University Press, pp. 150 and 161
- Організація українських націоналістів і Українська повстанська армія. Інститут історії НАН України.2004р Організація українських націоналістів і Українська повстанська армія, Раздел 1 http://www.history.org.ua/LiberUA/Book/Upa/1.pdf стр. 17-30
- І.К. Патриляк. Військова діяльність ОУН(Б) у 1940—1942 роках. — Університет імені Шевченко \Ін-т історії України НАН України Київ, 2004 (No ISBN)
- p.15 ОУН в 1941 році: документи: В 2-х ч Ін-т історії України НАН України К. 2006 ISBN 966-02-2535-0 - У владних структурах рейху знайшлися сили яки з прагматичних міркувань стали на захист бандерівців. Керівники гестапо сподівалися використовувати їх у власних цілях а керівники абверу а радянському тилу.
- "Ukrainian History - World War II in Ukraine". InfoUkes. http://www.infoukes.com/history/ww2/page-08.html. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- Berkhoff, K.C. and M. Carynnyk 'The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and Its Attitude toward Germans and Jews: Iaroslav Stets'ko's 1941 Zhyttiepys' in: Harvard Ukrainian Studies, vol. 23 (1999), nr. 3/4, pp. 149—184 .
- Завдання підривної діяльності проти Червоної армії обговорювалося на нараді під Берліном у квітні того ж року (1944) між керівником таємних операцій вермахту О.Скорцені й лідерами українських націоналістів С.бандерою та Я.Стецьком» D.Vyedeneyev O.Lysenko OUN and foreign intelligence services 1920s-1950s Ukrainian Historical Magazine 3, 2009 p.137– Institute of History National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine http://www.history.org.ua/JournALL/journal/2009/3/11.pdf
- Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, p.338 [dead link]
- D.Vyedeneyev O.Lysenko OUN and foreign intelligence services 1920s-1950s Ukrainian Historical Magazine 3, 2009 p.137– Institute of History National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine http://www.history.org.ua/JournALL/journal/2009/3/11.pdf
- І.К. Патриляк. Військова діяльність ОУН(Б) у 1940—1942 роках. — Університет імені Шевченко \Ін-т історії України НАН України Київ, 2004 (No ISBN p.111
- І.К. Патриляк. Військова діяльність ОУН(Б) у 1940—1942 роках. — Університет імені Шевченко \Ін-т історії України НАН України Київ, 2004 (No ISBN p.56 .
- To Resolve the Ukrainian Question Once and For All: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ukrainians in Poland, 1943-1947, Timothy Snyder, Working Paper, Yale University, 2001
- Bandera - romantyczny terrorysta "Bandera - Romantic Terrorist, interview with Jaroslaw Hrycak. Gazeta Wyborcza, May 10, 2008.
- David R. Marples, Heroes and Villains, page 24
- Ukrainian Collaboration in the Extermination of the Jews during the Second World War: Sorting Out the Long-Term and Conjunctural Factors by John-Paul Himka, University of Alberta. Taken from The Fate of the European Jews, 1939-1945: Continuity or Contingency, ed. Jonathan Frankel (New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997), Studies in Contemporary Jewry 13 (1997): 170-89.
- p.16 "War Criminality: A Blank Spot in the Collective Memory of the Ukrainian Diaspora." Spaces of Identity 5, no. 1 (April 2005) by John-Paul Himka, University of Alberta. http://www.archive.org/details/warCriminalityABlankSpotInTheCollectiveMemoryOfTheUkrainian
- The Karaites of Galicia: An Ethnoreligious Minority Among the Ashkenazim, the Turks, and the Slavs, 1772-1945, page 334
- Philip Friedman. Ukrainian-Jewish Relations During the Nazi Occupation. In Roads to Extinction: Essays on the Holocaust. (1980) New York: Conference of Jewish Social Studies. pp.179-180
- Меншинева політика. 16. Національні меншини поділяються на: а) приязні нам, себто членів досі поневолених народів; б) ворожі нам, москалі, поляки, жиди. а) Мають однакові права з українцями, уможливлюємо їм поворот в їхню батьківщину. б) Винищування в боротьбі, зокрема тих, що боронитимуть режиму: переселювання в їх землі, винищувати головно інтелігенцію, якої не вільно допускати до ніяких урядів, і взагалі унеможливлюємо продуку- вання інтелігенції, себто доступ до шкіл і т.д. Наприклад, так званих польських селян треба асимілювати, усвідомлюючи з місця їм, тим більше в цей гарячий, повний фанатизму час, що вони українці, тільки латинського обряду, насильно асимільовані. Проводирів нищити. Жидів ізолювати, поусувати з урядів, щоб уникнути саботажу, тим більше москалів і поляків. Коли б була непоборна потреба оставити, приміром, в господарськім апараті жида, поставити йому нашого міліціянта над головою і ліквідувати за найменші провини. Керівники поодиноких галузей життя можуть бути лише українці, а не чужині – вороги. Асиміляція жидів виключається. p.103-104 ОУН в 1941 році: документи: В 2-х ч Ін-т історії України НАН України К. 2006 ISBN 966-02-2535-0
- same text p.485-486 І.К. Патриляк. Військова діяльність ОУН(Б) у 1940—1942 роках. — Університет імені Шевченко \Ін-т історії України НАН України Київ, 2004
- Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, p.63 [dead link]
- Dr. Franziska Bruder "Radicalization of the Ukrainian Nationalist Policy in the context of the Holocaust" The International Institute for Holocaust Research No. 12 -June 2008 p.37 ISSN 1565-8643
- "робимо міліцію що поможе жидів усувати www.history.org.ua/LiberUA/Book/Upa/2.pdf Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, p.63 ]
- І.К. Патриляк. Військова діяльність ОУН(Б) у 1940—1942 роках. — Університет імені Шевченко \Ін-т історії України НАН України Київ, 2004 (No ISBN p 324 "Народе знай Москва Польша, мадяри жидова- це твої вороги. Нищ їх"
- same text p.259 July p 576 December - ОУН в 1941 році: документи: В 2-х ч Ін-т історії України НАН України К. 2006 ISBN 966-02-2535-0
- Harvest of despair: life and death in Ukraine under Nazi rule by Karel Cornelis Berkhoff (2004)
- Philip Friedman. Ukrainian-Jewish Relations During the Nazi Occupation. In Roads to Extinction: Essays on the Holocaust. (1980) New York: Conference of Jewish Social Studies. pg. 204
- By Herbert Romerstein. "Divide and Conquer: the KGB Disinformation Campaign Against Ukrainians and Jews. Ukrainian Quarterly, Fall 2004. By Herbert Romerstein". Iwp.edu. http://www.iwp.edu/news/newsID.139/news_detail.asp. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- Richard Breitman. U.S Intelligence and the Nazis. Cambridge University Press. 2005. pg. 250
- Friedman, P.. "Ukrainian-Jewish Relations During the Nazi Occupation, YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science v. 12, pp. 259–96, 1958–59".
- Leo Heiman, "We Fought for Ukraine - The Story of Jews Within the UPA", Ukrainian Quarterly Spring 1964, pp.33-44.
- Philip Friedman. Ukrainian-Jewish Relations During the Nazi Occupation. In Roads to Extinction: Essays on the Holocaust. (1980) New York: Conference of Jewish Social Studies. pg. 204. Among several Jews saved by UPA Friedman mentions a Jewish physician and his wife whom he knows in Israel who were saved by UPA, another Jewish physician and his brother who lived in Tel Aviv after the war
- Philip Friedman. Ukrainian-Jewish Relations During the Nazi Occupation. In Roads to Extinction: Essays on the Holocaust. (1980) New York: Conference of Jewish Social Studies. pg. 188
- The Partisan, magazine (November 2, 1959)
- The Poison Pistol, TIME Magazine, December 01, 1961
- p.190 The Frankfurt Auschwitz trial, 1963-1965: genocide, history, and the limits Devin Owen Pendas Cambridge University Press 
- Бандерштадт: місто Бандер №4 (231) 28 січня 2010р. http://www.gk-press.if.ua/node/512 http://www.gk-press.if.ua/node/512
- Stepan Bandera: Hero or Nazi sympathizer?, Kyiv Post (October 2, 2008)
- Myths from U.S.S.R. still have strong pull today, Kyiv Post (February 25, 2009)
- US intelligence perceptions of Soviet power, 1921-1946 by Léonard Leshuk, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0714653063/ISBN 978-0714653068 (page 229)
- Heroes and villains: creating national history in contemporary Ukraine by David R. Marples, Central European University Press, 2007, ISBN 9637326987/ISBN 978-9637326981 (page 234)
- "Information website of the Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group". Khpg.org. http://www.khpg.org/en/index.php?id=1161553853. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- Events by themes: Monument to Stepan Bandera in Lvov, UNIAN photo service (October 13, 2007)
- Design by Maxim Tkachuk, web-architecture by Volkova Dasha, templated by Alexey Kovtanets, programming by Irina Batvina, Maxim Bielushkin, Sergey Bogatyrchuk, Vitaliy Galkin, Victor Lushkin, Dmitry Medun, Igor Sitnikov, Vladimir Tarasov, Alexander Filippov, Sergei Koshelev, Yaroslav Ostapiuk. "Корреспондент » Украина » События » Львов основал журналистскую премию имени Бандеры". Korrespondent.net. http://www.korrespondent.net/main/212672/. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- "Розпорядження №495". .city-adm.lviv.ua. http://www8.city-adm.lviv.ua/Pool%5CInfo%5Cdoclmr_1.NSF/(SearchForWeb)/C80E4FAD6E57B422C22573760056D927?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- Events by themes: Celebration of 100 birth anniversary of Stepan Bandera in Zaporozhye (Zaporozhye), UNIAN photo service (January 1, 2009)
- Events by themes: Mass meeting, devoted to 100 birth anniversary of Stepan Bandera, in Stariy Ugriniv village, UNIAN photo service (January 1, 2009)
- Events by themes: Monument to Stepan Banderq and memorial complex the heroes of UPA were opened in Ivano-Frankivsk (Ivano-Frankivsk), UNIAN photo service (January 1, 2009)
- Events by themes: Kharkiv nationalists were disallowed to arrange a torchlight procession in honor of Bandera's birthday (Kharkiv), UNIAN photo service (January 1, 2009)
- Events by themes: Action "Stepan Bandera is a national hero" (Kiev), UNIAN photo service (January 1, 2009)
- 2009 Philatelic Issues - Stefan Bandera (1909-1959) The Ukrainian Electronic Stamp Album
- In Western Ukraine, Even Ethnic Russians Vote for Pro-Ukrainian Parties by Paul Goble, Eurasia Review. September 12, 2010
- Yaroslav Hrytsak. (2005). Historical Memory and Regional Identity. In Galicia: A Multicultured Land. Christopher Hann and Paul Robert Magocsi (Eds.) Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 185-209
- Ivan Katchanovski. (2009). Terrorists or National Heroes? Politics of the OUN and the UPA in Ukraine Paper prepared for presentation at the Annual Conference of the Canadian Political Science Association, Montreal, June 1–3, 2010
- Stepan Bandera becomes Ukrainian hero, Kyiv Post (January 22, 2010)
- President Viktor Yushchenko awarded title Hero of Ukraine to OUN Head Stepan Bandera, Radio Ukraine (January 22, 2010)
- Events by themes: 91th [sic] anniversary of Collegiality of Ukraine, UNIAN (January 22, 2010)
- Ukraine. Rehabilitation and new heroes, EuropaRussia (January 29, 2010)
- Majot Vikhr by Vlad Bereznoi for Segodnya. January 22, 2010 (Russian)
- Czech political prisoners approve the adaptation of the Bandera's Hero award (Ukrainian)
- European parliament hopes new Ukraine's leadership will reconsider decision to award Bandera title of hero, Kyiv Post (February 25, 2010)
- Kommersant (May 14, 2010) (Russian)
- Analysis: Ukraine leader struggles to handle Bandera legacy, Kyiv Post (April 13, 2010)
- Ukrainians in New York take to streets to protest Russian fleet, Kyiv Post (May 6, 2010)
- Ukrainsky pohliad (Ukrainian view) February 9, 2010 (Ukrainian)
- Ivano-Frankivsk regional council calls on European Parliament to review resolution on Bandera, Kyiv Post (March 3, 2010)
- Gender bias, anti-Semitism contributed to Yanukovych's victory, Kyiv Post (March 18, 2010)
- Yanukovych to strip nationalists of hero status, Kyiv Post (March 5, 2010)
- Party of Regions proposes legal move to strip Bandera of Hero of Ukraine title, Kyiv Post (February 17, 2010)
- Donetsk court deprives Shukhevych of Ukrainian hero title, Kyiv Post (April 21, 2010)
- High Administrative Court dismisses appeals against illegal award of Hero of Ukraine title to Soviet soldiers, Kyiv Post (August 13, 2010)
- Ukraine court strips Bandera of Hero of Ukraine title, Top RBC (April 2, 2010)
- Ukraine court strips Bandera of Hero of Ukraine title because he wasn't citizen of Ukraine, Gzt.ru (April 3, 2010)
- Constitutional Court refuses to consider case on Bandera's title of Hero of Ukraine, Kyiv Post (April 12, 2010)
- Analysis: Ukraine leader struggles to handle Bandera legacy, Kyiv Post (April 14, 2010)
- Пресс-служба Януковича: Указ о присвоении Бандере звания Героя Украины отменен, Korrespondent.net. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- Court: Ruling on Bandera legal, Kyiv Post (January 12, 2011)
- Update:Stepan Bandera is no longer a Hero of Ukraine, Kyiv Post (January 12, 2011)
- Yushchenko: No Bandera - no statehood, Kyiv Post (January 12, 2011)
- Nadvirna city council awards honorary citizen titles to Bandera, Shukhevych, Lenkavsky, Kyiv Post (March 25, 2010)
- Zhovkva awards title of honorary citizen to Bandera, Kyiv Post (January 26, 2011)
[edit | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Stepan Bandera.|
- Stepan Bandera, His Life and Struggle
- Bandera's supporters ready for new battle (editorial) - Kyiv Post (March 11, 2010)
- Recorded speech by Stepan Bandera, Munich 1956 on YouTube
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|