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Subhas Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose
Born (1897-01-23)23 January 1897
Cuttack, Orissa Division, Bengal Province, India
Died 18 August 1945[1]
Nationality Indian
Alma mater University of Calcutta
Known for Figure of Indian independence movement
Title President of Indian National Congress (1938), General of Azad Hind army (1943–1945)
Political party Indian National Congress, Forward Bloc
Religion Hinduism
Spouse(s) Emilie Schenkl (unacknowledged publicly by Bose, without legal record, affirmed by extended family in 1993)
Children Anita Bose Pfaff
Signature Signature of Subhas Chandra Bose

Subhas Chandra Bose (About this sound listen ; 23 January 1897 – August 18, 1945(1945-08-18) (aged 48)[1]) also known as Netaji (Hindi/Bengali: “Respected Leader”), was an Indian nationalist whose unsuccessful attempt in the waning years of World War II to liberate India militarily from British rule roused patriotic feelings in India.[2][3] Earlier, Bose had been a leader of the younger, radical, wing of the Indian National Congress in the late 1920s and 1930s, rising to become Congress President from 1938 to 1939.[4] However, he was ousted from the Congress in 1939 following differences with the high command,[5] and subsequently placed under house arrest by the British before escaping from India in early 1941.[6] He turned to Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan for help in gaining India's independence by force.[7] With Japanese support, he organised the Indian National Army, composed largely of Indian soldiers of the British Indian army who had been captured in the Battle of Singapore by the Japanese. As the war turned against them, the Japanese came to support a number of puppet and provisional governments in the captured regions, including those in Burma, the Philippines and Vietnam, and in addition, the Provisional Government of Azad Hind, presided by Bose.[7][8]

Bose's effort, however, was short lived. In 1945 the British army first halted and then reversed the Japanese U Go offensive, beginning the successful part of the Burma Campaign. Bose's Indian National Army was driven down the Malay Peninsula, and surrendered with the recapture of Singapore. Bose died soon thereafter from third degree burns received after attempting to escape in an overloaded Japanese plane which crashed in Taiwan,[9] which many Indians believe did not happen,[10] and many, especially in Bengal, believing that he would return to liberate India.[11][12] The trials of the INA soldiers at Red Fort, Delhi, in late 1945 caused widespread public unrest in India.[13][14]

Early life[edit | edit source]

Bose as a student in England. Circa 1920.

Subhas Chandra Bose was born on 23 January 1897 (at 12.10 pm) in Cuttack, Orissa Division, Bengal Province, to Prabhavati Devi and Janakinath Bose, an advocate.[15] He was the ninth child of a total of fourteen siblings. He was admitted to the Protestant European School like his other brothers and sisters in January, 1902. He continued his studies at this school which was run by the Baptist Mission up to the year 1909 and then shifted to the Ravenshaw Collegiate School. The day Subhas was admitted to this school, Beni Madhav Das, the then Headmaster of the school, understood how brilliant and scintillating was the genius of this little boy. After securing the second position in the matriculation examination in 1913, he got admitted to the Presidency College where he studied briefly.[16] His nationalistic temperament came to light when he was expelled for assaulting Professor Oaten for the latter's anti-India comments. He later joined the Scottish Church College at the University of Calcutta and passed his B.A. in 1918 in philosophy.[17] Bose left India in 1919 for England with a promise to his father that he would appear in the Indian Civil Services Examination (ICS). He went to study in Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge, and matriculated on 19 November 1919. He came fourth in the ICS examination and was selected but he did not want to work under an alien government which would mean serving the British. As he stood on the verge of taking the plunge by resigning from the Indian Civil Service in 1921, he wrote to his elder brother Sarat: "Only on the soil of sacrifice and suffering can we raise our edifice"."Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". September 2013.  Finally, he resigned from his civil service job on 23 April 1921 and returned to India.[18] He started the newspaper Swaraj and took charge of publicity for the Bengal Provincial Congress Committee.[19] His mentor was Chittaranjan Das who was a spokesman for aggressive nationalism in Bengal. In the year 1923, Bose was elected the President of All India Youth Congress and also the Secretary of Bengal State Congress. He was also editor of the newspaper "Forward", founded by Chittaranjan Das.[20] Bose worked as the CEO of the Calcutta Municipal Corporation for Das when the latter was elected mayor of Calcutta in 1924.[18] In a roundup of nationalists in 1925, Bose was arrested and sent to prison in Mandalay, where he contracted tuberculosis.[21]

National politics[edit | edit source]

Indian National Congress[edit | edit source]

Mohandas K. Gandhi at the Indian National Congress annual meeting 1938 when Bose was President of Congress Party.

In 1927, after being released from prison, Bose became general secretary of the Congress party and worked with Jawaharlal Nehru for independence. Again Bose was arrested and jailed for civil disobedience; this time he emerged to become Mayor of Calcutta in 1930.[21] During the mid-1930s Bose travelled in Europe, visiting Indian students and European politicians, including Benito Mussolini. He observed party organisation and saw communism and fascism in action.[citation needed] By 1938 Bose had become a leader of national stature and agreed to accept nomination as Congress President. Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar known for his close friendship with Nethaji Subash Chandra Bose.

He stood for unqualified Swaraj (self-governance), including the use of force against the British. This meant a confrontation with Mohandas Gandhi, who in fact opposed Bose's presidency,[22] splitting the Indian National Congress party. Bose attempted to maintain unity, but Gandhi advised Bose to form his own cabinet. The rift also divided Bose and Nehru. Bose appeared at the 1939 Congress meeting on a stretcher. He was elected president again over Gandhi's preferred candidate Pattabhi Sitaramayya.[23] U. Muthuramalingam Thevar strongly supported Bose in the intra-Congress dispute. Thevar mobilised all south India votes for Bose.[24] However, due to the manoeuvrings of the Gandhi-led clique in the Congress Working Committee, Bose found himself forced to resign from the Congress presidency.[25]

All India Forward Bloc[edit | edit source]

On 22 June 1939 Bose organised the Forward Bloc,[26] aimed at consolidating the political left, but its main strength was in his home state, Bengal. U Muthuramalingam Thevar, who was a staunch supporter of Bose from the beginning, joined the Forward Bloc. When Bose visited Madurai on 6 September, Thevar organised a massive rally as his reception When Subash Chandra Bose was heading to Madurai, on an invitation of Muthuramalinga Thevar to amass support for the Forward Bloc, he passed through Madras and spent three days at Gandhi Peak. His correspondence reveals that despite his clear dislike for British subjugation, he was deeply impressed by their methodical and systematic approach and their steadfastly disciplinarian outlook towards life. In England, he exchanged ideas on the future of India with British Labour Party leaders and political thinkers like Lord Halifax, George Lansbury, Clement Attlee, Arthur Greenwood, Harold Laski, J.B.S. Haldane, Ivor Jennings, G.D.H. Cole, Gilbert Murray and Sir Stafford Cripps . He came to believe that a free India needed socialist authoritarianism, on the lines of Turkey's Kemal Atatürk, for at least two decades. Bose was refused permission by the British authorities to meet Atatürk at Ankara for political reasons. During his sojourn in England, only the Labour Party and Liberal politicians agreed to meet with Bose when he tried to schedule appointments. Conservative Party officials refused to meet Bose or show him courtesy because he was a politician coming from a colony. In the 1930s leading figures in the Conservative Party had opposed even Dominion status for India. It was during the Labour Party government of 1945–1951, with Attlee as the Prime Minister, that India gained independence. On the outbreak of war, Bose advocated a campaign of mass civil disobedience to protest against Viceroy Lord Linlithgow's decision to declare war on India's behalf without consulting the Congress leadership. Having failed to persuade Gandhi of the necessity of this, Bose organised mass protests in Calcutta calling for the 'Holwell Monument' commemorating the Black Hole of Calcutta, which then stood at the corner of Dalhousie Square, to be removed.[27] He was thrown in jail by the British, but was released following a seven-day hunger strike. Bose's house in Calcutta was kept under surveillance by the CID.[28]

Escape from British India to Germany and Japan[edit | edit source]

Bose with his wife Emilie Schenkl, whom he secretly married in 1937 in Austria.

Bose (2nd from left) with Heinrich Himmler (right), 1942.

Bose's arrest and subsequent release set the scene for his escape to Germany, via Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. A few days before his escape, he sought solitude and on this pretext avoided meeting British guards and grew a beard on the night of his escape, he dressed as a Pathan to avoid being identified. Bose escaped from under British surveillance at his house in Calcutta. On 19 January 1941, accompanied by his nephew Sisir K. Bose in a car that is now on display at his Calcutta home.[29][30]

He journeyed to Peshawar with the help of the Abwehr, where he was met by Akbar Shah, Mohammed Shah and Bhagat Ram Talwar. Bose was taken to the home of Abad Khan, a trusted friend of Akbar Shah's. On 26 January 1941, Bose began his journey to reach Russia through British India's North West frontier with Afghanistan. For this reason, he enlisted the help of Mian Akbar Shah, then a Forward Bloc leader in the North-West Frontier Province. Shah had been out of India en route to the Soviet Union, and suggested a novel disguise for Bose to assume. Since Bose could not speak one word of Pashto, it would make him an easy target of Pashto speakers working for the British. For this reason, Shah suggested that Bose act deaf and dumb, and let his beard grow to mimic those of the tribesmen. Bose's guide Bhagat Ram Talwar, unknown to him, was a Soviet agent.[29][30][31]

Supporters of the Aga Khan III helped him across the border into Afghanistan where he was met by an Abwehr unit posing as a party of road construction engineers from the Organization Todt who then aided his passage across Afghanistan via Kabul to the border with Soviet Russia. After assuming the guise of a Pashtun insurance agent ("Ziaudddin") to reach Afghanistan, Bose changed his guise and travelled to Moscow on the Italian passport of an Italian nobleman "Count Orlando Mazzotta". From Moscow, he reached Rome, and from there he travelled to Germany.[29][30][32] Once in Russia the NKVD transported Bose to Moscow where he hoped that Russia's traditional enmity to British rule in India would result in support for his plans for a popular rising in India. However, Bose found the Soviets' response disappointing and was rapidly passed over to the German Ambassador in Moscow, Count von der Schulenburg. He had Bose flown on to Berlin in a special courier aircraft at the beginning of April where he was to receive a more favorable hearing from Joachim von Ribbentrop and the Foreign Ministry officials at the Wilhelmstrasse.[29][30][33]

The crew of Japanese submarine I-29 after the rendezvous with German submarine U-180 300 sm southeast of Madagascar; Bose is at bottom left (28 April 1943)

In Germany, he instituted the Special Bureau for India under Adam von Trott zu Solz, broadcasting on the German-sponsored Azad Hind Radio. He founded the Free India Center in Berlin, and created the Indian Legion (consisting of some 4500 soldiers) out of Indian prisoners of war who had previously fought for the British in North Africa prior to their capture by Axis forces. The Indian Legion was attached to the Wehrmacht, and later transferred to the Waffen SS. Its members swore the following allegiance to Hitler and Bose: "I swear by God this holy oath that I will obey the leader of the German race and state, Adolf Hitler, as the commander of the German armed forces in the fight for India, whose leader is Subhas Chandra Bose". This oath clearly abrogates control of the Indian legion to the German armed forces whilst stating Bose's overall leadership of India. He was also, however, prepared to envisage an invasion of India via the USSR by Nazi troops, spearheaded by the Azad Hind Legion; many have questioned his judgment here, as it seems unlikely that the Germans could have been easily persuaded to leave after such an invasion, which might also have resulted in an Axis victory in the War.[32]

In all, 3,000 Indian prisoners of war signed up for the Free India Legion. But instead of being delighted, Bose was worried. A left-wing admirer of Russia, he was devastated when Hitler's tanks rolled across the Soviet border. Matters were worsened by the fact that the now-retreating German army would be in no position to offer him help in driving the British from India. When he met Hitler in May 1942, his suspicions were confirmed, and he came to believe that the Nazi leader was more interested in using his men to win propaganda victories than military ones. So, in February 1943, Bose turned his back on his legionnaires and slipped secretly away aboard a submarine bound for Japan. This left the men he had recruited leaderless and demoralised in Germany.[32][34]

Bose lived in Berlin from 1941 until 1943. During his earlier visit to Germany in 1934, he had met Emilie Schenkl, the daughter of an Austrian veterinarian whom he married in 1937. Their daughter is Anita Bose Pfaff.[35] Bose's party, the Forward Bloc, has contested this fact.[36]

In 1943, After being disillusioned that Germany could be of any help in liberating India, he left for Japan. He travelled with the German submarine U-180 around the Cape of Good Hope to the southeast of Madagascar, where he was transferred to the I-29 for the rest of the journey to Imperial Japan. This was the only civilian transfer between two submarines of two different navies in World War II.[29][30]

Leadership of Azad Hind Fauj and later events[edit | edit source]

Captured Sikh soldiers of the British Indian Army who refused to join the INA are executed by the Japanese.[37]

The surviving Sikh prisoners being bayoneted. The targets placed over their hearts can be seen.

The Indian National Army (INA) was originally founded by Captain General Mohan Singh in Singapore on 1 September 1942[38] with Japan's Indian POWs in the Far East. This was along the concept of—and with support of—what was then known as the Indian Independence League, headed by expatriate nationalist leader Rash Behari Bose. The first INA was however disbanded in December after disagreements between the Hikari Kikan and Mohan Singh, who came to believe that the Japanese High Command was using the INA as a mere pawn and propaganda tool. Mohan Singh was taken into custody and the troops returned to the prisoner-of-war camp. According to author Richard Aldrich:

Despite the systematic attempts of the Japanese, Germans and others to destroy archives, these field security teams had some notable successes in apprehending suspects and in securing material evidence, especially in Singapore (see plate 20). Mountbatten noted in his diary on 13 September 1945 that security services had captured a set of the 'most revolting pictures' showing the fate of some of the Indians who refused to join with Chandra Bose and the INA: 'The first photo shows two dozen Indian soldiers kneeling upright in front of the graves they had dug, with their eyes bandaged ... in the last photo one can see the Japanese soldiers finishing off the living with a bayonet.'[39]

However, the idea of a liberation army was revived with the arrival of Subhas Chandra Bose in the Far East in 1943. In July, at a meeting in Singapore, Rash Behari Bose handed over control of the organisation to Subhas Chandra Bose. Bose was able to reorganise the fledgling army and organise massive support among the expatriate Indian population in south-east Asia, who lent their support by both enlisting in the Indian National Army, as well as financially in response to Bose's calls for sacrifice for the national cause. INA had a separate women's unit, the Rani of Jhansi Regiment (named after Rani Lakshmi Bai) headed by Capt. Lakshmi Swaminathan, which is seen as a first of its kind in Asia.[40][41]

Even when faced with military reverses, Bose was able to maintain support for the Azad Hind movement. Spoken as a part of a motivational speech for the Indian National Army at a rally of Indians in Burma on 4 July 1944, Bose's most famous quote was "Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!" In this, he urged the people of India to join him in his fight against the British Raj. Spoken in Hindi, Bose's words are highly evocative. The troops of the INA were under the aegis of a provisional government, the Azad Hind Government, which came to produce its own currency, postage stamps, court and civil code, and was recognised by nine Axis states—Germany, Japan, Italy, the Independent State of Croatia, Wang Jingwei regime in Nanjing, China, a provisional government of Burma, Manchukuo and Japanese-controlled Philippines. Recent researches have shown that the USSR too had diplomatic contact with the "Provisional Government of Free India". Of those countries, five were authorities established under Axis occupation. This government participated in the so-called Greater East Asia Conference as an observer in November 1943.

Greater East Asia Conference in November 1943, Participants Left to right: Ba Maw, Zhang Jinghui, Wang Jingwei, Hideki Tōjō, Wan Waithayakon, José P. Laurel, Subhas Chandra Bose

The INA's first commitment was in the Japanese thrust towards Eastern Indian frontiers of Manipur. INA's special forces, the Bahadur Group, were extensively involved in operations behind enemy lines both during the diversionary attacks in Arakan, as well as the Japanese thrust towards Imphal and Kohima, along with the Burmese National Army led by Ba Maw and Aung San.

Japanese also took possession of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in 1942 and a year later, the Provisional Government and the INA were established in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands with Lt Col. A.D. Loganathan appointed its Governor General. The islands were renamed Shaheed (Martyr) and Swaraj (Independence). However, the Japanese Navy remained in essential control of the island's administration. During Bose's only visit to the islands in early 1944, when he was carefully screened, by the Japanese authorities, from the local population who at that time were torturing the leader of the Indian Independence League on the Islands, Dr. Diwan Singh, who later died of his injuries, in the Cellular Jail. The islanders made several attempts to alert Bose to their plight, but apparently without success. Enraged with the lack of administrative control, Lt. Col Loganathan later relinquished his authority and returned to the Government's headquarters in Rangoon.[42][43]

On the Indian mainland, an Indian Tricolour, modelled after that of the Indian National Congress, was raised for the first time in the town in Moirang, in Manipur, in north-eastern India. The towns of Kohima and Imphal were placed under siege by divisions of the Japanese, Burmese and the Gandhi and Nehru Brigades of INA during the attempted invasion of India, also known as Operation U-GO. However, Commonwealth forces held both positions and then counter-attacked, in the process inflicting serious losses on the besieging forces, which were then forced to retreat back into Burma.

When Japanese funding for the army diminished, Bose was forced to raise taxes on the Indian populations of Malaysia and Singapore. When the Japanese were defeated at the battles of Kohima and Imphal, the Provisional Government's aim of establishing a base in mainland India was lost forever. The INA was forced to pull back, along with the retreating Japanese army, and fought in key battles against the British Indian Army in its Burma campaign, notable in Meiktilla, Mandalay, Pegu, Nyangyu and Mount Popa. However, with the fall of Rangoon, Bose's government ceased to be an effective political entity. A large proportion of the INA troops surrendered under Lt Col Loganathan. The remaining troops retreated with Bose towards Malaya or made for Thailand. Japan's surrender at the end of the war also led to the eventual surrender of the Indian National Army, when the troops of the British Indian Army were repatriated to India and some tried for treason.

On 6 July 1944, in a speech broadcast by the Azad Hind Radio from Singapore, Bose addressed Mahatma Gandhi as the "Father of the Nation" and asked for his blessings and good wishes for the war he was fighting. This was the first time that Gandhi was referred to by this appellation.[44]

His most famous quote/slogan was Give me blood and I will give you freedom. Another famous quote was Dilli Chalo ("On to Delhi)!" This was the call he used to give the INA armies to motivate them. Jai Hind, or, "Glory to India!" was another slogan used by him and later adopted by the Government of India and the Indian Armed Forces. Another slogan coined by him was "Ittefaq, Etemad, Qurbani" (Urdu for "Unity, Agreement, Sacrifice"). INA also used the slogan Inquilab Zindabad, which was coined by Maulana Hasrat Mohani.[45]

Ideology and philosophy[edit | edit source]

Bose advocated complete unconditional independence for India, whereas the All-India Congress Committee wanted it in phases, through Dominion status. Finally at the historic Lahore Congress convention, the Congress adopted Purna Swaraj (complete independence) as its motto. Gandhi was given rousing receptions wherever he went after Gandhi-Irwin pact. Subhas Chandra Bose, travelling with Gandhi in these travels, later wrote that the great enthusiasm he saw among the people enthused him tremendously and that he doubted if any other leader anywhere in the world received such a reception as Gandhi did during these travels across the country. He was imprisoned and expelled from India. Defying the ban, he came back to India and was imprisoned again.

Bose was elected president of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive terms, but had to resign from the post following ideological conflicts with Mohandas K. Gandhi and after openly attacking the Congress' foreign and internal policies. Bose believed that Gandhi's tactics of non-violence would never be sufficient to secure India's independence, and advocated violent resistance. He established a separate political party, the All India Forward Bloc and continued to call for the full and immediate independence of India from British rule. He was imprisoned by the British authorities eleven times. His famous motto was: "Give me blood and I will give you freedom".

His stance did not change with the outbreak of the Second World War, which he saw as an opportunity to take advantage of British weakness. At the outset of the war, he left India, travelling to the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, seeking an alliance with each of them to attack the British government in India. With Imperial Japanese assistance, he re-organised and later led the Azad Hind Fauj or Indian National Army (INA), formed with Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from British Malaya, Singapore, and other parts of Southeast Asia, against British forces. With Japanese monetary, political, diplomatic and military assistance, he formed the Azad Hind Government in exile, and regrouped and led the Indian National Army in failed military campaigns against the allies at Imphal and in Burma.

His political views and the alliances he made with Nazi and other militarist regimes at war with Britain have been the cause of arguments among historians and politicians, with some accusing him of fascist sympathies, while others in India have been more sympathetic towards the realpolitik that guided his social and political choices.

Political philosophy[edit | edit source]

Subhas Chandra Bose believed that the Bhagavad Gita was a great source of inspiration for the struggle against the British.[46] Swami Vivekananda's teachings on universalism, his nationalist thoughts and his emphasis on social service and reform had all inspired Subhas Chandra Bose from his very young days. The fresh interpretation of the India's ancient scriptures had appealed immensely to him.[note 1] Many scholars believe that Hindu spirituality formed the essential part of his political and social thought throughout his adult life, although there was no sense of bigotry or orthodoxy in it.[47] Subhas who called himself a socialist, believed that socialism in India owed its origins to Swami Vivekananda.[48] As historian Leonard Gordon explains "Inner religious explorations continued to be a part of his adult life. This set him apart from the slowly growing number of atheistic socialists and communists who dotted the Indian landscape.".[49]

Bose's correspondence (prior to 1939) reflects his deep disapproval of the racist practices of, and annulment of democratic institutions in Nazi Germany.[50] However, he expressed admiration for the authoritarian methods (though not the racial ideologies) which he saw in Italy and Germany during the 1930s, and thought they could be used in building an independent India.[27]

Bose had clearly expressed his belief that democracy was the best option for India.[51] The pro-Bose thinkers believe that his authoritarian control of the Azad Hind was based on political pragmatism and a post-colonial recovery doctrine rather than any anti-democratic belief.[citation needed] However, during the war (and possibly as early as the 1930s), Bose seems to have decided that no democratic system could be adequate to overcome India's poverty and social inequalities, and he wrote that a socialist state similar to that of Soviet Russia (which he had also seen and admired) would be needed for the process of national re-building.[52] Accordingly, some suggest that Bose's alliance with the Axis during the war was based on more than just pragmatism, and that Bose was a militant nationalist, though not a Nazi nor a Fascist, for he supported empowerment of women, secularism and other liberal ideas; alternatively, others consider he might have been using populist methods of mobilisation common to many post-colonial leaders.[27] Bose never liked the Nazis, but when he failed to contact the Russians for help in Afghanistan, he approached the Germans and Italians for help. His comment was that if he had to shake hands with the devil for India's independence he would do that.[citation needed]

On 23 August 2007, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited the Subhas Chandra Bose memorial hall in Kolkata.[53][54] Abe said to Bose's family "The Japanese are deeply moved by Bose's strong will to have led the Indian independence movement from British rule.[53] Netaji is a much respected name in Japan."[54] However, in India, many believe that Bose was not given the due respect that he deserved. Infosys Technologies founder-chairman N. R. Narayana Murthy, delivering the annual Netaji oration, said, "We have not paid him due respect. It is time this is corrected." Adding, "If only Netaji had participated in post-independence nation building."[55]

References[edit | edit source]

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. Sisir Kumar Bose, Alexander Werth, Narayan Gopal Jog, Subbier Appadurai Ayer, Beacon Across Asia: A Biography of Subhas Chandra Bose, published by Orient Blackswan, 1996

Citations[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Bayly & Harper 2007, p. 2: "If all else failed (Bose) wanted to become a prisoner of the Soviets: 'They are the only ones who will resist the British. My fate is with them. But as the Japanese plane took off from Taipei airport its engines faltered and then failed. Bose was badly burned in the crash. According to several witnesses, he died on 18 August in a Japanese military hospital, talking to the very last of India's freedom. British and Indian commissions later established convincingly that Bose had died in Taiwan. These were legendary and apocalyptic times, however. Having witnessed the first Indian leader to fight against the British since the great mutiny of 1857, many in both Southeast Asia and India refused to accept the loss of their hero. Rumours that Bose had survived and was waiting to come out of hiding and begin the final struggle for independence were rampant by the end of 1945."
  2. Stein 2010, pp. 345": To many (Congress leaders), Bose's programme resembled that of the Japanese fascists, who were in the process of losing their gamble to achieve Asian ascendancy through war. Nevertheless, the success of his soldiers in Burma had stirred as much patriotic sentiment among Indians as the sacrifices of imprisoned Congress leaders. (p. 345)"
  3. Metcalf & Metcalf 2010, p. 210: Quote: "Marginalized within Congress and a target for British surveillance, Bose chose to embrace the fascist powers as allies against the British and fled India, first to Hitler's Germany, then, on a German submarine, to a Japanese-occupied Singapore. The force that he put together ... known as the Indian National Army (INA) and thus claiming to represent free India, saw action against the British in Burma but accomplished little toward the goal of a march on Delhi. ... Bose himself died in an airplane crash trying to reach Japanese-occupied territory in the last months of the war. His romantic saga, coupled with his defiant nationalism, has made Bose a near-mythic figure, not only in his native Bengal, but across India. It is this heroic, martial myth that is today remembered, rather than Bose's wartime vision of a free India under the authoritarian rule of someone like himself."
  4. Stein 2010, pp. 305,325": Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Bose were among those who, impatient with Gandhi's programmes and methods, looked upon socialism as an alternative for nationalistic policies capable of meeting the country's economic and social needs, as well as a link to potential international support. (p. 325) (p. 345)"
  5. Low 2002, p. 297.
  6. Low 2002, p. 313.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Low 1993, pp. 31–31.
  8. Wolpert 2000, p. 339: Quote: "Tojo turned over all his Indian POWs to Bose's command, and in October 1943 Bose announced the creation of a Provisional Government of Azad ("Free") India, of which he became head of state, prime minister, minister of war, and minister of foreign affairs. Some two million Indians were living in Southeast Asia when the Japanese seized control of that region, and these emigrees were the first "citizens" of that government, founded under the "protection" of Japan and headquartered on the "liberated" Andaman Islands. Bose declared war on the United States and Great Britain the day after his government was established. In January 1944 he moved his provisional capital to Rangoon and started his Indian National Army on their march north to the battle cry of the Meerut mutineers: "Chalo Delhi!"
  9. Wolpert 2006, p. 69: Quote: "The good news Wavell reported was that the RAF had just recently flown enough of its planes into Manipur's capital of Imphal to smash Netaji ("Leader") Subhas Chandra Bose's Indian National Army (INA) that had advanced to its outskirts before the monsoon began. Bose's INA consisted of about 20,000 of the British Indian soldiers captured by the Japanese in Singapore, who had volunteered to serve under Netaji Bose when he offered them "Freedom" if they were willing to risk their "Blood" to liberate India a year earlier. The British considered Bose and his "army of traitors" no better than their Japanese sponsors, but to most of Bengal's 50 million Indians, Bose was a great national hero and potential "Liberator." The INA was stopped before entering Bengal, first by monsoon rains and then by the RAF, and forced to retreat, back through Burma and down its coast to the Malay peninsula. In May 1945, Bose would fly out of Saigon on an overloaded Japanese plane, headed for Taiwan, which crash-landed and burned. Bose suffered third-degree burns and died in the hospital on Formosa."
  10. Bandyopādhyāẏa 2004, p. 427: "The retreat was even more devastating, finally ending the dream of liberating India through military campaign. But Bose still remained optimistic, thought of regrouping after the Japanese surrender, contemplated seeking help from Soviet Russia. The Japanese agreed to provide him transport up to Manchuria from where he could travel to Russia. But on his way, on 18 August 1945 at Taihoku airport in Taiwan, he died in an air crash, which many Indians still believe never happened."
  11. Bayly & Harper 2007, p. 22: Quote: "There are still some in India today who believe that Bose remained alive and in Soviet custody, a once and future king of Indian independence. The legend of `Netaii' Bose's survival helped bind together the defeated INA. In Bengal it became an assurance of the province's supreme importance in the liberation of the motherland. It sustained the morale of many across India and Southeast Asia who deplored the return of British power or felt alienated from the political settlement finally achieved by Gandhi and Nehru.
  12. Wolpert 2000, pp. 339–340: Quote: "On March 21, 1944, Subhas Bose and advanced units of the INA crossed the borders of India, entering Manipur, and by May they had advanced to the outskirts of that state's capital, Imphal. That was the closest Bose came to Bengal, where millions of his devoted followers awaited his army's "liberation." The British garrison at Imphal and its air arm withstood Bose's much larger force long enough for the monsoon rains to defer all possibility of warfare in that jungle region for the three months the British so desperately needed to strengthen their eastern wing. Bose had promised his men freedom in exchange for their blood, but the tide of battle turned against them after the 1944 rains, and in May 1945 the INA surrendered in Rangoon. Bose escaped on the last Japanese plane to leave Saigon, but he died in Formosa after a crash landing there in August. By that time, however, his death had been falsely reported so many times that a myth soon emerged in Bengal that Netaji Subhas Chandra was alive—raising another army in China or Tibet or the Soviet Union—and would return with it to "liberate" India.
  13. Sarkar 1983, p. 411.
  14. Hyam 2007, p. 115.
  15. Marshall J. Getz (2002). Subhas Chandra Bose: A Biography. McFarland. pp. 7–. ISBN 978-0-7864-1265-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=HdldV4Icum4C&pg=PA7. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  16. Yasmine Jesudasen. Voices of Freedom Movement. Sura Books. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-81-7478-555-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=4ifaLKBp5hEC&pg=PA57. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  17. V. S. Patil (1988). Subhas Chandra Bose, his contribution to Indian nationalism. Sterling Publishers. http://books.google.com/books?id=tkpuAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Eric A. Vas (19 May 2008). Subhas Chandra Bose: The Man and His Times. Lancer Publishers. pp. 27–. ISBN 978-81-7062-243-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=L5tIhE0P6IUC&pg=PA27. Retrieved 16 July 2012.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Vas2008" defined multiple times with different content
  19. Hugh Toye (2007). Subhas Chandra Bose. Jaico Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-7224-401-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=E3cwAQAAIAAJ. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  20. Phani Bhusan Chakraborty; Brajendrakumāra Bhaṭṭācārya (1989). News behind newspapers: a study of the Indian press. Minerva Associates (Publications). ISBN 978-81-85195-16-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=M_xkAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 Singh Vipul (1 September 2009). Longman History & Civics Icse 10. Pearson Education India. pp. 116–. ISBN 978-81-317-2042-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=RX4OiM0MGZUC&pg=PA116. Retrieved 13 June 2012.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Vipul2009" defined multiple times with different content
  22. Bhagwan Josh (1992). Struggle for hegemony in India, 1920–47: the colonial state, the left, and the national movement. 1934–41. Sage. ISBN 978-81-7036-295-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=phduAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  23. Subhas Chandra Chattopadhyay (1989). Subhas Chandra Bose: man, mission, and means. Minerva Associates. http://books.google.com/books?id=AOdHAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  24. Aditi Phadnis (2009). Business Standard Political Profiles of Cabals and Kings. Business Standard Books. pp. 185–. ISBN 978-81-905735-4-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=qT7QvviGoJsC&pg=PA185. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  25. DesaiMeghnad
  26. K.S. Padhy. Indian Political Thought. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.. pp. 234–. ISBN 978-81-203-4305-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=jEz5soh9P3oC&pg=PA234. Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Sen, S. 1999. Subhas Chandra Bose 1897–1945. From webarchive of this URL[dead link] .
  28. Durga Das Pvt. Ltd (1985). Eminent Indians who was who, 1900–1980, also annual diary of events. Durga Das Pvt. Ltd.. http://books.google.com/books?id=bLEZAAAAYAAJ. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 29.3 29.4 The Talwars of Pathan land and Subhas Chandra's great escape.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 Subhas Chandra Bose: Netaji's passage to im[m]ortality
  31. James, L (1997) Raj, the Making and Unmaking of British India, Abacus, London P554
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 "Hitler's secret Indian army" by Mike Thomson, BBC News, 23 September 2004.
  33. Subhas Chandra Bose in Nazi Germany
  34. Hauner, M (1981) India in Axis Strategy: Germany, Japan, and Indian Nationalists in the Second World War, Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart pp. 28–29
  35. "Memories of a brave heart". The Hindu. 25 February 2001. http://www.hindu.com/2001/02/25/stories/1325128q.htm. Retrieved 07/08/2012. 
  36. "World believes Netaji was married, but not his party". The Sunday Indian. 23 January 2012. http://www.thesundayindian.com/en/story/world-believes-netaji-was-married-but-not-his-party/14/29019/. Retrieved 08/04/2013. 
  37. Aldrich 2000, p. 371.
  38. New ICSE History and Civics. Frank Brothers. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-81-8409-587-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=5jwLBRuWHnkC&pg=SL8-PA94. Retrieved 20 July 2012. 
  39. Aldrich 2000, p. 370.
  40. Azad Hind: writings and speeches, 1941–1943 by Subhas Chandra Bose
  41. Modern Indian History by Mohammad Tarique
  42. Iqbal Singh The Andaman Story p249
  43. C.A. Bayly & T. Harper Forgotten Armies. The Fall of British Asia 1941-5 (London) 2004 p325
  44. "Father of Our Nation" (Address to Mahatma Gandhi over the Rangoon Radio on 6 July 1944) The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Edited by Sisir K Bose & Sugata Bose (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1997 pp301-2
  45. Meenu Roy (1 January 1996). India Votes, Elections 1996: A Critical Analysis. Deep & Deep Publications. pp. 51–. ISBN 978-81-7100-900-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=Wm2dVWi-2I4C&pg=PA51. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  46. Li Narangoa, R. B. Cribb, Imperial Japan and National Identities in Asia, 1895–1945, Published by Routledge, 2003
  47. Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Thy Hand, Great Anarch!: India, 1921–1952, published by Chatto & Windus, 1987
  48. P. R. Bhuyan, Swami Vivekananda, Published by Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2003
  49. Leonard A. Gordon, Brothers Against The Raj: A Biography of Indian Nationalist Leaders Sarat and Subhas Chandra Bose, published by Columbia University Press, 1990
  50. Bose to Dr. Thierfelder of the Deutsche Academie, Kurhaus Hochland, Badgastein, 25 March 1936 "Today I regret that I have to return to India with the conviction that the new nationalism of Germany is not only narrow and selfish but arrogant." The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose edited by Sisir K. Bose & Sugata Bose (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1997 p155
  51. Roy, Dr. R.C. 2004. Social, Economic and Political Philosophy of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. pp. 7–8. Orissa Review. URL accessed on 6 April 2006
  52. "The Fundamental Problems of India" (An address to the Faculty and students of Tokyo University, November 1944): "You cannot have a so-called democratic system, if that system has to put through economic reforms on a socialistic basis. Therefore we must have a political system – a State – of an authoritarian character. We have had some experience of democratic institutions in India and we have also studied the working of democratic institutions in countries like France, England and United States of America. And we have come to the conclusion that with a democratic system we cannot solve the problems of Free India. Therefore, modern progressive thought in India is in favour of a State of an authoritarian character" The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Edited by Sisir K. Bose & Sugata Bose (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1997 pp319-20
  53. 53.0 53.1 "訪印中の安倍首相、東京裁判のパール判事の息子らと面会". Elizabeth Roche. AFPBB News. 24 August 2007. http://www.afpbb.com/article/politics/2271294/2039460?pageID=2. Retrieved 2 October 2009. 
  54. 54.0 54.1 "Shinzo Abe visits Netaji Bhavan, sees notion of a 'Broader Asia'". The Hindu. 24 August 2007. http://www.hindu.com/2007/08/24/stories/2007082453761500.htm. Retrieved 16 October 2009. 
  55. "Netaji not given due respect: Narayana Murthy". Indo-Asian news service. 25 January 2011. http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/netaji-not-given-due-respect-narayana-murthy-81214. 

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