|2A19 (T-12) 100mm anti-tank gun|
T-12 displayed in the Artillery Museum in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|In service||1955 – present|
|Used by||See Operators|
|Weight||2,750 kg (6,060 lb)|
|Length||9.48 m (31 ft 1 in)|
|Barrel length||63 calibers|
|Width||1.795 m (5 ft 11 in)|
|Height||1.565 m (5 ft 2 in)|
|Caliber||100 millimetres (3.9 in)|
|Carriage||Transport: Ural-375D (6x6)|
On road: 60 km/h (37 mph)
Off road: 15 km/h (9 mph)
|Elevation||−6° to +20°|
|Traverse||27° left or right|
|Rate of fire||14 rpm (max possible)|
10 rpm (max likely)
4 to 6 rpm (typical)
|Muzzle velocity||See Ammunition|
|Maximum range||See Ammunition|
History[edit | edit source]
The T-12 entered service in 1955, replacing the BS-3 100 mm field gun. It was typically deployed in anti-tank units of armoured and motor rifle regiments to protect flanks against counter-attacks during rapid advances.
In 1970 it was replaced in production by the T-12A or MT-12 "Rapira" which features a new smooth bore gun, the 100 mm 2A29 gun, as well as a redesigned carriage and gun-shield to protect the crew from machine gun fire and shell splinters. Thanks to the redesigned carriage with bigger wheel base, the MT-12 can be towed by the MT-LB, at speeds up to 60 km/h on road or 25 km/h cross-country.
The 2A29R "Ruta" or MT-12R is a version with a RLPK-1 radar for engaging targets in a poor visibility environment (smoke/fog). From 1981 the gun could fire laser beam-riding guided missiles 9M117 Kastet (weapon system 9K116) and carried the new designator 2A29K "Kastet" or MT-12K.
The weapon was planned to be superseded by the 2A45 Sprut-B 125 mm smooth bore anti-tank gun. Modern western tanks' frontal armour protection is in excess of what can be penetrated by a 100 mm gun from anything but point-blank range – even using the most modern APFSDS round. For a tank that can manoeuvre to take advantage of the enemy's weaknesses this is less of a problem – but for a weapon that is primarily defensive this is a serious problem. Today the T-12 is applied mostly in the role of ordinary artillery, using FRAG-HE shells.
Description[edit | edit source]
The gun requires a crew of six: commander, driver of the towing vehicle, gun layer, loader, and two ammunition crewmen. When the MT-LB is used as the transporter, twenty rounds are typically carried (10 APFSDS, 4 HE-Frag, 6 HEAT). Since the weapon is a smoothbore, all the ammunition is finned for accuracy during flight.
The standard equipment consists of the panoramic sight PG-1M for indirect fire, and an OP4M-40U telescope for direct fire. The APN-5-40 or APN-6-40 are used for direct fire by night.
The gun can be fitted with the LO-7 ski gear for travel across snow or swampy ground.
Operators[edit | edit source]
According to Jane's Armour and Artillery, the following countries have or had the T-12 and/or MT-12 in service:
- Algeria - 12
- Armenia - 36
- Azerbaijan - 30
- Belarus - 40
- Bosnia-Herzegovina - 90
- Bulgaria - 200
- Croatia - 133
- Georgia - 50
- Hungary - 106
- Kazakhstan - 125
- Kyrgyzstan - 15
- Moldova - 26
- Mongolia - 25+
- Russia - est. 6,000
- Turkmenistan - 48
- Ukraine - 400
- Uzbekistan - 39
Former operators[edit | edit source]
- Soviet Union - passed onto successor states.
- Yugoslavia - 138, passed onto successor states.
- Iraq - most destroyed in 1991 Gulf War or 2003 Invasion, none remain in service after 2003.
Ammunition[edit | edit source]
Note: penetration numbers for RHA at 90 degrees.
APFSDS[edit | edit source]
- Round weight: 19.34 kg (42.6 lb)
- Projectile weight: 5.65 kg (12.5 lb)
- Muzzle velocity: 1,575 m/s (5,170 ft/s)
- Maximum range: 3,000 m (3,300 yd)
- 230 mm at 500 m (9 in at 550 yd)
- 180 mm at 2,000 m (7 in at 2,200 yd)
- 140 mm at 3,000 m (5.5 in at 3,300 yd)
- Round weight: 19.9 kg (44 lb)
- Projectile weight: 10 lb (4.5 kg)
- Muzzle velocity: 1,548 m/s (5,080 ft/s)
HEAT[edit | edit source]
- Round weight: 23.1 kg (51 lb)
- Projectile weight: 9.5 kg (21 lb)
- Muzzle velocity: 975 m/s (3,200 ft/s)
- Penetration: 350 mm (14 in)
HE-FRAG[edit | edit source]
- Round weight: 28.9 kg (64 lb)
- Projectile weight: 16.7 kg (37 lb)
- Muzzle velocity: 700 m/s (2,300 ft/s)
- Maximum range (indirect): 8,200 m (9,000 yd)
Guided projectile[edit | edit source]
- 9K117 Kastet 3UBK10/3UBK10M
Beam riding laser guided projectile.
- Round weight: 24.5 kg (54 lb)
- Projectile weight: 17.6 kg (39 lb)
- Average speed: 300 m/s (980 ft/s)
- Range: 100–5,000 m (110–5,470 yd)
- Penetration: 550–600 mm (22–24 in)
Variants[edit | edit source]
Romania[edit | edit source]
- A407 - This artillery system was designed by Arsenal-Resita and is very similar to the MT-12. It can fire the same range of ammunition as the T-54/55 tank and has a maximum range of 2,200 m (HEAT) or 4,000 m (APC-T). Subversions are the A407M1 and the A407M2. In Romanian Army service, the A407 is known as the 100 mm anti-tank gun M1977 (Romanian language: Tun antitanc calibrul 100-mm Model 1977
People's Republic of China[edit | edit source]
- Type 73 - This appears to be a copy of the Soviet T-12.
- Type 86 - This is a 100mm smoothbore anti-tank gun that has some similarities with the 85mm Type 56 (D-44). It fires ammunition of the fixed type, including the Type 73 HE, Type 73 HEAT, Type 73 APFSDS and Type 86 APFSDS to a maximum range of 1,800 m.
See also[edit | edit source]
- List of anti-tank guns
- List of military equipment of Croatia
- List of artillery of the Soviet Union and Russia
References[edit | edit source]
- Jane's Armour and Artillery, 2003-2004
- Janes Armour and Artillery 2003-2004
- Jane's Armour and Artillery 2003-2004
- Janes Armour and Artillery 2003-2004
- Hull, A.W., Markov, D.R., Zaloga, S.J. (1999). Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices 1945 to Present. Darlington Productions. ISBN 1-892848-01-5.
- Foss, F., Christopher, Artillery of the World
- USA Today article - http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-03-25-war-zone_x.htm
- 100 mm Ammunition http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/698.pdf
- 100 mm Ammunition http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/697.pdf
- 100 mm Ammunition http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/696.pdf
- MT-12 http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/99.pdf
- Jane's Armour and Artillery 2005-2006
[edit | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 100 mm anti-tank gun T-12.|
- T-12 walkaround on DishModels.ru
- Profile part of The Wirlwind War a publication of the United States Army Center of Military History
|This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia (view authors).|